Recent Developments in the Mainstreaming of Blind Students into Lower Secondary Class Music

НазваниеRecent Developments in the Mainstreaming of Blind Students into Lower Secondary Class Music
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Adams, Zilla E. (1995). Recent Developments in the Mainstreaming of Blind Students into Lower Secondary Class Music. Completed MMusEd thesis, University of Western Australia, Western Australia (pp).

Summary: The purpose of this study is to investigate recent developments in the mainstreaming of blind students into lower secondary music classes and to determine to what degree the music curriculum has to be modified to meet the needs of integrated blind students. The study investigates: the significance of the role of the home environment and external support networks concerning blind students undertaking school music programs and the impact of informal learning experiences on the musical learning process of blind students; the general attitudes of both blind and sighted staff and students associated with the integration of blind students into lower secondary mainstreamed classrooms; the effectiveness of integrated music programs within the school environment and the modification of these programs and resources to meet the needs of blind students; the impact of private music teaching systems on blind students undertaking music within the school environment; and the current direction of integration in Australia and the possible influence of European trends. An analysis of the Western Australian Unit Curriculum Class Music and Instrumental and Ensemble components 7611 and 7621 was undertaken to determine the appropriateness of the syllabus in music instruction for blind students. Information regarding blind students attending lower secondary mainstreamed classrooms was collected from a selection of sample schools in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne, but the main focus of the research was a case study currently enrolled in a school in Perth which offered class music units. The research showed that the highly developed listening, perception and aural skills acquired by the majority of blind students in the music learning environment questioned the focus of visually based music literacy programs undertaken by secondary school music students in Australia. It also revealed that the majority of blind students encountered in the study found that mainstreamed music learning was less satisfying that their musical experiences with other blind students, indicating that the current European trend towards more segregated learning may be appropriate for blind students in Australia. Also the validity of Braille music literacy could be challenged by the use of current technology such as voice activated screen reading computers.

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Alexander, Adrienne. (1997). A Study of Current Practice in Flute Pedagogy for Beginner Students in NSW. Completed MMus(MusicEd) thesis, University of Sydney, New South Wales (pp).

Summary: In order to ascertain trends in current teaching practice of flute teachers throughout New South Wales, a questionnaire was designed to discover methods used by flute teachers to teach tone production, finger facility, and articulation to students in the first three years of instrumental tuition.

This study has also attempted to determine the activities and materials flute teachers prefer, when teaching beginner students. Finally, it has sought to discover if there is a teaching tradition concerning these practices amongst flute teachers in New South Wales. Much of the research in this study is based on ideas presented by Robert Schenck (1989), who suggests that instrumental teachers should try to encourage a well rounded musician by teaching many facets of music, rather than only teaching flute technique. In this study, twenty five flute teachers responded to the questionnaire revealing various trends and specific approaches to the teaching of flute in New South Wales. The trends which are evident in the results show that there are several preferred exercises and techniques of teachers to develop the areas of tone development, finger facility, and articulation, teachers emphasise technical skill more so than general musicianship, and there is also evidence to suggest that some teaching tradition exists between flute teachers in New South Wales.

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Allison, Dianne J. (1985). Music, Non-Verbal Communication and the Visually-Impaired Child. Completed MMus(Prelim) minor thesis, University of Melbourne, Victoria (42 pp).

Summary: The present thesis argues that, since auditory skills play a major role in the visually-impaired child's perception and integration of the world, music—being primarily an aural experience—can be used to teach non-verbal skills. These skills should therefore be taught at the earliest possible age with the assistance of the use of music ...

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Amato, N. (1989). The Design and Implementation of a Keyboard Scale Tutoring System. Completed MSc thesis, University of Western Australia, Western Australia (pp).

