7. PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT
7.1 Major Stakeholders
7.1.1 The main institutions or institutional arrangements with key roles and responsibilities for the implementation of NEPAD water infrastructure programmes in Africa include the following:
The African Union (AU) and its Commission based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
NEPAD Secretariat, based at the Development Bank of Southern Africa in Midrand, South Africa;
The African Development Bank Group, which has established a NEPAD Unit at the temporary relocation office in Tunis, Tunisia;
AMCOW (African Minister’s Conference on Water) with its secretariat in Abuja, Nigeria;
RECs (Regional Economic Communities);
RBOs (River Basin Organisations); and
National agencies for water and sanitation.
7.1.2 In addition to these, there are a number of multilateral agencies (including the World Bank, the African Development Bank Group, the European Union, and regional development banks such as the Development Bank of Southern Africa), and many bilateral agencies, which support investment in water infrastructure in the respective basins. A number of NGOs also play significant roles in financing or implementing water and sanitation projects. At river basin level, the Worldwide Fund for Nature has supported river basin management projects in a number of basins in Africa. There also notable examples of local NGOs such as the Namibian Nature Foundation (NDF) supporting community management and stakeholder participation in the Okavango River Basin.
7.1.3 All the above stakeholders would have roles to play in the implementation of the NEPAD Short-Term Action Plan for Transboundary Water Resources.
7.2 Roles and Responsibilities of Key Stakeholders
7.2.1 The roles and responsibilities of the key stakeholders are described below:
The African Union (AU): NEPAD, whose supreme organ is the Summit of Heads of State and Government, is a programme of the AU, therefore the AU through its Commission would have a role to play; it would set policy, direction, and influence the whole development agenda. Direct responsibility for water programmes in the AU Commission is with the Commissioner for Agriculture and Water.
The NEPAD Secretariat, under the Summit of Heads of State and Government, is the executive arm of the AU for the NEPAD infrastructure programme including water. The secretariat would coordinate the programme, monitor implementation, and carry out the following core functions of NEPAD:
mobilizing political will and actions to implement policy and institutional reforms in all sectors, including the harmonisation of regulatory systems;
facilitating resource mobilisation through policy coordination among external partners and helping to create an enabling environment for investment in infrastructure;
fostering partnerships for infrastructure development financing involving the private sector, infrastructure agencies and regional economic communities (RECs);
developing a strategic framework to coordinate and monitor programmes for regional infrastructure; and
facilitating knowledge sharing, networking and dissemination of best practices among countries, RECs and technical agencies.
NEPAD Unit in the African Development Bank would provide technical support to the NEPAD Secretariat in the design, implementation and monitoring of the infrastructure programmes. The Unit would also liaise with the rest of the African Development Bank operational units in the implementation of those programmes and projects which the Bank would be supporting in its role as a multilateral development institution.
AMCOW has an important role to play in coordinating and facilitating development activities at national level. In the STAP-TWR, AMCOW is very important; it constitutes the political leadership that NEPAD can count on to mobilise political support, in their respective countries, for implementation of transboundary programmes. AMCOW becomes the entry point for initiating and sustaining political dialogue on cooperative development and management in transboundary basins.
Regional Economic Communities (RECs) would have the main responsibility of facilitation and monitoring implementation of TWR in their respective regions, and ensuring linkages of water resources management with other sectors such as agriculture, energy and environment. The roles of the RECs would vary from basin to basin depending on the existing institutional arrangements. RECs with existing organizational units for coordinating water resources management, as is the case with SADC, would play a direct role in implementing the planned activities in the respective basin. In the regions where RECs do not have organizational units responsible for water resources management, implementation responsibility will rest largely on RBOs.
River Basin Organisations (RBOs) are the main agencies for cooperative development and management of water resources in the respective river basins. RBOs would be responsible for planning, implementation, and monitoring basin-wide activities in water resources development and management.
National Agencies for water and sanitation: Joint development and management of water resources in transboundary basins invariably involves activities at national level. For example, collection of data, location of regional infrastructure. Therefore the involvement of national agencies responsible for water resources is vital. The RBOs and/or RECs would ensure the appropriate involvement of national agencies in the planned activities
Communities and NGOs: Water resources management that affects peoples’ lives, and impacts on their welfare (alleviating poverty) would invariably include community level activities. Communities may be supported by NGOs with respect to capacity building, awareness raising, and community management. Therefore the communities have an important role to play in the hierarchy of management of water resources in transboundary basins.
Donors: multilateral and bilateral agencies would support the NEPAD activities through provision of financial and technical resources at all institutional levels and all stages of the development process (or project cycle), from project preparation, through appraisal to project execution and monitoring and evaluation.
7.2.2 The role of NEPAD as a facilitator/process manager needs emphasis. NEPAD would lend support to regional and basin authorities to implement projects they have identified themselves according to their priorities. NEPAD would facilitate mobilisation of financial resources and political will to ensure expeditious implementation of programmes and projects; but would give guidance so that the planned interventions are moving Africa towards the important goal of socio-economic development and poverty alleviation.
7.2.3 The institutional roles and responsibilities for implementing the NEPAD Short-Term Action Plan in Transboundary Water Resources should take the structure indicated in Figure 7.1. Cooperating partners would continue to play a key role at all levels – supporting the NEPAD Secretariat, AMCOW, the RECs and RBOs and national levels and community activities. Support would include project preparation, studies, detailed design and project implementation, as well as financial support for programme coordination, monitoring and evaluation.