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THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE
DRAESEB.E, dr@ ai'ke, JOHANN HEINWCH BERNHARD: German preacher; b. at Brunswick Jan. 18, 1774; d. at Potsdam Dec. 8, 1849. He studied at the University of Hehnet5dt, where he was influenced by humanitarianism rather than by rationalism, and during this period wrote a drama which was produced at Dresden, while in his Des Heilige auf der Biihne (1817) he defended the representation of sacred subjects on the stage. At the age of twenty one he was called as deacon to MSlln, being made preacher three years later, and being appointed pastor of R,atzeburg in 1804. There he published his Predigten . fur denkenie Yerehrer Jesu (5 vole., Liineburg, 1804 12) and his catechetical Glaube, Liebe and Hoffnung (1813), while his patriotic sermons caused such excitement that he narrowly escaped arrest by French troops. In 1814 he was called to Bremen, and to this period belong his Predigten fiber Deutachlanda Wiedergeburt (3 vole., Liineburg, 1814); PredigtEnttoiirfe fiber freie Texte (2 vole., Bremen, 1815); Ueber die letzten Schicksale unseres Hewn (2 vole., Liineburg, 1816); Ueber frei gew6hlle Abschnitte der heiligen Sehrift (4 vole., 1817 18); Christus an das Geschlecht dieser Zeit (1819); Gemalde aus der heiLigen Schrift (4 vole., 1821 28); and Yom Retch (Cotter, Betrachtungen nach der heiligen Sehrift (3 vole., Bremen, 1830). The political tone of his sermons, however, caused many of them to be suppressed by the authorities. His addresses on the kingdom of God, on the other hand, attracted the attention of Frederick William III., and when Weatermaier, bishop of Sa~,ony, died in 1832, Draseke was, appointed to hll the vacancy. As bishop he gained wide popularity by his eloquence, impartiality, and geniality. Avoiding the extremes of rationalism, on the one hand, and Pietism, on the other, he was welcomed as a true Evangelical. The year 1840, however, brought an eventful change, when the assertion of a rationalistic pastor named Sintenia that prayer should not be offered to Christ forced Draseke to take a decided stand. The government checked the episcopal protest, but the rationalistic attacks were pushed so far that Draseke felt that his usefulness was at an end. In 1843 the king permitted him to resign, and he spent the remainder of his life in Potsdam. The only occasion on which he came again before the public was in 1845, when he signed the protest of Sydow, Jones, and others against the Evangeliache Kirehenzeitrng. His Nachgelassene Schriften
were edited by T. H. T. Draseke (2 vole., Magdeburg, 1850 51).
The earliest theological position of Draseke was the humanism of Herder on a Pelagian basis, where Christianity was merely the highest product of the human race; but gradually he attained a more positive attitude, and a deeper insight into the depths of the soul. As a preacher he must be reckoned among the foremost of German pulpitorators, rising from restriction to the higher cultivated classes to a more popular and intelligible style which attracted all types of men.
Btst.toattArar: His life is in ADB, v. 373 eqq.
DRAGON: A mythical creature, belief in the existence of which is attested by the folk lore and literature of nearly all nations, ancient and modern. The creature is usually, but not always, pictured as a modified serpent, with legs and feet terminating in talon like claws, and it is generally regarded as hostile to gods and the human species. Its habitat is variously described: in the heaven, where it often is regarded as causing the eclipse of the sun and the moon; on the earth, where it inhabits deserts, mountain recesses, and places nearly or quite inaccessible to man; and the sea, whence it issues to work evil or to receive an offering which alone averts its anger and the destruction consequent upon this (cf. the Greek story of Perseus). As an agent of evil it is sometimes assigned in myths to the guardianship of things precious or under the care of wizards, witches, or wonder workers (cf. the Greek story of Medea and the Golden Fleece). By a transformation not usual in the development of religion, it sometimes attains to a position of honor in the religion of the people and becomes beneficent (as in China), and indeed receives worship and honor (cf. Bel and the Dragon, which, though unhistorical, yet attests the possibility of existence of such a cult; see APOCRYPHA, A, IV., 3). Tiamat, the representative of chaos in Babylonian mythology, is perhaps the earliest form in which this belief has gained mention in extant literature; the dragoncharacter of Tiamat hardly admits of question, in spite of the doubts of Baudissin (Hauck Herzog, RE, v. 4 sqq.), based largely on the fact that serpentine form was not given to this creature in the monuments the character of hostility to the gods is well marked. The existence of belief in dragons in other Semitic realms is easily susceptible of
uu`uy ewctotts 1 cne tettans sad tieGOUtn. '1'hia is 9 large quadrsn
DrDrareaso and Ornament, Hebrew THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG Q
proof (cf. Baudissin, ut sup., and the references there given). A similar belief entered the folkand church lore of Christians; and just as the heroes and demigods of classic or Teutonic story (Perseus, Siegfried, Beowulf) were credited with combat against, and mastery over dragons, so were heroes of Christian story (St. George, St. Sylvester).
