Nepad short-term action plan (stap)




НазваниеNepad short-term action plan (stap)
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2.3 Review of STAP Implementation Progress



2.3.1 The review of implementation progress carried out in May 2003 identified that relatively little progress has been made in the Water and Sanitation Infrastructure except for those water projects involving SADC. In order to accelerate implementation, The STAP Review looked at mechanism of prioritizing a limited number of key programmes and projects and designated as “NEPAD Flagship Projects” to be given special attention and high visibility. The Programme related to Nile Basin Initiative was included in this list of priority projects.


2.3.2 Furthermore, the review pointed out that one of the constraints or shortcomings in the effective implementation of the STAP was inadequate knowledge and cooperation on shared water resource issues, and recommended that: “NEPAD together with ADB should send missions to selected river and lake basin organizations to carry out discussions and consultations and identify activities that can be included in NEPAD STAP”. ADB should seek the cooperation of other development institutions, such as the World Bank and DBSA in this endeavor”. This recommendation was accepted by NEPAD and the elaboration of framework for implementation was initiated.


2.3.3 Selection of River Basins: At a consultation meeting in June 2003 between the ADB and development partners including the World Bank, it was agreed to provide support to the implementation of STAP, and that NEPAD’s involvement in transboundary water resources management would initially focus on the following river basins: Niger and Senegal in Western Africa, Nile Basin Initiative in Eastern Africa, Congo and Lake Chad in Central Africa and Zambezi and Okavango in Southern Africa. These basins form a fair geographic coverage of Africa and pose major challenges in the management and development of transboundary water resources.

2.4 Context of NEPAD’s Focus in Transboundary Water Resources



2.4.1 Most of Africa’s fresh water resources are found in shared basins: About 60 of the world’s 200 major international rivers and lakes are found in Africa. These basins containing about 80% of the exploitable fresh water are the sources for water supply for the basins’ human and animal population, maintain ecological balance and support the economy through irrigation, energy, fishery, navigation and tourism. Extreme climatic conditions in the form of droughts and floods result in disasters and negatively impact the economy. Most of the basin flows are not regulated and their development and management is made difficult as they cross borders. Cooperation in transboundary water resources development and management is primarily a political process, therefore NEPAD can make a difference through political dialogue in strengthening or initiating coordinated joint management and development of shared basins with elements of cost and benefit sharing.


2.4.2 African countries would need to improve their water security: Many countries in Africa would face severe water shortages in the near future as their demand for water increases. Table 2.1 shows the condition of water security for selected countries in Africa for the years 1995, 2025 and 2050 based on low population growth rates. Taking water availability of 1,000 to 1,700 cu. m/capita/year as a condition of water stress, and less than 1,000 cu. m/capita/year as water scarcity, some countries (Kenya, South Africa) were water stressed in 1995, while Algeria faced water scarcity. In the year 2025, Kenya and South Africa would experience water scarcity, while Zimbabwe and Nigeria would face water stress, and moving to water scarcity levels in 2050.


2.4.3 The degree of water scarcity demonstrates the need and strategic timing for countries to invest in water infrastructure. In addition to introducing other measures (such as demand management), cooperation of basin countries would provide them with better options to share costs and benefits in developing infrastructure for attaining water security. NEPAD can be instrumental to influence ministries responsible for economic planning to give priority to water in their national planning and budgeting.

Table 2.1: Water Security for Some African Countries


Country

1995

2025

2050




Population*

(million)

Per capita water availability cu. m/year

Population*

(million)

Per capita water availability cu. m/year

Population*

(million)

Per capita water availability cu. m/year

Kenya

27.2

1112

50.2

602

66.05

457

Zimbabwe

11.2

1787

18.1

1102

23.9

803

South Africa

41.5

1206

71.6

698

77.1

649

Nigeria

111.7

2506

222.4

1259

278.7

1005

Algeria

28.1

527

47.3

313

47.8

309

* Based on low population growth rate Source: Gardner-Outlaw & Engelma


Water stress:

1,000 to 1,700cu.m /capita/year




Water scarcity:

less than 1,000 cu. m/capita/year





2.4.4 Cooperative management of shared water resources is the key to water security and regional integration: Cooperative management of river/lake basins provides the best opportunity for exploiting the immense resources, enhancing access to water and provide water security. Cooperative development and management of transboundary water resources provides opportunities for conflict resolution thereby contributing to peace and security in the area as well as furthering the opportunity for regional integration. As the institutionalization of cooperative arrangements in many cases is a long process requiring the political will of the highest government bodies, NEPAD is well placed to promote this endeavor in line with its program of promoting regional integration.


2.4.5 Main features and considerations of TWR cooperation: The major features in the development and management of TWR include:


  • opportunities for sharing win-win benefits for all riparians;

  • balancing water uses in the basin through transparent and participative ways so that water becomes a means of cooperation rather than reason for conflict;

  • cooperation unleashes the large opportunities to spur economic development through investment in Africa’s water resources;

  • recognizing that fresh water eco-system play a central role for conservation and flood protection;

  • develop and use IWRM principles in the management of shared water resources;

  • recognizing that 80% of Africa’s fresh water resource is transboundary , cooperation is thus essential but entails a long process; and

  • planning for achieving water security (such as storages) for economies vulnerable to climate extremities require early planning.




      1. Effective management of TWR in line with IWRM requires:

  • National policies and legislation that take into account IWRM and the river/lake basin as a basis for planning and management;

  • Strengthening or creation of new national and international basin organizations through networking, data base, human resources, institutional reform and investment strategies;

  • Ratifying/adapting international conventions and treaties for the management of TWR;

  • Coherent and compatible data collection process and exchange;

  • Elaboration/completion of national water (master) plans (to enable informed views/decisions);

  • Shared vision by all the riparians, preparation of harmonized basin plans, and creation of sound financing system.



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