Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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DRAKE, AUGUSTA THEODOSIA (Sister Francis Raphael): English Dominican; b. at Bromley St. Leonard's (a suburb of London), Middlesex, Dec. 28, 1823; d. at Stone (7 m. n.n.w. of Stafford), Staffordshire, Apr. 29, 1894. She was educated privately, and until the age of twenty seven was a member of the Church of England. Carried be­yond the Tractarian movement, however, she be­came a convert to the Roman Catholic Church in 1850, and after a residence of six months at Rome, 1851 52, she was received as a postulant in the Dominican convent at Clifton Oct. 4, 1852. She became a professed at Stone, where the convent had meantime been transferred, in 1856, and from 1872 to 1881 was prioress of the convent. From 1881 until within three weeks of her death she was mother provincial of the Order. She was the author of a large number of books (many of them published anonymously), including The Morality of Tractarianiam
(London, 1850); Catholic Legends and Stories (1855); The Life of St. Dominic, with a Sketch of the Dominican Order (1857); The Knights of St. John, with the Battle of Lento arid the Siege of Vienna (1858); Memoir of Sister Mary Philomena Berkeley, Religious of the Third Or­der of St. Dominic (1860); Christian Schools and Scholars, or Sketches of Education from the Chris­tian Era to the Council of Trent (1867); Life of Mother Margaret Hallahan (1869); The History of St. Catherine of Siena and her Companions (1880); The History of St. Dominic, Founder of the Friar Preachers (1891); Catholic Readers (5 vole., 1891); and The Spirit of the Dominican Order, illustrated from the Lives of its Saints (1896). She translated P. Choearne's Le Rft,6rend Pe're H. D. Lacorttaire de l'ordre des Fr&es prEcheurs, sa vie intime et re­ligieuse (London, 1868), and edited The Autobi­ography of Archbishop Ullalhorne (1891) and Let­ters of Archbishop Ullalhorne (1892).

DREAMS: Dreams are commonly considered in all religions a means of revelation. The strange, wonderful, but often lively phenomena of dream life, sundered at the time from conscious knowl­edge and thought, are accepted as prophetic rev­elations of divinity to the sleeper. Consequently men endeavor to induce prophetic dreams by sleep­ing in places supposed to be favorable or by ta­king potions. Such practises were followed by Egyptians Babylonians, Assyrians, Persians, Chi­nese, Greeks, Romans Germans, and many other peoples. But, since the dream pictures were often obscure, there grew up the art of interpreting dreams, while still there was often the acknowledg­ment that these means were delusive. In the Bible dreams appear as a means by which God speaks to man, warns him of danger, imparts knowledge, gives counsel, and directs for the future. Such dreams of instruction have been known in all times as in the present, for why should not God choose this method of communication with mankind? In the dream the inner life is often more strongly impressed than is possible under ordinary conditions, the consciousness is



more easily reached than when the pre of thoughts interrupts communication. In Biblical cases the suspicion of deception is excluded partly by the extraordinary divine force of the impression, partly by its appeal to the conscience; on the other hand, the dream is often represented as a vain and empty thing (Job. xx. 8; Pa. lxxiii. 20). Symbolic dreams are also known to the Bible, the meaning of which is not attainable to the worldly wise, but only to those to whom God has granted the gift of inter­pretation. Such dreams came to a Joseph and a Daniel. While many examples confirm the use of the dream as a means of revelation, it is not for the people of God the only means, and it is, be­sides, used as a medium by which God comes into contact with other than his own people. There were other means of self revelation of God, how­ever, especially in the word of the prophets who often received their oracles while in possession of full consciousness. A species of revelation stand­ing midway between these two was the dream­vieion (Job iv. 13 21). To this class belong the experiences of Solomon (I Kings iii. 5) and Daniel (Dan. vii. i). The prophets generally do not speak of dreams se the source of their inspiration, and the Arabs distinguish between prophetic in­sight and the dream. Zechariah's vision (Zech. i. 8 aqq.) was not a dream (cf. iv. 1). Jeremiah speaks of the misuse of dreams and disparages them (Jer. xxiii. 25 aqq.) on the ground that they are often the product of the wish of the heart. Deut. xiii. 2 aqq. gives a criterion for the testing of prophetic dreams. The later Jews paid much at­tention to these phenomena, and the Eesenea seem to have done the same (Joeephus, Ant., XVII. xiii. 3). See DrvnrATlOrr. (C. VON OREI.LL)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Knobel, Prophetiamw der Hebrltar, i. 174 eqq., Breslau, 1837; F. Delitaach, Bibliache P
sy­enolopie, pp. 233 eqq.. LeiPeia, 1881, Eng. trsnal.. Edin­burgh, 1887: W. B. Carpenter, Mental Physiology, Lon­don, 1878; F. E. Honig, Offenbarungebegriff des A. T., ii. 9 eqq., 83 eqq., Leipaic, 1882; G. F. Oehler, Tluokpis den d. T., pp. 218 eQq., 743 eqq.: Stuttgart, 1882, Eng. trsnel., New York, 1883; C. von Orelli, A7tteetamenUichs Weisaagunpes, pp. 17 18, Vienna, 1882, Eng. tranal., Old Testament Prophecy, Edinburgh. 1885; E. Clodd, Myths and Dreams, London, 1886: H. Schultz, ALeteeta• fnenUiche Thsolopia, Gottingen, 1888, Eng. trsnsl., London, 1892; J. W. Reynolds, Natural Hist. of Immortality, pp. 124 139, ib. 1891; DB, i. 822 623; EB, i. 1118 19.