Summary: This thesis examines the application of artificial intelligence techniques to the design and development of a tutoring system for keyboard scale performance. The thesis describes the numerous artificial intelligence techniques which were developed and applied to the construction of a tutoring system. These techniques were utilised to represent the domain knowledge, model the student's knowledge, and capture the teaching expertise required to achieve effective scale instruction and assessment. By use of logic programming, the large amount of scale knowledge has been reduced to a set of rules embedded in the system's scale knowledge base. The knowledge representation produced a flexible knowledge base which is employed in numerous ways in the system. Scale performance diagnostic expertise was developed in order that a student model could be constructed. The use of numerous student modelling methods has resulted in a flexible and powerful model of the student's internal cognitive structures. In addition, the control components for each pedagogic state of the tutoring system have enabled adaptive, dynamic instruction to be achieved. The resulting system has scale note, fingering and performance knowledge, scale performance diagnostic expertise, a powerful student model and effective instructional capabilities.

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Anderson, Alan J. (1999). The Value of Itinerant Instrumental Teachers in Regional Communities. Completed MEd thesis, Southern Cross University, New South Wales (pp).

Summary: State and national bodies have identified the provision of music education in Australian schools and community programs as inconsistent, of variable quality, and consequently in need of reform: Country areas have been identified as a priority. A recurring theme in these calls for reform is the contention that limited instrumental tuition in schools creates inequitable outcomes, especially for students who cannot afford private tuition. A number of studies argue that the disintegration of centrally co-ordinated instrumental programs and itinerant music teacher systems in some states has served to create further inequity. Towards producing evidence of the merit in expanding these systems, the present study examined the value of itinerant instrumental teachers in two regional communities.

Semi-structured interviews were held with 24 music teachers from two distinct regions: 1) a region of Queensland where itinerant instrumental teachers play a central role in providing instrumental tuition, particularly in State schools; 2) a region in New South Wales where the Department of Education and Training (NSW) does not employ itinerant instrumental teachers as such. Teachers provided factual information and personal perceptions about music activity, the professionality of music teachers, the provision of instrumental tuition and student outcomes, in relation to their respective regions. Through comparative analysis of the interview data and relevant themes drawn from music education research literature, the study examined the question: Can itinerant instrumental teachers make an appreciable difference to music education in regional communities?

This study found that the effectiveness of itinerant instrumental teachers depends considerably upon the context in which they are employed, and the suitability of their music training and experience. The need for sufficient teaching space and good co-ordination between itinerant instrumental teachers and classroom teachers were identified as determining factors. The study suggests that itinerant instrumental teachers are likely to be most effective when employed within structured instrumental programs which bridge primary and secondary schools. Demand for itinerant instrumental teachers was found to be strong, and primarily related to the fact that individual classroom teachers generally face limitations regarding the styles of music and range of instruments they are equipped to teach effectively, much less find time to teach. Consequently, it was found that, in spite of a lack of formal teacher training, itinerant private instrumental teachers (with sound expertise) can provide classroom teachers with valuable assistance in establishing school bands and orchestras. This was particularly evident in relation to primary schools without music specialists. The Queensland region appeared to be ahead of the New South Wales region in aspects of: music activity; provision of instrumental tuition; the professionality of teachers; and, student outcomes. The clearest contrast between these regions was evident in terms of more consistent and growing instrumental music activity between schools in the Queensland region. This seemed to correspond with the Queensland schools' more extensive use of qualified itinerant instrumental teachers, and classroom music specialists in primary schools. The study concluded that expert itinerant instrumental teachers can make an appreciable difference to music education in regional communities.

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Anderson, F.A. (1997). Musically Gifted Students in the First Year of Secondary School: Identificaiton and Curriculum Differentiation. Completed MEd thesis, Southern Cross University, New South Wales (pp).