In the Old Testament the Authorized Version translates four Hebrew words by this term, and in the New Testament dragon is the rendering of the Gk. draki3n in Rev. xii., siii. 2, 4, 11, xvi. 13, xx. 2. The four Hebrew words are: (1) the masculine plural tannim (from an assumed singular tan), " howlers," occurring in Job xxa. 29; Ps. xliv. 19; Isa. xiii. 22, xxxiv. 13, xxxv. 7, xliii. 20; Jer. ix, 11, x. 22, xiv. 6, xlix. 33, li. 37; Mic. i. 8, in the A. V. uniformly translated " dragon," but rendered in the R.V. " jackals "; (2) the feminine plural tannoth (Mat. i. 3), from the same singular or an assumed tannah, translated " dragons " in the A.V. and " jackals " in the R. V.; (3) the singular tannim (regarded as a mistake for tannin, see below, which is found in some manuscripts), occurring only in Ezek. xxix. 3, A. V. and R. V. " dragon," and xxxii. 2, A. V. " whale," margin and R. V. " dragon " (possibly meaning the crocodile); (4) the singular tannin., plural tanninim., occurring Deut. xxxii. 33; Neh. ii. 13; Pa. lxxiv. 13, xci. 13, aclviii. 7; Isa. xxvii. 1; Jer. li. 34 The R. V. follows the A. V. in rendering " dragon," except in Ps. lxxiv. 13 and cxlviii. 7, margin, where it has " sea monsters," and Ps. xci. 13, where it has " serpent." This same word is in Gen. i. 21 and Job vii. 12 rendered by A. V. " whale," by R. V. " sea monster "; in Ex. vii. 9, 10, 12 both A. V. and R. V. have " serpent "; in Lam. iv. 3 A. V. has " sea monsters " and R. V. " jackals." The nearly uniform rendering in the A. V. follows closely that of the Septuagint, which translates all cases by drakdn except Gen. i. 21, where ketos, " whale," is found. This rendering doubtless originated in confusion between words from two roots, one of which meant " to howl," and the other probably " to be extended." Modern investigation has revealed this distinction, which is probably accurately reflected in the R. V. There is some question whether " wolf " would not in some passages be more accurate than " jackal." The word is employed metaphorically (e.g., Isa. li. 9), and also with mythological reference (Isa. xxvii. 1, and the passages in the New Testament). Neither of these usages is present in the apocryphal story of Bel and the Dragon, which is simply a Haggadic story. Job xxvi. 13 is probably a reminiscence of belief in the dragon as an inhabitant of the heavens, while Amos ix. 3 exhibits the belief in the creature as existing in the sea.
GEO. W. GILMORE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For s review of the legends centering about the dragon nothing is better than E. S. Hartland, Legend of Perseus, 3 vols., London, 1894 96. Consult further: P. Lerch, in orient and Occident, i. 4, pp, 751 754, Gottingen 1862; R', W, von Baudiasin, Semiliache RelxgionarJeachichle, i. 255 292, Leipsic, 1876; G. A. Barton, in JAOS, xv. 1 (1891), 23 24; 11. Guwkel, Sch6pfanp and Chaos, pp, 69 sqq., 3_`>0 323, Gottingen, 1895; Smith, Rel, of Sexn., p. 176; DB, i. 620 621 ii. 526; EB, i. 11311134, ii. 2305 06; JE, iv. 84'T 648: and the later commentaries on the passages cited in the tent.
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