R315 Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities




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R315-8-12. Waste Piles.

12.1 APPLICABILITY

(a) The rules in this section apply to owners and operators of facilities that store or treat hazardous waste in piles, except as provided otherwise in R315-8-1.

(b) The rules in this section do not apply to owners or operators of waste piles that are closed with wastes left in place. These waste piles are subject to the rules under R315-8-14, Landfills.

(c) The owner or operator of any waste pile that is inside or under a structure that provides protection from precipitation so that neither run-off nor leachate is generated is not subject to regulation under R315-8-12.2 or R315-8-6, provided that:

(1) Liquids or materials containing free liquids are not placed in the pile;

(2) The pile is protected from surface water run-on or groundwater run-on by the structure or in some other manner;

(3) The pile is designed and operated to control dispersal of the waste by wind, where necessary, by means other than wetting; and

(4) The pile will not generate leachate through decomposition or other reactions.

12.2 DESIGN AND OPERATING REQUIREMENTS

(a) A waste pile, except for an existing portion of a waste pile, shall have:

(1) A liner that is designed, constructed, and installed to prevent any migration of wastes out of the pile into the adjacent subsurface soil or groundwater or surface water at any time during the active life, including the closure period, of the waste pile. The liner may be constructed of materials that may allow waste to migrate into the liner itself, but not into the adjacent subsurface soil or groundwater or surface water, during the active life of the facility. The liner shall be:

(i) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients, including static head and external hydrogeologic forces, physical contact with waste or leachate to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation;

(ii) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression, or uplift; and

(iii) Installed to cover all surrounding earth likely to be in contact with the waste or leachate; and

(2) A leachate collection and removal system immediately above the liner that is designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to collect and remove leachate from the pile. The Executive Secretary will specify design and operating conditions in the permit to ensure that the leachate depth over the liner does not exceed 30 cm, one foot. The leachate collection and removal system shall be:

(i) Constructed of materials that are:

(A) Chemically resistant to the waste managed in the pile and the leachate expected to be generated; and

(B) Of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlaying wastes, waste cover materials, and by any equipment used at the pile; and

(ii) Designed and operated to function without clogging through the scheduled closure of the waste pile.

(b) The owner or operator will be exempted from the requirements of R315-8-12.2(a) if the Executive Secretary finds, based on a demonstration by the owner or operator, that alternate design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents, see R315-8-6.4, into the groundwater or surface water at any future time. In deciding whether to grant an exemption, the Executive Secretary will consider:

(1) The nature and quantity of the wastes;

(2) The proposed alternate design and operation;

(3) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including attenuative capacity and thickness of the liners and soils present between the pile and groundwater or surface water; and

(4) All other factors which would influence the quality and mobility of the leachate produced and the potential for it to migrate to groundwater or surface water.

(c) The owner or operator of each new waste pile unit on which construction commences after January 29, 1992, each lateral expansion of a waste pile unit on which construction commences after July 29, 1992, and each replacement of an existing waste pile unit that is to commence reuse after July 29, 1992 shall install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system above and between such liners. "Construction commences" is as defined in R315-1-1(b), which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 260.10 under "existing facility".

(1)(i) The liner system shall include:

(A) A top liner designed and constructed of materials, e.g., a geomembrane, to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into such liner during the active life and post-closure care period; and

(B) A composite bottom liner, consisting of at least two components. The upper component shall be designed and constructed of materials, e.g., a geomembrane, to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into this component during the active life and post-closure care period. The lower component shall be designed and constructed of materials to minimize the migration of hazardous constituents if a breach in the upper component were to occur. The lower component shall be constructed of at least three feet, 91 cm, of compacted soil material with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec.

(ii) The liners shall comply with R315-8-12.2(a)(1)(i), (ii), and (iii).

(2) The leachate collection and removal system immediately above the top liner shall be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained to collect and remove leachate from the waste pile during the active life and post-closure care period. The Executive Secretary will specify design and operating conditions in the permit to ensure that the leachate depth over the liner does not exceed 30 cm, one foot. The leachate collection and removal system shall comply with R315-8-12.2(c)(3)(iii) and (iv).

