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3.2.1 Institutional arrangements for cooperation in management of the transboundary basins vary significantly in the seven river basins under consideration. They range from well established and reasonably resourced river basin organization, sub-basin organizations, bilateral and multi-lateral inter-state arrangements with limited jurisdiction, and, at one extremity, absence of any cooperative arrangements at all. At one end of the scale is the case of the cooperative arrangement in the Senegal River Basin. The Senegal River Development Organisation (OMVS) was established in 1972 by three of the riparian countries (Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) as a basin-wide organisation with a wide mandate for development and management of water resources in the Senegal River Basin. The Kagera Basin Organisation, established in 1977 between Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania to manage water resources on a sub-basin of the Nile, is the only RBO in the Nile Basin; while the Zambezi River Authority is a bilateral institution established by Zambia and Zimbabwe in 1987 to manage the common water resources on the main stem of the Zambezi River for hydropower production at Kariba Dam. On the other hand, presently there is no cooperative arrangement for the management of water resources in the Congo River Basin.
3.2.2 Table 3.2 summarises the existing cooperative arrangements for water resources management in the seven river basins. Some of the treaties or agreements established institutional arrangements to carry out the mandates stipulated in the treaty. This is the case with respect to the establishment of the river basin organisations for the Senegal, Niger, Lake Chad, Kagera, and the shared watercourse between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The treaties on the Nile (between Egypt and Sudan) and on the Okavango (between Angola, Botswana and Namibia) did not establish any organisational structures.
3.2.3 Though the Zambezi Basin does not have a basin-wide organisation for water resources management, there exists a relatively comprehensive umbrella legal and policy framework for IWRM in the SADC region. The SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourses, originally signed in 1995 and revised in 1998, has an overall objective of fostering “closer cooperation for judicious, sustainable and coordinated management, protection and utilisation of shared watercourses……..”. Specific provisions of the protocol elaborate procedures for dealing with infrastructural developments, environmental protection and preservation, management of shared watercourses, prevention and mitigation of harmful conditions, emergency situations, institutional arrangements, and settlement of disputes in shared watercourses in the region. Furthermore, SADC is presently engaged in elaborating a regional water policy and strategy; this is targeted for approval by mid 2004. Therefore there exists a strong foundation for establishing cooperative arrangements for specific river basins in SADC region. Negotiations for the establishment of the basin-wide organisation for water resources development and management of the Zambezi Basin, the Zambezi River Basin Commission (ZAMCOM) were due to be concluded in the first quarter of 2004.
3.2.4 The Nile basin presently lacks a basin-wide legal and institutional framework for development and management of water resources of the basin. The 1959 agreement between Egypt and Sudan is a water sharing agreement between the two countries and does not encompass the rest of the 8 other riparian states. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a transitional institutional arrangement established in 1999 with support from a number of cooperating partners, chief among whom being the World Bank, to assist the Nile basin states establish a cooperative framework for joint water resources management in the Nile Basin. NBI has facilitated the establishment of the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework Negotiating Committee, launched in December 2003, and composed of nine riparian countries (Eritrea has opted to be an observer at this stage) to negotiate a cooperative framework for water resources management in the basin.
3.2.5 Throughout Africa there are number of sub-regional or inter-governmental bodies purposely established under the auspices of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), now AU, to promote economic cooperation and regional integration. Generally called Regional Economic Communities (RECs), because they are constituted by a community of nations in a particular region, their main objectives involve, to one degree or the other, the following:
3.2.6 Table 3.3 presents the list of existing RECs and their respective jurisdictional areas. Information is also shown regarding existence, or otherwise, of dedicated organisational unit or agency responsible for water resources management in each organisation. This is important information with respect to NEPAD since RECs are expected to be the vehicle for implementation of the NEPAD infrastructure programme including the component on transboundary water resources. In addition, it is important to point out that jurisdictional areas of RECs are the political boundaries of the countries constituting the REC and not necessarily the river basin boundaries. Consequently, several river basins come under the jurisdiction of at least two RECs (through the countries falling under the basin). This is the case for the Congo Basin which comes under SADC in Southern Africa, COMESA in Eastern and Southern Africa, as well as ECCAS in Central Africa. The Nile Basin spans countries belonging to SADC, EAC, COMESA and ECCAS; and there are similar examples in West Africa. Table 3.3 reveals overlapping mandates in virtually all river basins. This situation has a bearing on institutional responsibility for implementation of interventions in transboundary basins. Inter-REC coordination and collaboration would be critical to the effective implementation of the NEPAD infrastructure activities in the transboundary basins. It is also revealed that, except in SADC, there is no focal point for water resources development in any of the RECs.
Table 3.1 Main Characteristics of the Selected River Basins
Table3.1 Main Characteristics of the Selected River Basins (continued)
References: (1) UNEP, Atlas of International Freshwater Agreement, 2002 (2) African Development Bank, 2001
Table 3.2 Cooperative Arrangements for Water Resources Management
Table 3.3 Regional Economic Communities in the Selected Basins
|Short Term Programmes||Plan of studies for the 3rd term|
|Plan of studies for the 1st term||Guardian (UK); Governments must stop short-term outlook, warns un development head|
|Draft National Feral Camel Action Plan Executive summary||Part of Term codes: 1 = Full semester; B1 Block 1; B2 Block 2; int = Intersession; irr = Intrasession Short|
|1ac – Plan Text Plan: The United States federal government should modernize its system of locks and dams. 1ac – Inherency||Long-term goals|
|Long-term goals||Sources: un-term/un-interpreters|