DRELI7YCOURT, drb"Iati"cOr', CHARLES: French Reformed pastor; b. at Sddan July 10, 1595; d. in Paris Nov. 3, 1869. He was educated at Sbdan and Saumur, and was pastor of the Re­formed Church of Charenton, near Paris, from 1620 to his death. He was a prolific writer, and two of his works achieved extraordinary success: Con­solations de l'Bme ftdb7e contre lee frayeurs de la mort, reprinted, in more than forty editions, as late as Mines, 1819, Eng. tranal.; The Christian's Defence against the Fears of Death (4th ed., London, 1701; 27th ed., Liverpool, 1810; the sale of the translation is said to have been promoted by Defoe's True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs. Veal the Next Day after her Death to one Mrs. Bargrave at Canter­bury the 8th of September, 1706, London, 1706, in which the dead lady recommended Drelincourt'e book. Defoe's work is included in many editions

D u iad Ornament, Hebrew

of the translation). Drelincourt's other important work was Yiaixes charitables ou consolations chrb­tiennes pour toutea lea Peraonnes affligEes (5 vole., Charenton, 1689, and often, translated into six languages). In English the work appeared in five small volumes, each devoted to a visit upon a par­ticu4ar class of afflicted persons (London, 1785).

BIBLIOGRAPHY  A Memoir is affixed to the ninth and subse­quent editions of The Christina's De/sees, London, 171£. Consult E. sad L. Haag, La France proteataats, ed. H. L. Bordier, Paris, 1877 88 (contains imperfect lief of his writings); Lichtenberger, E$ft, iv. 81 84.


The Apron or Girdle (11). Charms (17).

The Coat or Cloak ( 4 2). Earrings and Nose rings (4 8).

Women's Attire (4 3). Ornaments for Read andNeok

The Head dress (14). (19).

Foot wear (4 b). The Hair (4 10).

Signets and Seals (4 8). The Beard (4 11).

In the Old Testament there is no description of clothing and articles of adornment. The archeol­ogist, therefore, has to rely upon ancient Egyptian and Babylonian Assyrian portraiture and observa­tion of present customs. The most ancient article of dress was the apron or girdle (ezor, h, agor, sak),
a simple piece of cloth (Jer. xiii. 1) or leather (Il

Kings i. 8) thrown about the loins. ><. The In all periods it was the moat usual Apron or garment in Egypt, though of course

Girdle. its form was often modified. In

Egyptian pictures it appears also as the dress of the Bedouin; and it has been preserved in the ihr8m worn by pilgrims in Mecca. The Old Testament mentions the girdle as worn by Assyrian warriors (Ian. v. 27; Ezek. xxiii: 15). Among the Israelites the girdle survived as the dress of those consecrated to God (II Kings i. 8; Is&. xx. 2; Jer. xiii. 1 sqq.) and as the vestment of the high priest. As ask it was worn for mourning (see MOURNING Cusxonts; HEBREW), either alone or under another garment (II Kings vi. 30). Otherwise the kttttoneth, or shirt, took the place of the girdle. In Assyrian art this appears as a tight fitting undergarment, some­times reaching only to the knee, sometimes to the ankle. It corresponded to the undergarment of the fellah of to day: a rough cotton tunic of s faded blue color, open at the breast, with loose sleeves and a girdle around the hips to hold the garment out of the way in walking or working. Such moat have been the Hebrew klartoneth, though it reached only to the knees. The longer coat, with long sleeves, was especially for women, being unusual for men (Gee. xxxvii. 3; II Sam. xiii. 18). A still finer garment was the sadin, a linen shirt that the well to do wore under the kuttoneth (Judges xiv. 12; Prov. xxxi. 24; Isa. iii. 23). It was of Cansanitic origin and is mentioned in the Amarna tablets.

The aimla, or overdress, had various fortes. Egyptian representations of Bedouins show it as a loose wrap that leaves one shoulder and both arms free. It was a heavy shawl, such as is still found among Bedouins. The ancient Babylonians wore a similar garment. Among  the Hebrews this was probably the mantle of the common people; later it developed into the present shays, the mantle of the fellaha
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