(3) The leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and immediately above the bottom composite liner in the case of multiple leachate collection and removal systems, is also a leak detection system. This leak detection system shall be capable of detecting, collecting, and removing leaks of hazardous constituents at the earliest practicable time through all areas of the top liner likely to be exposed to waste or leachate during the active life and post-closure care period. The requirements for a leak detection system in this paragraph are satisfied by installation of a system that is, at a minimum:

(i) Constructed with a bottom slope of one percent or more;

(ii) Constructed of granular drainage materials with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 x 10-2 cm/sec or more and a thickness of 12 inches, 30.5 cm, or more; or constructed of synthetic or geonet drainage materials with a transmissivity of 3 x 10-5 m2/sec or more:

(iii) Constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the waste managed in the waste pile and the leachate expected to be generated, and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying wastes, waste cover materials, and equipment used at the waste pile;

(iv) Designed and operated to minimize clogging during the active life and post-closure care period; and

(v) Constructed with sumps and liquid removal methods, e.g., pumps, of sufficient size to collect and remove liquids from the sump and prevent liquids from backing up into the drainage layer. Each unit shall have its own sump(s). The design of each sump and removal system shall provide a method for measuring and recording the volume of liquids present in the sump and of liquids removed.

(4) The owner or operator shall collect and remove pumpable liquids in the leak detection system sumps to minimize the head on the bottom liner.

(5) The owner or operator of a leak detection system that is not located completely above the seasonal high water table shall demonstrate that the operation of the leak detection system will not be adversely affected by the presence of groundwater.

(d) The Executive Secretary may approve alternative design or operating practices to those specified in R315-8-12.2(c) if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Executive Secretary that such design and operating practices, together with location characteristics:

(1) Will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituent into the ground water or surface water at least as effectively as the liners and leachate collection and removal systems specified in R315-8-12.2(c); and

(2) Will allow detection of leaks of hazardous constituents through the top liner at least as effectively.

(e) R315-8-12.2(c) does not apply to monofills that are granted a waiver by the Executive Secretary in accordance with R315-8-11.2(h).

(f) The owner or operator of any replacement waste pile unit is exempt from R315-8-12.2(c) if:

(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of section 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and

(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.

(g) The owner or operator shall design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the active portion of the pile during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm.

(h) The owner or operator shall design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

(i) Collection and holding facilities, e.g., tanks or basins, associated with run-on and run-off control systems shall be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously after storms to maintain design capacity of the system.

(j) If the pile contains any particulate matter which may be subject to wind dispersal, the owner or operator shall cover or otherwise manage the pile to control wind dispersal.

(k) The Executive Secretary will specify in the permit all design and operating practices that are necessary to ensure that the requirements of this section are satisfied.

12.3 MONITORING AND INSPECTION

(a) During construction or installation, liners, except in the case of existing portions of piles exempt from R315-8-12.2(a), and cover systems, e.g., membranes, sheets, or coatings, shall be inspected for uniformity, damage, and imperfections, e.g., holes, cracks, thin spots, or foreign materials. Immediately after construction or installation:

(1) Synthetic liners and covers shall be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and

(2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers shall be inspected for imperfections including lenses, cracks, channels, root holes, or other structural non-uniformities that may cause an increase in the permeability of the liner or cover.

(b) While a waste pile is in operation, it shall be inspected weekly and after storms to detect evidence of any of the following:

(1) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of run-on and run-off control systems;

(2) Proper functioning of wind dispersal control systems, where present; and

(3) The presence of leachate in and proper functioning of leachate collection and removal systems, where present.

(c) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under R315-8-12.2(c) shall record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.

