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Abdel Karim, E. I. and G. H. Benjamin (1989). "Studies on horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in Southern Darfur province." Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 28: 39-44.
Abdulla, M. A. and K. H. El Malik (2003). "Study of biting flies in Singa area, Central Sudan." Sudan Journal of Science and Technology 4: 8-12.
Acapovi, G. L., Y. Yao, et al. (2002). "Abondance relative des tabanidés dans la région des savanes de Côte d'Ivoire." Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des pays tropicaux 54(2): 109-114.
Tabanids were caught with Nzi traps to study their presence, abundance, seasonal variation, ecological preferences and species diversity. The study was conducted over four seasons in four habitats (savanna, forest, gallery, and corral) in four townships in the main two livestock departments of North and Northwest Ivory Coast (Odienne and Korhogo). Out of 3104 caught specimens, 4 genera and 16 tabanid species were identified. The most abundant of caught species were Tabanus taeniola Palisot de Beauvois, 1807 (26.4%), T. par Walker, 1854 (15.6%), T. laverani Surcouf, 1907 (14.9%), and Chrysops distinctipennis Austen, 1906 (12.3%). The least abundant species were Atylotus albipalpus Walker, 1850 (6.9%), Chrysops longicornis Macquart, 1838 (6.9%), T. brumpti Surcouf, 1907 (4.8%), T. gratus Loew, 1858 (3.7%), At. agrestis Wiedemann, 1830 (1.4%), T. ricardea Surcouf, 1906 (0.5%), T. boueti Surcouf, 1907 (0.4%), T. pluto Walker, 1854 (0.3%), and An. fasciata Fabricus, 1775 (0.2%). The largest numbers of tabanids were caught in the gallery, and the fewest in the forest. There were more catches in the Odienne department than in that of Korhogo. An abundance peak occurred in March during the hot dry season, except for Korondougou township, where a peak occurred in June during the rainy season. In addition, 2471 Stomoxyinae were captured: Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 (70.7%) and S. calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (29.3%). The Stomoxyinae, represented by two species only, made up about 45% of the biting flies captured. They will have to be reckoned with when evaluating the impact of biting insects on cattle.
Adeyefa, C. A. O. and O. O. Dipeolu (1986). "Ectoparasites of horses in south-western Nigeria." Insect Science and its Application 7(4): 511-513.
A survey of ectoparasites of horses was undertaken at stables in Lagos, Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria, during the rainy season from May to September 1981. The arthropods collected were Diptera such as species of Stomoxys, Tabanus, Glossina, Hippobosca and Musca, as well as some myiasis-causing species, ticks in the genera Boophilus, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus and the lice Haematopinus equi [H. macrocephalus] and Damalinia equi [Werneckiella equi]. The activity of flies was greatest between 07.00-11.30 and 17.00-18.30 h.
Adkins, T. R. (1974). Biology, distribution, importance and control of deer flies and horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in water-oriented recreation areas. Clemson University. Water Resources Research Institute Report No.42, Water Resources Research Institute, Clemson University.
Ahmed, A. B. (2005). "Species diversity, abundance and seasonal ocurrence of some biting flies in southern Kaduna, Nigeria." African Journal of Biomedical Research 8: 113-118.
A survey of biting dipterans was conducted in Kaura LGA of Kaduna State between November 2000 and October 2001. Fifteen species of biting flies were caught in two families, Tabanidae and Muscidae distributed in the following 4 genera: Tabanus 10, Haematopota 2, Chrysops 1 and Stomoxys 2. The genus Stomoxys represented by Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus and S. nigra Macquart had the highest abundance (62.5%), followed by the Tabanus (34.6%), Haematopota (1.8%) and Chrysops (1.1%). Generally, more flies were collected during the wet (1431; 85.1%) than the dry season (250; 14.9%) with some species occurring all year round. The widespread presence of haematophagous dipterans in the study area suggest that they could be playing a greater role in disease transmissions than previously thought. Optimum temperatures that stimulate rapid reproduction appear to fall between mean temperatures of 22.8-24.1oC. The species showed a general increase in relative abundance during the wet season and a decline in the dry season. No new country record was found.
Ailes, M. C., L. J. Brown, et al. (1992). "Mechanical control of greenhead flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in a marsh environment." Journal of Medical Entomology 29: 160-164.
The effectiveness of New Jersey box traps for the control of adult greenhead flies, Tabanus nigrovittatus, Macquart, T. conterminus Walker, was assessed at Wallops Island, Va. Trap shape and placement were tested. Shallow (0.45 m high) traps caught significantly fewer flies than cubic (0.60 m high) traps. Traps located in the inner two of four layers of traps caught fewer flies than traps in the outer layers.
