Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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HARE, WILLIAM HOBART: Protestant Epis­copal missionary bishop of South Dakota; b. at Princeton, N. J., May 17, 1838. He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, but was obliged to leave at the close of his junior year. He then engaged in teaching while pursuing his theological studies, and was ordered deacon in 1859, and ordained priest in 1860. He was assistant at St. Luke's, Philadelphia, in 1859 62, and rector of St. Paul's in the same city in 1862 63. He then returned to St. Luke's for a year, after which he was rector of the Church of the Ascension, Philadelphia, from 1864 to 1870. He was secretary and general agent of the foreign committee of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society (1870 73). He was nominated missionary bishop of Cape Palmas, West Africa, in 1871, by the House of Bishops, but the nomination was withdrawn at the request of the. House of Deputies, in view of his valuable services as secretary. In 1873 he was consecrated mission­ary bishop of Niobrara, which was enlarged in 1883, and renamed the diocese of South Dakota. Theo­logically he holds to the catholic faith, and also keeps his mind open to the thought of the present day.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. S. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 213, New York, 1895.


Catholic; b. at Wettmannstetten, a village of Styria,

Aug. 5, 1867. He was educated at the University

of Graz, where he took both the theological (DJ).,

1896) and the law (LL.D., 1902) courses. He was

ordained to the priesthood in 1891, and after a

brief term as curate in Leibnitz and Schladming

(1891 92), was superintendent of studies in the

theological seminary at Graz from 1892 to 1900.

In 1900 he was appointed associate professor of

canon law in the theological faculty of the Univer­

sity of Graz, and in 1906 was promoted to his

present position of full professor of the same subject

in that institution. He has written Der Rechts­

und Gesetzmbegri ff in der katholischen Ethik and

modernen Jurfsprudenz (Graz, 1899); Die Schaden­

ersatzp flicht des Erben fur Delikte des Erblassea mach

kanonischem Rechte (Vienna, 1903); and Grundxage

des katholischen Kirchenrechtes, i. (Graz, 1906).

HARKAVY, ALBERT (Abraham Yakovlevich)

Russian Jewish scholar; b. at Novogrudok (80 m. s. of Wilna) Oct. 27, 1830. He was educated at the rabbinical schools of Volozhin (1854 58) and Wilna (1858 63), and at the universities of St. Petersburg (1863  68; doctor of history, IE7x), Berlin and Paris (1868 70). Since 1877 he has been librarian of the Semitic department of the Imperial Public Library at St. Petersburg. He has written " On the Language of the Jews " (St. Petersburg, 1865); " Statements of Mohammedan Writers on the Slavs and Russians,, (1870); " On the Original Home of the Semites " (1872); '° Statements of


Harmony of the Gospels

Jewish Writers on the Chazar Kingdom " (1874);

" Catalogue of the Samaritan Manuscripts in the

Imperial Public Library " (2 vols., 1874 75); Kata­

log der hebrdischen Bibelhandschriften der kaiser­

lichen Offentlichen Bibliothek in St. Petersburg (in

collaboration with H. L. Strack; 1875); Altjudische

Denkmdler aus der Krim (1877); Studien and Mit­

teilungen aus der kaiserlichm offentlichen Biblio­

thek zu St. Petersburg (8 vols.,1879 1903); " On the

Language of the Jews living in Russia in Ancient

Times " (1886); Leben and Werke des Saadjah Gaon

(1892); " An Unedited (Hebrew) Version of the

Romance of Alexander " (1892); and Ozar Israel

(Warsaw, 1893). The titles in English are of

works written in Russian.


