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2.3.1 The review of implementation progress carried out in May 2003 identified that relatively little progress has been made in the Water and Sanitation Infrastructure except for those water projects involving SADC. In order to accelerate implementation, The STAP Review looked at mechanism of prioritizing a limited number of key programmes and projects and designated as “NEPAD Flagship Projects” to be given special attention and high visibility. The Programme related to Nile Basin Initiative was included in this list of priority projects.
2.3.2 Furthermore, the review pointed out that one of the constraints or shortcomings in the effective implementation of the STAP was inadequate knowledge and cooperation on shared water resource issues, and recommended that: “NEPAD together with ADB should send missions to selected river and lake basin organizations to carry out discussions and consultations and identify activities that can be included in NEPAD STAP”. ADB should seek the cooperation of other development institutions, such as the World Bank and DBSA in this endeavor”. This recommendation was accepted by NEPAD and the elaboration of framework for implementation was initiated.
2.3.3 Selection of River Basins: At a consultation meeting in June 2003 between the ADB and development partners including the World Bank, it was agreed to provide support to the implementation of STAP, and that NEPAD’s involvement in transboundary water resources management would initially focus on the following river basins: Niger and Senegal in Western Africa, Nile Basin Initiative in Eastern Africa, Congo and Lake Chad in Central Africa and Zambezi and Okavango in Southern Africa. These basins form a fair geographic coverage of Africa and pose major challenges in the management and development of transboundary water resources.
2.4.1 Most of Africa’s fresh water resources are found in shared basins: About 60 of the world’s 200 major international rivers and lakes are found in Africa. These basins containing about 80% of the exploitable fresh water are the sources for water supply for the basins’ human and animal population, maintain ecological balance and support the economy through irrigation, energy, fishery, navigation and tourism. Extreme climatic conditions in the form of droughts and floods result in disasters and negatively impact the economy. Most of the basin flows are not regulated and their development and management is made difficult as they cross borders. Cooperation in transboundary water resources development and management is primarily a political process, therefore NEPAD can make a difference through political dialogue in strengthening or initiating coordinated joint management and development of shared basins with elements of cost and benefit sharing.
2.4.2 African countries would need to improve their water security: Many countries in Africa would face severe water shortages in the near future as their demand for water increases. Table 2.1 shows the condition of water security for selected countries in Africa for the years 1995, 2025 and 2050 based on low population growth rates. Taking water availability of 1,000 to 1,700 cu. m/capita/year as a condition of water stress, and less than 1,000 cu. m/capita/year as water scarcity, some countries (Kenya, South Africa) were water stressed in 1995, while Algeria faced water scarcity. In the year 2025, Kenya and South Africa would experience water scarcity, while Zimbabwe and Nigeria would face water stress, and moving to water scarcity levels in 2050.
2.4.3 The degree of water scarcity demonstrates the need and strategic timing for countries to invest in water infrastructure. In addition to introducing other measures (such as demand management), cooperation of basin countries would provide them with better options to share costs and benefits in developing infrastructure for attaining water security. NEPAD can be instrumental to influence ministries responsible for economic planning to give priority to water in their national planning and budgeting.
Table 2.1: Water Security for Some African Countries
* Based on low population growth rate Source: Gardner-Outlaw & Engelma
2.4.4 Cooperative management of shared water resources is the key to water security and regional integration: Cooperative management of river/lake basins provides the best opportunity for exploiting the immense resources, enhancing access to water and provide water security. Cooperative development and management of transboundary water resources provides opportunities for conflict resolution thereby contributing to peace and security in the area as well as furthering the opportunity for regional integration. As the institutionalization of cooperative arrangements in many cases is a long process requiring the political will of the highest government bodies, NEPAD is well placed to promote this endeavor in line with its program of promoting regional integration.
2.4.5 Main features and considerations of TWR cooperation: The major features in the development and management of TWR include:
|Short Term Programmes||Plan of studies for the 3rd term|
|Plan of studies for the 1st term||Guardian (UK); Governments must stop short-term outlook, warns un development head|
|Draft National Feral Camel Action Plan Executive summary||Part of Term codes: 1 = Full semester; B1 Block 1; B2 Block 2; int = Intersession; irr = Intrasession Short|
|1ac – Plan Text Plan: The United States federal government should modernize its system of locks and dams. 1ac – Inherency||Long-term goals|
|Long-term goals||Sources: un-term/un-interpreters|