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Biattocawenr: H. Weiss, ICoatiimkunde, part i., Die VBlker
den Oetena, Stuttgart, 1880; B. Ugolini, Thesaurus anM
quitatum eaaarum, vot. xxiz., 34 vols., Venice 1744 89;
A. T. Hartmann, Die HebrBerin am Putztiaeh and sit
Brain, Amsterdam. 1809; w. M. Thompson, The Land
and the Book, 3 vole., New York, 1880 88; I. Bensinger,
Hebrdiechs Archdolopie, $ $ 18 17, Tiibingen, 1907; w.
Drew, Paul Gottfried Droste Visoheriag
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
Nowaek, HebrBiache ArehSotopis, ¢¢ 20 21, Freiberg, 1894: H. B. Tristram, Eastern Customs in Bible Lands, pp. 15b 178, London, 1894; DB, i. 823 829: EB, i. 1135 eq9.
DREWS, PAUL GOTTFRIED: German Protestant; b. at Eibenstock (60 m. s.e. of Leipaic) May 8, 1858. He studied at Leipsic and Gbtingen 1878 81, and after being a private tutor became a member of the clergy staff of St. Pauli in Leipsic in 1883. He was pastor at Burkau 1883 89, and at Dresden 1889 94. In 1894 he became professor extraordinary of homiletics and atechetics at Jena, in 1901 professor of practical
theology at Giessen, and in 1908 he accepted a call to the University of Halls. He has written Willibald Pirkheimers Stellung zur Reformation (Leipsic, 1887); Humaniamtis and Reformation (1887); Christus, onset Leben (2 vole., Gtittingen, 1894 1901); Diapufdtionen. Dr: Martin Lathers in den Jahren 1636 bia 16'6 an.der Uniersilat Wittenberg gehalten (1895); Des kirchliche
Leben der evangelisch lutherischen" Landeskirche des Kbnigreicha Sachsen (vol. i. of his Evangeliaehe Kirchenkunde ; Tubingen, 1902); Studien zur Gechichte des Gottesdienstes und des gotteadienstichen Lebens (3 parts, 1902 06); Die Ordination,
Lehrverpflichtung and Priifung der Ordinanden in Wittenberg 1636 (Giessen, 1904); Der eroartgeliache Geistliche in der deutschett Vergangenheit (Jena, 1905); and Der Einftvss der gesellschafllichen Zut8nde auf daa kirchliche Leben (TUbingen, 1906). He has likewise been a joint editor of the Mottatschrift fiir die kirchliche Praxis since 1901.
DREY, JOHANN SEBASTIAN VON: Roman Catholic; b. at Killingen (near Ellwangen, 45 m. e.n.e. of Stuttgart) Oct. 16, 1777; d. at Tilbingen Feb. 19, 1853. He studied theology at Augsburg, was ordained priest in 1801, and in 1812 was appointed professor of theology at Ellwangen. When this institution was disbanded in 1817 he became professor at Tubingen, holding this position till 1846, when he retired. With his colleagues Gratz, Herbst. and Hirscher he founded the Theologische Qtutrtalachrift in 1819. His principal work was on Christian apologetics (2 vole., Mainz, 1838 43; 2d ed. enlarged, 3 vole., 1847).
DRISCOLL, JAMES FRANCIS: Roman Catholic; b. at East Poultney, Vt., Sept. 30, 1859. He studied at Montreal College (B.A., Laval University, 1881), the Grand S6minaire, Montreal (1881 84), the S6minaire St. Sulpice. Paris (18841886; bachelor of theology and canon law, Institut Catholique Paris, 1886), Minerva University, Rome (1886 88), Universith Reale, Rome (18861888), New York University (1897 1900), Johns Hopkins University (1901 02), and the Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. (19011902). He was professor of dogmatic theology and Hebrew in the Theological Seminary of Montreal (1889 96), professor of the same subjects in St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, N. Y. (i896 99), and of Holy Scripture and Hebrew in the same institution (1899 1901), professor of Scripture in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md. (1901 02), sad at the same time professor of Semitic languages in St. Austin's College, Washington, D. C. Since
1902 he has been president and professor of moral theology in St. Joseph's Seminary. He was chairman of the Seminary Board in the annual conference for the promotion of Catholic education in 1905 06. In theological position he is " Roman Catholic, but of liberal progressive views frankly welcoming all the reasonably established claims of modern scholarship in the field of science, philosophy, historical and Biblical criticism, etc." He has been editor of The New York Review since 1905.
DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES: Church of England; b. at Southampton Oct. 2, 1846. He studied at Winchester College and New College, Oxford (B.A., 1869), where he was fellow 1870 82 and tutor 1875 82. Since 1882 he has been regius professor of Hebrew and canon of Christ Church, Oxford. He was a member of the Old Testament Revision Company 1876 $4, and examining chaplain to the bishop of Southwell 1884 1904. He has written A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (London, 1874); Isaiah: Life, Times, and Writings which bear his Name (1888); Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel (Oxford, 1890); Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament (Edinburgh. 1891); Sermons on Subjects connected with the Old Testament (London, 1892); Deuterottomy (1895); and Authority and Archaeology, Sacred and Profane (in collaboration with D. G. Hogarth; 1899). He also edited the commentary of Moses ben Shesheth on Jeremiah sad Ezekiel (London, 1871); The Holy Bible, with various Renderings and Readings from the best Authorities (1876); The Fifty third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish Interpreters (in collaboration with A. D. Neubauer; 1877): The Book o f Proverbs attributed to Abraham ibn Ezra (1880); Leviticus, in The Polychrome Bible (2 vole., 1894 97); The Parallel Psalter (1898); Daniel, Joel, and Amos, in The Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1900 01); Genesis, in The Westminster Commentaries (London, 1904); Deuteronomy and Joshua, in R. Kittel's BfbliaHebraica (Leipsie, 1905); The Minor Prophets, in TheCenturyBible (London, 1906); The Bookof Job (1906); and TheBookof the Prophet Jeremiah (1906). He likewise collaborated with F. Brown and C. A. Briggs in A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (12 peals, Oxford, 1892 1905), and was s member of the editorial board of J. Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vole., Edinburgh, 18981904) and of the Studia Biblica (Oxford, 1885 sqq.).
DROSTE VI$CHERIftG, drbs't6 fisher ing.
Activity at Munster (¢ 1). Mixed Marriages (§ 2). Archbishop of Cologne (¢ 3). The University of Bonn (¢ 4). Droate Viechering'a Downfall (¢ 5).
Clemens August, Freiherr van Droste Vischer
ing, archbishop of Cologne, was born at Munster Jan. 21, 1773; d. there Oct. 19, 1845. Descended from a strict Roman Catholic family, he was or
dained priest in 1798, and in 1810 became coadjutor to the acting bishop of Munster, who was ill and died Sept. 16. Droste Viachering was elected his successor, but when Munster came under French rule in the same year the existing diocesan ad
RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Dr~. Paul Gottfried
ministration was abolished by Napoleon, DrosteVischering was thrust aside, and the dean of the
cathedral, Count Spiegel, was appointed
z. Activity bishop and commissioned to admin
at ister the diocese as vicar of the chap
Muenster. ter until he should be canonically
instituted. As Droate Viachering already occupied this office, and as after the rectoration of Prussian rule in Munster the Napoleonic changes were rescinded, Spiegel ultimately had to yield and in 1815 Droate Viachering undertook once more, as vicar of the chapter, the management of the diocese.
Even thus early he stood for principles concerning the relations of Church and State which were quite impracticable in a land where the confessions lived side by side. He was not satisfied with proposing in his publication Ueber die Religionsfreiheit der Katholiken (Munster, 1817) an impossible platform for church politics, but endeavored to put it in practise, and thus came into conflict with the Prussian government, at first on the question of mixed marriages, then by an attempt to cripple the theological faculty in Bonn. In 1819 he instructed the priests to refuse to perform mixed marriages unless the parties should promise to educate their children in the Roman Catholic faith; and he forbade students of theology to follow Georg Hermes (q.v.) from Munster to Bonn, and declared he would ordain no one who attended lectures anywhere without his permission. Soon afterward he laid down his office and lived for the next fifteen years (1820 35) in strict retirement, devoting himself in the main to the guidance of an organization of Sisters of Charity. Even his consecration as suffragan bishop of Miineter in 1827 did not allure him from the manner of life which had grown dear to him. But he forsook it later under remarkable circumstances; he was elected archbishop of Cologne Dec. 1, 1835, and enthroned May 29, 1836. What this promotion signified and what later brought about his fall can be understood only by knowing the situation in church politics when he took office, especially as regards the treatment of mixed marriages.
In 1741 Benedict XIV. had waived the requirement that the Tridentine form for solemnizing matrimony be absolutely necessary (cf. Mirbt, Quellen, pp. 311 315). The Prussian General Law of 1794 (Mirbt, Quellen, pp. 329 330) had ordered that, when the parents belonged to different
confessions, until the completion of z. Mixed the fourteenth year sons should be
Marriages. brought up in the religion of the
father and daughters in the confession of the mother. This paragraph was then suspended for the eastern provinces of the monarchy by a Royal Declaration of 1803 (Mirbt, Quellen, p. 339), because dangerous dissensions had been produced in the families affected; and it was provided that legitimate children should always be instructed in the religion of ~ the father, and that neither husband nor wife should have the right to bind his or her helpmate by agreement to any deviation from this rule. By a Royal Cabinet Order of 1825 (Mirbt,
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