12.4 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR IGNITABLE OR REACTIVE WASTE

Ignitable or reactive waste shall not be placed in a waste pile unless the waste and waste pile satisfy all applicable requirements of R315-13, which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 268, R315-50-12, which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 268 Appendix I, and R315-50-13, which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 268 Appendix II, and:

(a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the pile so that:

(1) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under R315-2-9(d) or (f); and

(2) R315-8-2.8(b) is complied with; or

(b) The waste is managed in a way that it is protected from any material or condition which may cause it to ignite or react.

12.5 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INCOMPATIBLE WASTES

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials shall not be placed in the same pile, unless R315-8-2.8(b) is complied with.

(b) A pile of hazardous waste that is incompatible with any waste or other material stored nearby in containers, other piles, open tanks, or surface impoundments shall be separated from the other materials, or protected from them by means of a dike, berm, wall, or other device.

(c) Hazardous waste shall not be piled on the same base where incompatible wastes or materials were previously piled, unless the base has been decontaminated sufficiently to ensure compliance with R315-8-2.8(b).

12.6 CLOSURE AND POST-CLOSURE CARE

(a) At closure, the owner or operator shall remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system compoundments, liners, etc., contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless R315-2-3(d) applies.

(b) If, after removing or decontaminating all residues and making all reasonable efforts to effect removal or decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in R315-8-12.6(a), the owner or operator finds that not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed or decontaminated, he shall close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care requirements that apply to landfills, R315-8-7, which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 264.110 - 264.120.

(c)(1) The owner or operator of a waste pile that does not comply with the liner requirements of R315-8-12.2(a)(1), and is not exempt from them in accordance with R315-8-12.1(c) or R315-8-12.2(b) shall:

(i) Include in the closure plan for the pile under R315-8-7.3 both a plan for complying with R315-8-12.6(a) and a contingent plan for complying with R315-8-12.6(b) in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure; and

(ii) Prepare a contingent post-closure plan under R315-8-7, which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 264.110 - 264.120, for complying with R315-8-12.6(b) in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure.

(2) The cost estimates calculated under R315-8-8, which incorporates by reference 40 CFR 264.140 - 264.151, for closure and post-closure care of a pile subject to this paragraph shall include the cost of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, but are not required to include the cost of expected closure under R315-8-12.6(a).

12.7 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, AND F027

(a) Hazardous Wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026 and F027 shall not be placed in waste piles that are not enclosed, as defined in R315-8-12.1(c), unless the owner or operator operates the waste pile in accordance with a management plan for these wastes that is approved by the Executive Secretary pursuant to the standards set out in this paragraph, and in accord with all other applicable requirements of these rules. The factors to be considered are:

(1) The volume, physical, and chemical characteristics of the wastes, including their potential to migrate through soil or to volatilize or escape into the atmosphere:

(2) The attenuative properties of underlaying and surrounding soils or other materials:

(3) The mobilizing properties of other materials co-disposed with these wastes; and

(4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring techniques.

(b) The Executive Secretary may determine that additional design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for piles managing hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, and F027 in order to reduce the possibility of migration of these wastes to groundwater, surface water, or air so as to protect human health and the environment.

12.8 ACTION LEAKAGE RATE

(a) The Executive Secretary shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to R315-8-12.2(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system, LDS, can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding one foot. The action leakage rate shall include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design, e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material, construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions, e.g., the action leakage rate shall consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.

(b) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator shall convert the weekly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under R315-8-12.3(c), to an average daily flow rate, gallons per acre per day, for each sump. Unless the Executive Secretary approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump shall be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period.

12.9 RESPONSE ACTIONS

(a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to R315-8-12.2(c) or (d) shall have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan shall set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan shall describe the actions specified in R315-8-12.9(b).

(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator shall:

(1) Notify the Executive Secretary in writing of the exceedance within seven days of the determination;

(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Executive Secretary within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;

(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;

(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;

(5) Determine any other short-term and long-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and

(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Executive Secretary the results of the analyses specified in R315-8-12.9(b)(3), (4), and (5), the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator shall submit to the Executive Secretary a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.

(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in R315-8-12.9(b)(3), (4), and (5), the owner or operator shall:

(1)(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source;

(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and

(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or

(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.

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