Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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GOAR, SAINT: Reputed missionary on the Mid­dle Rhine. According to his biography in the Acta Sanctorum, he came from Aquitaine to the Rhine in the reign of the Frankish King Childebert I. (511 558), and built a cell and a chapel on the site of the later town of St. Goar (on the left bank of the Rhine, 15 m. s. of Coblenz), where he passed his life in spiritual exercises and the entertainment of travelers, and converted not a few pagans. His very hospitality was,made a ground of complaint by two clerics from Treves; but he defended him­self so impressively before Rusticus, the bishop of that see, that King Sigebert (561 576) desired to make him bishop instead of Rusticus. Goar de­clined, returned to his cell, and died there seven years later. The legend, which goes back only to the ninth century, has not the slightest historical value. According to a document of Louis the Pious, dated 820, Pepin and his queen Bertha built a cell over the saint's grave, and Pepin is said to have assigned it to the jurisdiction of Abbot Asuer of Priim, while Charlemagne, in 788, assigned the cell as a residence for Tassilo of Bavaria. In the elev­enth century it was changed into a house of canons, and it continued so till the Reformation.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The early anonymous life, with commen­tary, a second life and Miracula ere in ABB, July, ii. 327 346; the later life and Miracula are also in MGH, Script., xv (1887), 361 373. Consult: A. Grebel, Ga­achichte der Stadt 8t. Goar, St. Go., 1848; P. Heber, Die vorkarolinpiachen chriselichen Glaubenahelden am Rhein, pp. 130 140; Rettberg, KD, i. 465, 481; Friedrich, %D, ii. 175; DCB, ii. 687 888.


GOBAT, go"bs', SAMUEL: Second Anglican­

German bishop in Jerusalem; b. at Grdmine (23

m. s.s.W. of Basel), Switzerland, Jan. 26, 1799; d.

at Jerusalem May 11, 1879. Desiring to become a

missionary, he went to the Missionshaus at Basel

(1821), where he received his theological training,

after which he studied in Paris. After having

been ordained in the state church of Baden, he was

sent to England to seek employment from the

Church Missionary Society. He was destined for

Abyssinia, but was compelled to wait three years

in Egypt before he was admitted. In 1829, with his

companion Christian Kugler, he entered the country.

King Saba Gadis received them with kindness, and

a time of zealous and successful work followed.

After three years Saba Gadis was killed in war and

Gobat had to flee from the country. When peace

V. 1

was restored he went back, but sickness of himself and wife made a return to Europe necessary.

In 1846 King Frederick William IV. of Prussia appointed him to the bishopric of Jerusalem (see JERUaALEM, ANGLICAN GERMAN BrsHorRIc IN). Despite the peculiar and difficult conditions, and notwithstanding the opposition of the Oriental bishops and the mistrust of many Anglicans, Gobat labored faithfully until his death. His Journal of a Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia was pub­lished in London, 1834. CTHEODOR SCH"ER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mme. L. Roehrich, Samuel Gobat . .

&Bque anglican de Jerusalem, Paris, 1880, Germ. transl.,

Basel, 1884; Eng. transl. (from the Germ.) with preface

by the Earl of Shaftesbury, London, 1884; T. Hchoelly,

S. Gobat, Evanqelischer Bisdkof in Jerusalem, Basel, 1'100.


GOCH, g6a, JOHANN VON (Johann Pupper or Capupper): One of the "Reformers before the Reformation "; b. at Goch (43 m. n.w. of Diissel­dorf) early in the fifteenth century; d. near Mech­lin. Mar. 28, 1475, or later. He probably received his first education in a school of the Brethren of the Common Life, perhaps in Zwolle. He studied at the University of Cologne, and possibly also in Paris. In 1459 he founded the priory of Thabor for canonesses of St. Augustine, and governed it till his death.

Goch stood on the threshold of the Reformation in so far as he minimized the traditions of the Church and acknowledged as the only authorities the Bible and the Fathers. But in the central point of reformatory dogmatics, in the doctrine of justification, he still stood on the ground of the Middle Ages. He attacked monasticism on the ground that it could not be justified from the Bible, and that it lowered the value of grace, since the monastic vow was considered to lead to true Chris­tian perfection. Against the doctrine of a two­fold morality Goch argued that the so called " counsels " belong to Evangelical law as well as the " precepts," and are to be observed by both the clergy and the laity. By giving due regard to the secular professions, he rose above the one sided asceticism of the Middle Ages. As an extreme nominalist, Goch rejected all speculation in the sphere of religion, and strongly emphasized the authority of the Church. As a mystic he aimed at a closer and more intimate union with God through love of him and our fellow men. His importance


for the history of dogma lies in the fact that he be­longed to the Augustinian reaction at the end of the Middle Ages which, by a revival of the Augustinian monism of grace, tried to combat the Semi Pela­gianism and Pelagianism of the time and justifica­tion by works. His literary works remained long unknown. His chief work, De ltbertate Christians, which was written in 1473, appeared in print only

1. Name and General Conception, II. The God of Scripture.

Old Testament: Ethical Conception (§ 1).