Allan, S. A., J. F. Day, et al. (1987). "Visual ecology of biting flies." Annual Review of Entomology 32: 297-316.
Allan, S. A. and J. G. Stoffolano, Jr. (1986). "Effects of background contrast on visual attraction and orientation of Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Environmental Entomology 15: 689-694.
The effect of relative intensity contrast of an object against a background on the visual attraction of host-seeking adults of Tabanus nigrovittatus was examined on a salt marsh in Massachusetts in 1982 using small test panels against large background panels. Attraction of T. nigrovittatus to grey panels was significantly greater when contrast against grey background panels was highest. Maximum numbers were attracted to high-intensity blue test panels against low-intensity grey backgounds and low-intensity saturated blue panels against all-grey backgounds regardless of intensity. The latter indicated the attractive effect of hue independent of intensity. Flies collected on test and backgound panels were clumped on the test panel (32.6%), along the boundary of the test panel and the backgound panel (59.9%) and from 15.2 to 38.0 cm above gound level (85%). Direct observation revealed that 60% of the flies approaching the panel landed and all did so below the height of initial approach. Only 20% landed immediately; the remainder flew past the panel first, then returned. The majority of flies (85.5%) approached panels at 30.4-53.2 cm above ground level.
Allan, S. A. and J. G. Stoffolano, Jr. (1986). "The effects of hue and intensity on visual attraction of adult Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Journal of Medical Entomology 23: 83-91.
The visual attraction of adults of Tabanus nigrovittatus to various hues and intensities was studied in a Spartina salt marsh in Massachusetts, using 2-dimensional sticky panels. Collections consisted mainly (98%) of host-seeking parous females; the remainder were nulliparous females and males. Parous females were strongly attracted to blue and moderately attracted to black and red, all of which have reflectance in the range 400-800 nm. Yellow, yellow-green and white were consistently unattractive. Attraction to white panels, with and without ultraviolet (UV) reflection, and aluminium foil varied inversely with the amount of UV reflected. Increasing or decreasing intensity of hues increased the attraction of flies; this was the result of increased contrast with the background.
Allan, S. A. and J. G. Stoffolano, Jr. (1986). "The importance of pattern in visual attraction of Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 2273-2278.
Host-seeking females of Tabanus nigrovittatus primarily use visual cues to locate hosts and host mimics. The importance of various attributes of patterns was examined in the field in Massachusetts using black and white 2-dimensional panels. Panels with a square, circle or star of equal size were equally attractive, as were panels with stars with increasingly complex edges. In a series of panels with black circles of increasing size, attraction increased as the size of the circles increased. High contour density was not important in a series of panels with increasing size and decreasing number of patterns (squares or circles), and large patterns with simple edges were most attractive. Both light objects against a dark background and dark objects against a light background were highly attractive. The response of flies to objects with stripes indicated that stripes reduced attraction, possibly as a result of shape distortion. These results indicate that solid compact large objects with high contrast against the background were the most attractive, and that fine pattern detail was not important.
Allan, S. A., J. G. Stoffolano, Jr., et al. (1991). "Spectral sensitivity of the horse fly Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 369-374.
Spectral sensitivity functions were calculated from electroretinograms recorded from dark-adapted compound eyes of male and female horse flies (Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart). Females had a borad sensitivity in the violet to green area of the spectrum; their spectral sensitivity was fitted by a theoretical mixture containing 20% of 440-nm and 80% 520-nm rhodopsins. Older females (8-18 days) were 93 times more sensitive than 1-day-old females. Males showed a narrower sensitivity function with more blue and less green sensitivity. Older males (8-18 days) were the most blue-sensitive of all groups; their spectral sensitivity was best fitted by a mixture containing 10% 440-nm, 70% 480-nm, and 20% 520-nm rhodopsins. Older males that were light-adapted to red light showed an apparent decline in the contribution of the 520-nm rhodopsin to overall sensitivity, as expected if this pigment is present in a separate system. The sensitivity function of 1-day-old males was best fitted by a mixture of 55% 480-nm and 45% 520-nm rhodopsins. The absolute sensitivity of both groups of males was close to that of the older females. All flies had substantial ultraviolet sensitivity, averaging 67% of the sensitivity at the longer wavelength maximum. The role of the differing sensitivities in males and females, and in young and old females, is discussed in relation to the visual behavior and sexual dimorphism of horse flies.
Allen, W. A. (1974). "Distribution records of several Virginia Tabanids. (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Cooperative Economic Insect Report 24(24): 441-442.
Eighteen species of Tabanids, including one new to the state, are recorded from Virginia, and their distribution by county is noted.
Allen, W. A. and L. L. Pechuman (1975). "New distribution records of thirty-eight species of Virginia Tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Cooperative Economic Insect Report 25(15): 305-309.