Summary: In music, hereditary factors and an enriched early background form the basis of successful achievement. Also necessary are the will to practise, the drive to perform and the ability to analyse. A profound interest and fascination for the language of music sets musically gifted children apart from their peers, and poses problem for the classroom teacher when programming for the wide variety of musical experiences required in the junior secondary mandatory music class. The study investigated how the identification of gifted and talented music students at the beginning of secondary school might inform the provision of a more appropriate approach to program planning for junior high school music. The use of the music evaluation kit (MEK) as a tool for testing skills mastery in music, alongside observed classroom behaviours, was the basis for the identification and selection for a differentiated music curriculum. The entire incoming year 7 group (N = 200) participated in the study, initially through participating in testing using Parts I, II, III and V of the MEK. Students who reached criterion on the MEK were selected to undertake a student-centred enrichment project (SCA 1) with parental consent and with the support of the school’s GATE committee. A second group of students who were observed having superior playing skills and/or interest was given the opportunity to participate in a similar enrichment class (SCA 2). A third class (SCA 3) was formed through a selection of students who achieved comparatively better on the MEK but not on the semester exam (SE). Students’ scores on the MEK, the SE and the end of year test (EYMT) were statistically compared. There were some significant differences on the mean scores of students selected for SCA enrichment projects on the basis of MEK results, and those students not undertaking SCA projects. It was concluded that provision for gifted and talented music students in the junior secondary school, in order to comply with current Department of School Education policies and to follow the recommendations in the gifted and talented research literature, must stem from an awareness of individual differences that leads to differentiated programming.

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Ap, Emily. (1998). Finding the Balance: Enhancing Piano Lessons to be Appropriate Learning Experiences for Young Children. Completed MEarlyChildhood thesis, Macquarie University, New South Wales (127 pp).

Summary: Learning and practising the piano is not usually an intrinsically motivating activity and can be a source of daily stress for many children and their parents. Mastery of a musical instrument will always involve acquisition of skills. However, the didactic methods by which those skills have traditionally been taught to young children frequently do not reflect current knowledge about the way children learn and develop. Current constructivist perspectives advocate child-guided approaches to learning. This study involved the development of a creative activities program for teaching piano repertoire was thus developed based upon a framework of developmentally appropriate practice as stated by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (Washington DC). In the program, children chose to learn a piano piece by Australian composer, Roderick MacFarlane. Enhancement of the chosen repertoire occurred through meeting the composer at a concert where the children performed their selected pieces; through making art responses; through exploring the piano by creating sound effects; and through improvisation and composition.

A qualitative methodology was employed utilising observational data in the form of a teacher journal, analysis of documents, art responses which were triangulated with data from structured interviews and a parent questionnaire. Further triangulation was achieved through the comments of two external analysts.

The results of the research indicated that the majority of the children were able to master piano performance skills through participating in a creative piano program which was both appropriate and enjoyable. Moreover, the findings indicated that parental involvement was possible in piano lessons and highly important in facilitating achievement and motivating interest of the children. An increase in self-efficacy was found, not only for the children, but for the parent and the teacher as they mutually supported each other in the learning process. The findings also suggest that cultural factors particular to Hong Kong Chinese may affect parenting styles and subsequently children’s performance in constructivist, child-guided educational approaches.

Implications for piano pedagogy, instrumental music teachers and parents are included. Recommendations for future research are included as well as specific suggestions for future action research cycles.

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Ap, Emily A.P. Parental socialization in music: a cross cultural perspective. In progress PhD thesis, University of New South Wales, New South Wales (pp).

Summary: This paper provides a theoretical review for a study in progress which focuses on parents' beliefs and their role in the task of socializing children in learning the piano. It can be conceptualized in terms of a parental beliefs model by Jacobs & Eccles (2000) which allows for the examination of the reciprocal nature of the parent-child dyad.

Concurrently, the study seeks to identify some of the cross-cultural influences in East Asian Australian families and European-Australian families which may explain observed differences in children learning to play the piano in Australia.

Issues arising from the study would have implications for instrumental music teachers, parents and researchers concerning the values and beliefs held by parents in the task of learning music.

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Ashley, June V. (1987).
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