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The engineering of hardware and software has become very sophisticated. Design data and mathematical modeling tools abound, backed up by well-established laws of physics.
Human understanding of human behavior is much less developed. The applied discipline of human factors engineering (or human-machine systems), like the discipline of medicine, is mostly based on empirical study, with relatively few equations or substantially “hard” laws. A tendency of design engineers has been to dismiss human factors for this reason, or to begrudgingly accept design reviews by human factors professionals late in the system design cycle. But this has often proven ineffective because at this point the human factors professionals can do little beyond raising problems and are seen as naysayers who are in opposition to the proponents of the almost completed system designs.
Providing design requirements that are directly usable by design engineers is the challenge for human-automation interaction and for human factors engineering in general. Human performance in defined tasks must become representable in the same terms as those used by engineers—in both static and fast-time dynamic simulations that include mathematical models of human operators as well as other system components. Real-time simulations with real humans in the loop can lead the way.
The current ATM culture supports what has been called a “blame game;” all failures, including infractions of safety rules, have causes. Responsibility for these failures must be determined and penalties meted out. This approach to safety is exacerbated by the decades-old standoff between labor and management within ATC operating staff. One result is that infractions are only partially reported; line controllers are loath to call attention to their own or to their colleagues’ shortcomings.
A different, and many believe a more enlightened approach is to have an operating culture acknowledge that errors will happen—one where operating staff are encouraged not only to report but also to suggest ways to ameliorate the factors that allow the errors to occur. The American statistician/industrial engineer W. Edwards Deming contributed greatly to U.S. military production during World War II and lectured extensively in Japan after the war. He taught the Japanese quality-control techniques and about the importance of worker sensitivity to their own work efficiency. He also fostered open communication about errors and problems both horizontally among worker groups and vertically between layers of management. The techniques worked. The Japanese became the global model for industrial production and Deming became a demigod in Japan.
More recently the Institute of Medicine of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (Kohn et al., 2000) published the report To Err Is Human, calling upon the medical community to desist from their well known “blame game” in which medical errors are closely guarded and underreported. Physicians operate in fear of malpractice suits. Safety performance data are not shared among hospitals, and physician training emphasizes personal responsibility but not teamwork or systems improvement thinking (along the lines of Deming). Largely as a result of this report there are new efforts to change the culture. No one is saying it will be easy. The U.S. culture of litigation also needs to be changed. One Harvard medical malpractice attorney told the writer that in her experience when physicians being sued openly admitted their errors, juries were always understanding and the defendants were almost always acquitted.
NGATS may offer an opportunity to bring about a more enlightened safety culture in aviation.
The famous physicist Richard Feynman, in his last book What Do You Care What Other People Think? is quoted by Degani (2004) as describing the inspiration he received from a Buddhist monk who told him “To every man is given the key to the gates of heaven; the same key opens the gates of hell.” We can all agree with Degani when he concludes, “ I believe the same applies when it comes to designing and applying automation.” Automation may be a key to a much improved air transportation system, but it can also precipitate disaster.
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The writer especially acknowledges the contributions of Prof. Kevin Corker of San Jose State University, who served as a valuable consultant throughout this project, and of Dr. Richard John, former director of the Volpe Center, who was instrumental in initiating the project and eliciting the author’s participation as principal investigator.
Several colleagues are also to be acknowledged for their pioneering research on human-automation interaction and human error and their reports on various accident situations. I particularly drew on the work of Prof. James Reason of Manchester University in the UK, Dr. Asaf Degani of NASA Ames Research Center, Prof. Raja Parasuraman of George Mason University, Dr. Steven Casey of Ergonomic Systems Design, Prof. Nancy Leveson of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Prof. Kim Vicente of the University of Toronto.
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