VON: German Lutheran; b. at Nuremberg Nov. 21,

1806; d. at Munich Sept. 7, 1879. He

Student early devoted himself to music and

Days. poetry, and was attracted by ancient

and German classical literature, espe­

cially by Jean Paul. But he was indifferent to

Christianity, and even felt an aversion to it, and

firmly decided never to study theology. In 1823

he entered the University of Erlangen, at first

studying philology, and then law. But he was

interested in neither science, and finally tried theol­

ogy. He was not decisively influenced by any of

the professors, except perhaps by Winer, and was,

indeed, in his spiritual development independent

of his teachers. His chief desire was to understand

the reasons for the objective power of the Christian

religion in the life of the people and the history of

the world. He thought the philosophy of Hegel

best adapted to the solution of this problem, but

later found that even this system did not satisfy

his .innermost needs. Thus he was at last led to

the philosophy of Spinoza, in whose system he

searched for the roots of Hegel's and Schelling's

philosophy. For this purpose he removed, in 1826,

to the University of Halle, where he was especially

attracted by Tholuck's personality. In the midst

of these philosophical studies he conceived the plan

of studying the whole literature of the ancient

philosophers, of the earlier teachers of the Church,

of the theologians of the Reformation, and of the

later theologians and philosophers from the stand­

point of human freedom and evil, and to put the

results in writing. Although the work was never

published, it contributed much to his development.

Harless received a further impulse from his study of

Pascal's Pens~es, but about this time became con­

vinced that his heart was not right with God, and

that his ways were perverse. He now turned to

the confessional writings of the Lutheran Church

and, to his surprise, found their contents in con­

formity with the experience of his faith. The

chief attraction in the Lutheran confession was,

for him, the doctrine of justification, which hence­

forth became the central point of his Christianity

and theology.

In 1828 Harless returned from Halle to Erlangen

as privat docent in theology, and three years later

became professor of New Testament exegesis. The

appointment was important not only for the

history of the theological faculty at Erlangen, which owed its later conservative tendency and its flour 

ishing condition chiefly to Harless, but Professor for Lutheran orthodox theology in at Erlangen general. In 1836 he became ordinary

and professor, and as such lectured also

Leipsic. on Christian ethics, theological ency 

clopedia, and methodology. In 1836 he became preacher of the university. He declined calls to Rostock, Berlin, Dorpat, and Zurich. In 1840 he was appointed delegate of the chamber of states in Munich to defend the rights of the Lutheran Church against the violent measures of the ministry. Harless won great popularity by defending the interests of his church with ability and manliness, but the opposition party succeeded in removing him in 1845 to Baireuth as second councilor of the consistory. In the same year, however, he was appointed professor of theology in Leipsic, where his activity reached its highest development. In Saxony rationalism was still flourishing, but the brilliant personality of Harless and the earnestness and depth of his presentation of Evangelical truth soon conquered it, and his influence upon the stu­dents was not less powerful than in Erlangen. In Leipsic he lectured for the first time on dogmatics, and also developed into one of the most powerful and brilliant preachers of his time. Before the, end of two years he was appointed preacher at St.

Nicolai, in addition to his duties as professor.

In 1850 he removed to Dresden as court preacher, reporting councilor in the ministry of public in 

struction, and vice president of the President state consistory, but two years later of the was called by King Max II. to his

Bavarian native state of Bavaria as president

Consistory. of the supreme consistory. Here the soil had been already prepared for the Lutheran confession. It was only Lohe and his adherents who opposed the existing condition of the State Church, and insisted upon an entire change, or, if this should be impossible, upon separation. Owing to the influence of Harless, however, who was a friend of Lohe from former days, the latter did not altogether separate himself from the State Church. Harless conquered the remaining oppo­sition of rationalism in the congregations by his manly conduct and his personal spirit of reconcilia­tion. A new hymn book in the spirit of orthodox Lutheranism was soon introduced. The introduc­tion of a new order of church service was more difficult. Here the question of private confession, which was confused with auricular confession, occa­sioned a new revolt of the opposition, but the organization of the State Church, firmly established under Harless, finally achieved the victory.

Harless now became the universally acknowledged leader and faithful mentor of the whole Lutheran Church, and his advice was eagerly sought in all quarters of the world. He presided for a bng time over the missionary board at Leipsic. During the later years he was almost blind from cataract.

His three most important works were written while professor at Erlangen, as his later public activity left him little time for literary work. They are: Commentar iiber den Brief Pauli an die Ephesier

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