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Dress and Ornament, Hebrew THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
gular piece of rough, heavy woolen material, crudely sewed together so that holes are left for the arms.
Like the abaye, the simla was not
s. The worn at work (Matt. xxiv. 18); but it
Coat or was similarly useful. All kinds of ar
Cloak. titles could be carried in it, e.g. barley,
wood, grass, etc. (Ex. xii. 34; Judges
viii. 25; II Kings iv. 39). By day it was a protec
tion against rain and cold, by night it served as bed
and cover (Ex. xxii. 26; Deut. xxiv. 12 sqq.).
No respectable man went without this overdress
(Amos ii. 16; Isa. xx. 2 3). From this simple
garment was developed the richly ornamented
mantle of well to do Assyrians and Babylonians,
which reached from the neck to the knees and had
short sleeves. Canaanites of the better classes
wore a strip of heavy fancy colored cloth wrapped
around the body several times. This was em
broidered in colors and finished with fringe. The
Israelites, who had a taste for gorgeous colors (Josh.
vii. 21; Judges v. 30; II Sam. i. 24), probably
adopted from the Canaanites certain overgarments
called me'il and addereth. The first was a costly
wrap (I Sam. ii. 19, xviii 4, xxiv. 5, 11), and, ac
cording to the description of the priest's me'il, was
similar to the sleeveless abaye (Ex. xxviii. 31 aqq.;
Josephus, Ant., III. vii. 4). The addereth was an
extra robe worn over the simla (Mic. ii. 8), similar
to the gorgeous Babylonian robe for which the same
name was employed (Josh. vii. 21; Jonah iii. 6).
The leather garment worn by the prophets was
called by the same name because of its width.
A woman's dress evidently differed from that of a man (Deut. xxii. 5), but consisted likewise of simla and kuttoneth. Presumably these garments had sleeves and were longer than those worn by men, were also of finer material, of brighter colors, and more richly ornamented. The sadin, the finer linen underdress, was also worn by women (Isa. iii. 23: Prov. xxxi. 24). Further, mention is made of
the mifpalaafh, a kind of veil or shawl 3. Women's (Ruth iii. 15); and the md'atapha, a
Attire. wrap of unknown form (Isa. iii. 22).
A very important article of female attire was the veil. The use of the veil by the bride (Gen. xxiv. 65) and in other cases (Gen. xxxviii. 14; Ruth iii. 31 is traceable to the influence of the Ishtar .myth. The veil was the symbol of Ishtar, who, on coming from the underworld, walked out veiled to meet Tammuz, her bridegroom. Otherwise it was not customary for women to go veiled (Gen. xii. 14, xxiv. 15 sqq. ), contrary to present custom in the Orient due to the influence of Islam. The veil of the ordinary woman's wardrobe was a neckcloth. According to ancient statuary, it reached from the forehead, down across the back of the head to the hips or still lower, and was not unlike the neckerchief of the peasant woman in modern Palestine. It is not known how the various kinds of veils mentioned in the Old Testament differed from one another (Gen. xxiv. 65; Cant. iv. 3; Isa. iii. 19 aqq., xlvii. 2). The increasing luxury of women un the matter of dress is shown by the enumeration of the articles of a woman's toilet in Isa. iii. 18 23.
As regards head dress, some representations
show Jews and Syrians bareheaded, others show them wearing merely a band to hold the hair together. This last is still occasionally seen in Arabia. The usual head covering of the Bedouin of to day is the keffiye, a large square piece of woolen cloth folded diagonally, then thrown over
4. The the head in such a way that the loose
Head dress. corners of the triangle protect the
back of the head and neck, while the
other two corners are tied under the chin and then
thrown across the shoulders. A strong wool cord
holds the cloth securely on the head. Hebrew
peasants undoubtedly wore a similar head dress.
The better classes, both men and women, wore a
kind of turban, i.e., a cloth wound about the head.
