The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Gutenberg Encyclopedia !!!Remember the information contained herein is old !!! *!!!It reflects the mindset of




НазваниеThe Project Gutenberg Etext of The Gutenberg Encyclopedia !!!Remember the information contained herein is old !!! *!!!It reflects the mindset of
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***The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Gutenberg Encyclopedia*** !!!Remember. . .the information contained herein is OLD. . .!!! *!!!It reflects the mindset of the turn of the last century!!!* **Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **Etexts Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *These Etexts Prepared By Hundreds of Volunteers and Donations* Information on contacting Project Gutenberg to get Etexts, and further information is included below. We need your donations. ***The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Gutenberg Encyclopedia*** Volume 1 Also having been known as the Encyclopedia Anglicana and part 1 of the Interpedia Project. ***Disclaimers follow*** Please take a look at the important information in this header. We encourage you to keep this file on your own disk, keeping an electronic path open for the next readers. Do not remove this. *********IMPORTANT NOTICE! 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Kramer, Attorney Internet (72600.2026@compuserve.com); TEL: (212-254-5093) *END*THE SMALL PRINT! FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN ETEXTS*Ver.04.29.93*END* Volume 1 Also having been known as the Encyclopedia Anglicana and part 1 of the Interpedia Project. ***Disclaimers follow*** Please take a look at the important information in this header. We encourage you to keep this file on your own disk, keeping an electronic path open for the next readers. Do not remove this. *********IMPORTANT NOTICE! PLEASE READ THIS IN DETAIL******** The Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia is a reproduction of a 1911 edition of a famous encyclopedia. The text has not been updated. Although the text is in the public domain in the United States, the original publisher still has a valid trademark in the original title of the encyclopedia. The original publisher offered Project Gutenberg a license to use the trademark, but the terms of the license were not consistent with the volunteer noncommercial nature of Project Gutenberg or its primary goal of distributing electronic text with the fewest possible restrictions. In order to avoid the possibility of trademark infringement, all references to the original title and the original publisher have been changed or deleted. Because of numerous references embodying possible trademarks, the entire preface has been omitted. The original publisher of the 1911 print encyclopedia was not and is not involved in any way with the creation, editing or distribution of the Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia. Any errors which may have occurred in the conversion to electronic form can not be attributed in any way to the original publisher. In order to avoid possible future trademark infringements or confusion in the minds of the public, this electronic version should be referred to as the Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia. The name of the original print encyclopedia should not be used in any way in connection with this electronic text. The Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia Volume 1, of 28 plus Index !!!Remember. . .the information contained herein is OLD. . .!!! *!!!It reflects the mindset of the turn of the last century!!!* {\rtf0\ansi{\fonttbl\f0\fnil Times-Roman;\f3\fmodern Courier;\f2\ftech Symbol;\f4\fswiss Helvetica;\f1\fmodern Ohlfs;} \paperw9840 \paperh8400 \margl120 \margr120 \pard\tx480\tx960\tx1440\tx1920\tx2400\tx2880\tx3360\tx3840\tx4320\tx4800\b\fc0\cf0 A \b0 . This letter of ours corresponds to the first symbol in \ the Phoenician alphabet and in almost all its descendants. In \ Phoenician, \i a \i0 , like the symbols for \i e \i0 and for \i o \i0 , did not \ represent a vowel, but a breathing; the vowels originally were \ not represented by any symbol. When the alphabet was adopted by \ the Greeks it was not very well fitted to represent the sounds \ of their language. The breathings which were not required in \ Greek were accordingly employed to represent some of the vowel \ sounds, other vowels, like \i i \i0 and \i u \i0 , being represented by \ an adaptation of the symbols for the semi-vowels \i y \i0 and \i w. \i0 \ The Phoenician name, which must have corresponded closely to \ the Hebrew \i Aleph \i0 , was taken over by the Greeks in the form \ \i Alpha \i0 ( \f2 alya). \f0 The earliest authority for this, as for the \ names of the other Greek letters, is the grammatical drama \ ( \f2 grammatikh Iewria \f0 ) of Callias, an earlier contemporary of \ Euripides, from whose works four trimeters, containing the names \ of all the Greek letters, are preserved in Athenaeus x. 453 d. \ \ The form of the letter has varied considerably. In the \ earliest of the Phoenician, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions \ (the oldest Phoenician dating about 1000 \fs20 B.C. \fs24 , the oldest \ Aramaic from the 8th, and the oldest Greek from the 8th \ or 7th century \fs20 B.C. \fs24 ) A rests upon its side thus--@. In \ the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles \ the modern capital letter, but many local varieties can be \ distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle \ at which the cross line is set-- @, &c. From the Greeks of \ the west the alphabet was borrowed by the Romans and from them \ has passed to the other nations of western Europe. In the \ earliest Latin inscriptions, such as the inscription found \ in the excavation of the Roman Forum in 1899, or that on a \ golden \i fibula \i0 found at Praeneste in 1886 (see A \fs20 LPHABET \fs24 ). \ Fine letters are still identical in form with those of the \ western Greeks. Latin develops early various forms, which \ are comparatively rare in Greek, as @, or unknown, as \ @.
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