Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita of the founder, by A. Calepino,

with commentary, is in ASB, Oct., ix. 893 888; Helyot,

Ordrea mottastiqaes, iii. 8 eqq.

JOHNS, CLAUDE HERMANN WALTER: Church I of England; b. at Banwell (22 m. s.w. of Bath), Somersetshire, Feb. 20, 1857. He was educated at Queen's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1880), and was second master successively at Norton College, Tas­
mania, in 1880 84 and Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, Norfolk, in 1884 86. He was ordered deacon in 1887 and ordained priest in the following year, and from 1887 until 1892 wastutor in St. Peter's Training College for Schoolmasters, Peterborough, as well as curate of St. Botolph's, Helpston (1887 8R), and of St. John's, Peterbor­ough (1888 91). Since 1892 he has been rector of St. Botolph's, Cambridge. He was also chaplain of Queen's College from 1893 to 1901, and since 1897 has been lecturer in Assyriology in Cambridge Uni­versity, as well as in King's College, London, since 1902. He has likewise been Edwards fellow in the former university since 1900, and was honor­ary secretary of the Cambridge Pupil Teachers' Centre in 1894 1900. In theology he is a moderate Anglican. He has written Assyrian Deeds and Doc­uments (3 vola., Cambridge, 1898 1902); An As­syrian Doomsday Book, or Ltber Censz(Leipsie, 1901); The Oldest Code of Laws in the World, Promulgated by Hammurabi (Edinburgh, 1903); and Babylonian arid Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and Letters (New York, 1904).

JOHNS, JOHN: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Virginia; b. at New Castle Del., July 10, 1796; d. at Alexandria, Va., Apr. 5, 1876. He studied at Princeton (B.A., 1815), and subsequently spent two years in the theological seminary there. In both college and seminary he was a classmate of Charles Hodge, with whom he formed a lifelong

I intimacy. He was ordained deacon in 1819, and

priest in 1820. His first parish was All Saints,

Frederick Md,l where
ho Tmaimd U 106 , when

~~ be became rector of Christ Church, Baltimore. This charge he held till he was elected assistant bishop of Virginia in 1842. He became bishop in 1862. He was for a number of years the head of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary of


Virginia. He wrote A Memoir of the Life of the Right Rev. William Meade (Baltimore, 188?).

BIBLIOGRAPHY. w. 6. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 87, New York, 1895.

Baptist; b. at Troy, N. Y., Oct. 15, 1841; d. at Chester, Pa., Mar. 10, 1908. He was educated at the University of Rochester (A.B., 1862), and from 1862 to 1864 con­tinued his studies, a part of the time at Rochester Theological Seminary. After being acting assist­ant paymaster in the United States Navy in 1864­1866, he entered the Baptist ministry in the latter year, holding a pastorate at Le Sueur, Minn., in 1886 68. He then reentered Rochester Theolog­ical Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1871, spent two years in travel in Europe, the Holy Land, and Egypt, after which he was pastor at Ballston, N. Y., from 1873 to 1875 and at Provi­dence, R. L, from 1875 to 1883. From the latter year until his death he was professor of systematic theology at Crozer Theological Seminary, Chester, Pa. He edited Songs of Praise for Sunday Schools (Philadelphia, 1882); Our Sunday School Songs (1885); and the hymnal Suraum Cords (1898); be­sides being associate editor of The Baptist Hymnal (Philadelphia, 1883). He also wrote Uses and Abuses of Ordinances (Philadelphia, 1890); Outlive of Systematic Theology (1892); Review of Ethical Mon­ism (New York, 1895); Ezekiel Gilman Robinson (1896); Religious Use of Imagination (1900); The Highest Life (1901); The Holy Spirit Then and Now (Philadelphia, 1904) ; and the posthumous Christian Agnosticism as Related to Christian Knowledge, ed. with Biographical Sketch, H. C. Vedder (1907).