The shape of this varied greatly, depending upon
the way it was adjusted, just as the head dress of
to day varies in different localities. The turban of
the high priest, the miznelrheth, had a special form
(Ex. xxviii. 40), as did that of the priest, the mig
ba'a or peer (Ex. xxviii. 40, xxxix. 28). The peer
was afterward worn by men and women of the
better classes (Isa. iii. 20; Ezek. xxiv. 17); for in
stance, by the bridegroom on the wedding day
(Isa. lxi. 10). The high conical turbans seen in
pictures of Assyrian kings and priests may be re
garded as good examples of this variety of head
The use of sandals among the Egyptians became common in the middle kingdom, universal in the new kingdom. On Babylonian and Assyrian monuments even kings appear barefooted. Other representations show sandals with a strap stretched across the foot from the side, and often with a leather strap between the toes and drawn across the foot longitudinally. Later Assyrian soldiers wore a kind of leather boot, made of pieces of leather tied about the foot and reaching above the
g. Foot ankle. By soldiers of to day pointed wear. . shoes are worn over the sandals, affording protection to the toes in mountainous districts. , Among the Israelites the common man usually went barefooted, as does the fellah of to day, though he sometimes had sandals (Amos ii. 6, viii. 6). These were of leather or wood, with leather straps (Gen. xiv. 23; Isa. v. 27). They were not worn in the house nor in the sanctuary (Ex. iii. 5, xii. 11; Josh. v. 15). The priests performed their duties barefooted. In mourning, also, it was customary to go barefooted (II Sam. xv. 30; Ezek. xxiv. 17, 23). Jewelry was much worn in the ancient Orient, as it is to day, A cane and a signet ring belonged to the equipment of a Babylonian, and were aisual articles.of personal adornment (cf. Herodotus, i. 195, and Strabo, xvi. 746). The cane was often a necessity, as in the case of the shepherd; otherwise it was a valuable weapon. In modern times it is not used se a support in walking it ,being too short for that purpose but is carried thrown across the shoulder.
The signet ring (hotham) , is quite ancient and is supposed to have been worn even by the patriarchs. The impression of such a ring serves in place of the written signature, hence its importance and the universality of its use., At first these rings were not worn on the finger, but were carried on a cord
t; RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Dress sad Ornament, Hebrew
tied around the neck (Gen. xxxviii.18), as still is often the case. The Egyptians wore the signet on the
finger (Gen. xli. 42), and later the Is6. Signets raelites wore it on a finger of tile right
sad Seals. hand (Jet. xxii. 24 ). Besides the aignet
ring set with a cut stone, the signet took the form of a cylinder. This kind of seal was common in Babylon, and, as excavations have shown, was in use in Palestine. From remotest antiquity Babylonia was distinguished for gem cutting, an art which reached there a high degree of excellence shown by the exquisitely carved cylinders that have been preserved. This art was introduced into Syria. A seal cylinder found at Taanach shows Babylonian and Egyptian characters, thus betraying its Western origin. It is not known to what extent such things were made in Israel, or whether they were not bought through the Phenicians. At all events, in decorative art and in the manner of execution Babylonian influence was always dominant. The handsomest seal extant by a Hebrew hand is one that was discovered in Megiddo by the excavations of the Deutscher Palastina Verein. It is the seal of Shemai, the minister of state (ebed) of Jeroboam IL, made of jasper, oval in form, 3.7 by 2.7 centimeters, and with a splendidly carved lion, resembling closely the lion figures of BabylonianAsayrian art (cf. Mittheilungen, and Nachrichten des deutschen Pal6stina Vereins, 1904, pp. 1 aqq.).
A jewel was at the same time an amulet. According to the ancient Oriental view, metals and precious stones belonged to certain gods of the mineral world, and possessed, therefore, a mysterious
magic power. Aside from this, any 7. Charms. trinket that diverts attention from the
wearer to itself still serves as a protection against the evil eye. For this reason every one in the Orient wears an abundance of jewelry. Traces of this superstition are found in the Old Testament. In Isa. iii. 20 a piece of woman's jewelry is designated as an amulet (cf. Gen. xxxv. 4); and it is evident that the ornaments on the camels of the Midianitea were charms (Judges viii. 21). In design and execution the various articles of jewelry resemble Babylonian and Egyptian models.
