Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV




Скачать 202.63 Kb.
НазваниеTable Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV
страница14/18
Дата14.11.2012
Размер202.63 Kb.
ТипДокументы
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18

6.2Awareness of the Problems



There is a growing literature on human-automation interaction in aviation, both real-world failures such as those described above and laboratory experiments (Wiener and Nagel, 1988; Sheridan (1992, 2002); Wickens et al, 1998; Decker and Hollnagel, 1999; Sarter and Amalberti, 2000; Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006). It is clear that whatever the domain, the hardware and software are becoming more reliable with time and the problems point increasingly to the human interaction. Perrow (1984), for example, asserts that 60 to 80 percent of accidents are attributed to human error. It is not clear that the (probably unstoppable) trend toward further automation will change this.


By itself, automation (artificial sensors, computer logic, and mechanical actuators combined into control loops to perform given tasks) is not a bad thing. One can argue that it makes life better in numerous ways. The root problem lies in thinking that automation simply replaces people, and that since people are the ones who make errors, there will be fewer system failures when people “are removed from the system.” The fact is that people are not removed. Automating simply changes the role of the human user from that of direct, hands-on interaction with the vehicle, process, or device being controlled to that of a supervisor. A supervisor is required to plan the action, teach (program) the computer, monitor the action of the automation, intervene to replan and reprogram either if the automation fails or if it is insufficiently robust, and to learn from experience. (Sheridan, 1992, 2002)


Bainbridge (1987) was among the first to articulate what she called the “ironies of automation.” A first irony is that errors by the automation designers themselves make a significant contribution to human-automation failures. A second irony is that the same designer who seeks to eliminate human beings still relies on the human to perform the tasks the designer does not know how to automate.


In reference to the automation trend, Reason (1990) commented that “If a group of human factor specialists sat down with malign intent of conceiving an activity that was wholly ill-matched to the strengths and weaknesses of human cognition, they might well have come up with something not altogether different from what is currently demanded …”.

6.3Function Allocation



Which functions to allocate to humans and which functions to allocate to machines is an old question. Fitts (1951) published what has come to be called his MABA-MABA list:


Men (sic) are better at: detecting small amounts of visual, auditory or chemical energy; perceiving patterns of light or sound; improvising and using flexible procedures; storing information for long periods of time and recalling appropriate parts; reasoning inductively; and exercising judgment.

Machines are better at: responding quickly to control signals; applying great force smoothly and precisely; storing information briefly or erasing it completely; and reasoning deductively.

It is obvious that during the intervening half century some of Fitts’s assertions no longer ring fully true. Energy detection, pattern recognition, and information storage and retrieval have made considerable progress, though inductive reasoning and judgment remain elusive. Sheridan (2000) lists the following problems of function allocation:



  1. Computers, automation and robotics offer ever greater capability, but at the cost of greater system complexity and designer bewilderment, making the stakes for function allocation ever higher than before.

  2. Proper function allocation differs by process stage (acquisition of information, processing and display of information, control action decision, execution of control).

  3. Automation appears most promising at intermediate complexity, but the bounds of “intermediate” are undefined.

  4. Human-centered design,” while an appealing slogan, is fraught with inconsistencies in definition and generalizability.

  5. “Naturalistic” decision-making and “ecological” design are sometimes incompatible with normative decision theory.

  6. Function allocation IS design, and therefore extends beyond science.

  7. Living with the technological imperative, letting our evolving machines show us what they can do, acceding or resisting as the evidence becomes clear, appears inevitable.

In spite of our best efforts to cope with these and other problems of function allocation, error and dispute over allocation criteria are human nature. Perhaps that is part of the Darwinian reality, the requisite variety, the progenitor of progress. At least we have it in our power to say no to new technology, or do we?
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18

Похожие:

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconTime 2 Beat 122 Entries (12” dogs judged by barbara Bounds; remainder judged by Sandy Moody)

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconTable Substance identity 2 XI Table Constituents 3 XI Table Impurities 3 XI

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconAppendix Bibliography (list of all articles cited and what chapter cited in)

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconTable Substance identity 2 VII Table Constituents 2 VII Table Overview of physico-chemical properties 3 VII

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconRound Table  Table ronde The New Citizenship Guide. A round Table  Le nouveau guide sur la citoyenneté

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconNote for Philip: Each section of the content is preceded by the columned table, copied over from your original document. The main body text for each section is outside of the table

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconTable structure for table `authors`

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconThese publications cited papers and books authored and coauthored by S. A. Ostroumov
Примеры работ, цитирующих публикации с авторством и соавторством д б н. С. А. Остроумова. These publications cited papers and books...
Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconWere medieval muslims really tolerant when judged by modern standards?

Table Judged Reasons for Failure in Events Cited 22 XIV iconWere medieval muslims really tolerant when judged by modern standards?

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
Библиотека


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Библиотека
Главная страница