JOHNSON, FRANCIS: English Separatist; b. at Richmond (42 m. n.w. of York), Yorkshire, 1562; d. at Amsterdam Jan. 10, 1618. He studied at Christ's College, Cambridge (B. A., 1581), and be­came fellow. In 1589 he was expelled from the university for preaching in favor of Presbyterian polity, went to Zealand, and became minister of the English Church at Middelburg. In 1591 he was instrumental in destroying the entire edition of a book by Barrow and Greenwood (A Plain Refutation of 11 1. Gi, ford's Book Entitled " A Short Treatise against the Donatists of England": wherein is discovered: (1) the forgery of the whole ministry; (2) the confusion; (3) false worship; and (/) anli­christian disorder of those parish assemblies called the Church of England; reprinted Amsterdam, 1605), saving, however, two copies for his own use, and by reading them was converted. In 1592, with Greenwood, he organized a congregation in London and was imprisoned in consequence ; in 1597 he settled in Amsterdam and became minister of the Separatists living there; because of disagree­ment with Henry Ainsworth concerning the au­thority of elders he went to Emden about 1612, but later returned to Amsterdam. He wrote sev­eral controversial treatises.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: p, Neat, Hiat. or the Puritans, ii. 40 41, London, 1822; B. Brooke, Lives of !he Puritans, i. 398­397, ii. 89 90, ib. 1813; . M. Dexter, Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, New York, 1880; w. Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 41. n. 4, New York, 1893; DNB, xxx. 9 11.

JOHNSON, FRANKLIN: Baptist; b. at Frank­fort, O., Nov. 2, 1838. He was educated at Col­gate University, but left before taking his degree, and at Colgate Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1881. He held successive pastorates at the First Baptist Church, Bay City, Mich. (1862 84), Lambertville, N. J. (1884 66), Passaic, N. J. (1886 72), and the Old Cambridge Baptist Church, Cambridge, Mass. (1872 88), in­terrupted only by a year of study in Germany and travel in Egypt and Palestine in 18689. He was president of Ottawa University in 1890 92, and since the latter year has been professor of church history and homiletics in the University of Chi­cago. In addition to being associate editor of The Watchman.
in 1876, his writings include: The Gos­pel According to Matthew, with Notes (New York, 1873); Moses and Israel (1874); Heroes and Judges from the Low Crivers to the King (1875); The Dies Irae (Cambridge, Mass., 1880); The Stabat Mater Dolorosa and the Stabat Mater SPeeiosa (Boston, 1886); The New Psychic Studies in their Relation to Christian Thought (New York, 1886); The Quo­tations of the New Testament from the Old Considered in the Light of General Literature (Philadelphia, 1898); The Home Missionaries (Chicago, 1889); Have We the Likeness of Christ t (1902); and The Christian's Relation to Evolution (1904).

JOHNSON, FREDERICK FOOTE: Protestant Episcopal bishop coadjutor of South Dakota; b. at Newtown, Conn., Apr. 23, 1886. He was grad­uated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in 1894, and at Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Corm., in 1897. After being minister at Glenwood Springs, Col., 1896 97, and curate of St. Stephen's, Colorado Springs, 1897 99, he was rector of Trinity, Redlands, Cal., 1899 1904. He was then diocesan missionary in Western Massachusetts for a year, and in 1905 was consecrated bishop coadjutor of South Dakota.

JOHNSON, GISLE CHRISTIAN: Norwegian the­ologian; b. at Fredrikshald (58 m. s.s.e. of Chris­tiania) Sept. 10, 1822; d. at Christiania July 17, 1894. He was educated at the cathedral school of Christiansand and at the University of Chris­tiania, after which a scholarship enabled him to travel and study in Berlin, Leipsic, Erlangen, Heidelberg, Tiibingen, and Paris. He returned to Norway in the fall of 1847, and was appointed Leo­turer in theology at the university two years later, becoming professor in 1860. He lectured on sys­tematic theology, history of doctrine, theological encyclopedia, and, after 1877, on church history.

Johnson exercised an important influence on Christian life in general as well as on his students by his devotional lectures in Christiania and else­where. He spent many of his vacations in travel­ing through the country in search of health, and in these travels, which were generally on foot, he visited awakened Christian laymen. His theo­logical standpoint was strict orthodoxy of the old Lutheran type, and be worked for the home mis­sions in Christiania, the Norwegian Luther founda­tion, the students' home, and similar institutions. Despite his thorough learning, he was not a pro 

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