Earrings were the principal article of jewelry for women (Gen. xxxv. 4), and were sometimes worn by children (,Ex. xxxii. 2). They were also worn hymen, e.g., by the Midianitea (Judges viii. 24 eqq.), and Pliny claims that they were worn by all Orien
tals (Pliny, xi. 136). It is impossible 8. Ear to distinguish the various kinds of rings and earrings mentioned; still, the excava
Nose rings. tions at Gezer, Megiddo, and Taanach
have brought to light several characteristic forms (cf. PEF, Quarterly Statement, 1903, p. 202). Nose rings were also quite popular (Gen. xxiv. 22, 47; Isa. iii. 21), finger rings were less usual. Finally, the toes were also ornamented with rings.
The forehead and hair were beautified by bands of gold or silver ornaments (Isa. iii. 18); and necklaces of various kinds were worn, also strings of tinge, pearls, small glass cylinders, bone buttons, meted pendants, etc., were worn around the neck.
g. Ornaments for Head and Neck.
Excavations have revealed a great variety of such articles. Particularly popular as amulet and bangle were the scarabs, imitations of
the sacred dot beetle which originated in Egypt. They spread all over the Orient; and excavations in the South (e.g., at Gezer) have brought numbers of them to light. Bracelets were
simply pieces of wire bent around the arms, and the ends were not fastened together (Gen. xxiv. 22; Ezek. xvi. 13, xxiii. 42). There were also anklets of corresponding form, to which were sometimes attached small chains (Isa. iii. 18). This kind of jewelry for women is peculiar to the Orient, both ancient and modern.
As to the care of the hair, the custom of shaving the head, wide spread in ancient Egypt and still common, was prohibited in Israel (Lev. xix. 27; Deut. xiv. 1) because it often had a religious significance. However, as a sign of mourn
lo. The ing this custom, perhaps universal Hair. in the oldest period, was preserved despite the prohibition (Ezek. vii. 18; Amos viii. 10; Mic. i. 16). Priests were commanded to keep their hair cut properly, and not to allow it to grow unrestrained (Ezek. xliv. 20); but no shears were to touch the head of the Nazirite (Num. vi. 18; Judges xiii. 5; I Sam. i. 11). The Egyptian way of dressing the hair with wigs and other artificial accessories was never imitated in anterior Asia. According to ancient Egyptian representations, the Syrian wore his hair rather long. The front hair was brushed. down over the forehead; otherwise the hair was caught up in tufts behind, which stood out from the head. Assyrian monuments show long hair worn in plaits hanging about the neck as the prevailing style, and suggest that the better classes paid much attention to the dressing of the hair and beard. For a woman long hair was essential to beauty (Cant. iv. 1, and often); and a bald head was the greatest affliction (Isa. iii. 24). To let the hair down and allow it to hang in disorder denoted extreme humility (Num. v. 18; cf. Luke vii. 38). The arts employed by women to beautify the hair are derided by Isaiah (Isa. iii. 24).
For the Egyptians a beard was something too repulsive to be allowed, accordingly they kept themselves shaved; but the " barbarians " allowed their beards to grow. In Egyptian pictures the Syrians have round beards, the Bedouins
r I. The pointed beards. Assyrian representa
Beard. tions testify to the custom of wearing
a mustache. To cut off any one's
beard was a grave insult (II Sam. x. 4), a humilia
tion to which prisoners of war were subjected (Isa.
vii. 20); and often, in deep mourning, this mutila
tion was self inflicted (Isa. xv. 2). To cut out the
corners of the beard was forbidden in Israel, as
being the custom of a strangE cult.
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