Allen, W. A. and L. L. Pechuman (1976). "New geographical and seasonal distribution records for fifty-three species and subspecies of Virginia tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Cooperative Plant Pest Report 1(44-47): 853-858.
Allen, W. A. and L. L. Pechuman (1977). "New geographical and seasonal distribution records for forty-four species and subspecies of tabanids from Virginia, Tennessee, and West Virginia." Cooperative Plant Pest Report 2(48-52): 887-891.
Records are listed of 44 species and subspecies of tabanids from Virginia, Tennessee and West Virginia, with 1 new Virginia State record Chrysops carbonarius Wlk. ater Macq.)) and 51 new Virginia County records; the status of the Tennessee and West Virginia records is not given. The data include seasonal distribution in countries previously known to be infested. Males of Hamatabanus carolinensis (Macq.), Tabanus lineola F., T. quinquevittatus Wied. and T. subsimilis subsimilis Bellardi are reported. Attention is drawn to unusually marked examples of 4 species of Tabanus and to 5 species of which examples were caught in ultraviolet light-traps.
Al-Talafha, H., Z. S. Amr, et al. (2004). "Horseflies of Jordan." Medical and Veterinary Entomology 18(2): 208-211.
Abstract. The horsefly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Jordan consists of 21 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds 17 new records to this little-known group of haematophagous insects. Most of the new records were collected from several localities within the Jordan Valley. These new records are Chrysops flavipes Meigen, Atylotus farinosus (Szilady), Dasyrhamphis umbrinus (Meigen), Haematopota coronata Austen, Hybomitra decora (Loew), Hybomitra mendica (Villeneuve), Tabanus accensus Austen, T. albifacies Loew, T. bifarius Loew, T. darimonti Leclercq, T. laetetinctus Becker, T. leleani Austen, T. pallidipes Austen, T. regularis Jaennicke, T. rupinae Austen, T. sufis Jaennicke and Therioplectes tunicatus (Szilady). Tabanus albifacies and T. sufis were the most common species collected by hand nets (19.85% and 17.73%, respectively) and D.umbrinus, Haematopota minuscula Austen, and Haematopota coronata were the least common species (0.12% for each). Zoogeographical analysis of the recorded species showed that 12 species are of Mediterranean origin, four are of Afrotropical origin, two of European origin and at least three species can be considered as endemic to the Middle East.
Alverson, D. R. and R. Noblet (1977). "Activity of female Tabanidae (Diptera) in relation to selected meteorological factors in South Carolina." Journal of Medical Entomology 14(2): 197-200.
Hourly measurements of meteorological parameters and tabanid activity were made in South Carolina during daylight periods from 10 June to 28 September 1975. Analysis of the collection data indicated that the activity of tabanids attracted to traps baited with carbon dioxide was affected by barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, time of day, and cloud cover. A prediction equation involving the most significant variables was developed. A discernible difference in trap catches was noted for different cloud types. Wind and light intensity had no effect on tabanid activity.
Amin, O. M. and A. G. Hageman (1974). "Mosquitoes and Tabanids in southeast Wisconsin." Mosquito News 34(2): 170-177.
CDC traps and traps baited with carbon dioxide were operated for 48 h at fortnightly intervals from April to October 1972 at three sites in Kenosha County, south-eastern Wisconsin. Biting female mosquitos were collected during the evening at two of the sites. Fourteen species of mosquitos were represented in the catches, including 9 not previously recorded from the county, and 10 species of Tabanids, including 7 not previously recorded. The mosquito species recorded for the first time were Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Aedes cinereus Mg., A. communis (Deg.), A. dorsalis (Mg.), A. flavescens (Mull.), A. stimulans (Wlk.), A. triseriatus (Say), A. trivittatus (Coq.) and Culiseta inornata (Will.). A. vexans (Mg.) was the most numerous species, followed by A. trivittatus. Seasonal changes in mosquito abundance as revealed by the trapping and biting catches are described and discussed in relation to temperature and rainfall, and notes are given on the diurnal activity and habitat preferences of some of the species.
Amoudi, M. A. (1989). "New records of Tabanidae (Diptera) from southwest Saudi Arabia with some aspects on their descriptions and biological information." Journal of Biological Science Research 20(1): 115-127.
Ancala latipes, Atylotus agrestis, Haematopota abyssinica, Tabanus taeniola and T. biguttatus were collected from southwestern Saudi Arabia (Tihama-Asir region). The first 4 species are new records for the country. Information is provided on the distribution and biology of each species.
Amoudi, M. A. and M. Leclercq (1988). "Tabanus riyadhae (Diptera: Tabanidae), a new species from Saudi Arabia." Journal of Medical Entomology
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