New Testament: Fatherhood of God (§ 2).

Attributes of God (§ 3). III. The Doctrine of God in Christian Theology.

Dependence upon Pre Christian Thought (§ 1).

Platonism (§ 2).

L Name and General Conception: Though the reality of God's existence is the most certain of all truths to the Christian, it follows from the nature of the case that a thoroughly satisfactory defini­tion of the idea of God can never be reached. A logical definition requires the use of genus and differentia, which are, of course, absent in the case of God; nor can he be subsumed in the same genus with other things. Nevertheless, the religions of the world have succeeded in reaching quite dis­tinct conceptions of one or more gods without strict definitions. All of them, even the lowest, include in their idea of God that he is a being endowed with power over men and nature. A certain spiritual character is attributed to him by the fact of his invisibility; but the religious conception of God includes especially the idea of a will by which he acts on men. The more developed religions con­ceive this will as almighty, and refer the original being of all things to its operation. The most important element, however, according to Chris­tian revelation, is the ethical nature of that will as the absolute good, determining the development of the world toward good ends.

Il. The God of Scripture: The Old Testament revelation is peculiar for its conception of God as wholly and from the beginning standing in an ethical relation to humanity, and espe 

r. Old Tes  cially to his people Israel. It does

tament: not begin with theoretical specula­Ethical tions as to his existence and nature,

Conception. but with his moral claims, his promises, and the proclamation to his people of his acts. The fear of him is based upon his abso­lute ethical exaltation, which repels and condemns all that is morally unclean. The proper name of the covenant God is Yahweh (q.v.). The exposition of the name in Ex. iii. 14 expresses not merely the general and abstract being of God, but the immu­tability of that being, and in its independence of anything beyond itself God's character as a spirit comes out clearly a, personal spirit, as distin­guished from a force of nature. This spirit appears as the creative and motive principle of all life in the world, figured as a breath or wind (Ps. civ. 29,


Alexandrian Judaism (§ 3). Gnosticism (§ 4). Post Apostolic Theologians (§ 5). Augustine (§ 6). Scotus Erigena (§ 7). The Scholastic Philosophers (§8). The Mystics (§ 9). The Reformers (§ 10). Leibnitz and Wolff (§ 11). Kant and Fichte (§ 12). Hegel (§ 13). Post Hegelian Philosophers (§ 14).

in 1521. The work which gives his most mature

thought is Dialogue de quattuor erroribus circa legem

evangelicam exortis, which was printed probably in

1523. (OTTO CLEMEN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. Clemen, Johann Pupper von Goch,
Leip. sic, 1896; a very complete treatment will be found in C. Ullmann, Reformers before the Reformation, i. 17 157, where the earlier literature is fully given.

Schleiermacher (§ 15).

Modern Tendencies (§ le).

IV. In English and American Theology. The Deistic Period in England (§ 1).

The Same Period in America (§ 2).

Nineteenth Century Developments

(§ 3).

Theistic Arguments (§ 4).

Immanence (§ 5).

Fatherhood of God (§ 6).

30), especially of human life, originally breathed into man by God (Gen. ii. 7; Job xxxiii. 4; Eccl. xii. 7). The infinite fulness of power and majesty comprised in God and displayed in the revelation of his will and power is expressed by the plural form Elohim, used as it is in connection with the strictest monotheistic views. With the belief in the divine holiness is associated from the beginning the thought of a revelation of divine grace and love. God chooses Israel to be his people, redeems them from bondage, and on this ground requires from them obedience to his law. In virtue of the rela­tion in which he thus stands to the people, and espe­cially to the theocratically chosen king (II Sam. vii.; Pa. ii.), to which a filial obedience and confidence are supposed to correspond on their side, he deigns to be called their Father (Ex. iv. 22; Deut. xxxii. 6; Hos. xi. 1; Isa. lxiii. 16). The idea of the unity of God receives a practical application from the first; Yahweh alone is to be recognized and wor­shiped as God, and loved with the whole heart (Ex. xx. 2 sqq.; Deut. vi. 4, 5); and the universal dominion of the One God is everywhere proclaimed as a fundamental truth. It is, then, this ethical­religious view of God and his relation to Israel and to humanity in general, together with the doctrine of the kingdom which he founds, and not any ab­stract conception of the unity of God, that forms the essential characteristic of the Old Testament revelation.

The New Testament revelation is characterized by the fact that God now reveals himself in the highest and fullest sense as a father to all those who share in his salvation or are members of his king­dom, and in the most absolute and perfect way as the father of Jesus Christ. On this a. New Tes  relation of sonahip is based the free,

tament: confident access to God and enjoyment Fatherhood of his love and all the blessings con 

of God. nected with it; and the children are

required to resemble their father in

character (Matt. v. 9, 16, 44). While in the Old

Testament Israel taken as a whole sometimes

appears as a son, here God's relation is to the indi­

vidual; although this fact does not interfere with

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