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ECSS-E-HB-10-12A

17 December 2010




ECSS Secretariat

ESA-ESTEC

Requirements & Standards Division

Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Space engineering

Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook

Foreword

This Handbook is one document of the series of ECSS Documents intended to be used as supporting material for ECSS Standards in space projects and applications. ECSS is a cooperative effort of the European Space Agency, national space agencies and European industry associations for the purpose of developing and maintaining common standards.

This handbook has been prepared by the ECSS-E-HB-10-12 Working Group, reviewed by the ECSS Executive Secretariat and approved by the ECSS Technical Authority.

Disclaimer

ECSS does not provide any warranty whatsoever, whether expressed, implied, or statutory, including, but not limited to, any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or any warranty that the contents of the item are error-free. In no respect shall ECSS incur any liability for any damages, including, but not limited to, direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages arising out of, resulting from, or in any way connected to the use of this document, whether or not based upon warranty, business agreement, tort, or otherwise; whether or not injury was sustained by persons or property or otherwise; and whether or not loss was sustained from, or arose out of, the results of, the item, or any services that may be provided by ECSS.

Published by: ESA Requirements and Standards Division

ESTEC, P.O. Box 299,

2200 AG Noordwijk

The Netherlands

Copyright: 2010© by the European Space Agency for the members of ECSS

Change log

ECSS-E-HB-10-12A

17 December 2010

First issue

Table of contents


1
Scope 13


2
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms 14


2.1. Terms from other documents 14

2.2. Terms specific to the present handbook 14

2.3. Abbreviated terms 14

3
Compendium of radiation effects 15


3.1. Purpose 15

3.2. Effects on electronic and electrical systems 17

3.2.1. Total ionising dose 17

3.2.2. Displacement damage 17

3.2.3. Single event effects 18

3.3. Effects on materials 19

3.4. Payload-specific radiation effects 19

3.5. Biological effects 20

3.6. Spacecraft charging 20

3.7. References 20

4
Margin 22


4.1. Introduction 22

4.1.1. Application of margins 22

4.2. Environment uncertainty 23

4.3. Effects parameters’ uncertainty 24

4.3.1. Overview 24

4.3.2. Shielding 24

4.3.3. Ionising dose calculation 25

4.3.4. Non-ionising dose (NIEL, displacement damage) 25

4.3.5. Single event effects 25

4.3.6. Effects on sensors 25

4.4. Testing-related uncertainties 26

4.4.1. Overview 26

4.4.2. Beam characteristics 26

4.4.3. Radioactive sources 26

4.4.4. Packaging 27

4.4.5. Penetration 27

4.4.6. Representativeness 27

4.5. Procurement processes and device reproducibility 27

4.6. Project management decisions 27

4.7. Relationship with derating 28

4.8. Typical design margins 28

4.9. References 28

5
Radiation shielding 29


5.1. Introduction 29

5.2. Radiation transport processes 29

5.2.1. Overview 29

5.2.2. Electrons 29

5.2.3. Protons and other heavy particles 31

5.2.4. Electromagnetic radiation – bremsstrahlung 34

5.3. Ionising dose enhancement 35

5.4. Material selection 35

5.5. Equipment design practice 36

5.5.1. Overview 36

5.5.2. The importance of layout 36

5.5.3. Add-on shielding 37

5.6. Shielding calculation methods and tools – Decision on using deterministic radiation calculations, detailed Monte Carlo simulations, or sector shielding analysis 38

5.7. Example detailed radiation transport and shielding codes 47

5.8. Uncertainties 47

5.9. References 48

6
Total ionising dose 50


6.1. Introduction 50

6.2. Definition 50

6.3. Technologies sensitive to total ionising dose 50

6.4. Total ionising dose calculation 52

6.5. Uncertainties 52

7
Displacement damage 53


7.1. Introduction 53

7.2. Definition 53

7.3. Physical processes and modelling 53

7.4. Technologies susceptible to displacement damage 57

7.4.1. Overview 57

7.4.2. Bipolar 58

7.4.3. Charge-coupled devices (CCD) 58

7.4.4. Active pixel sensors (APS) 59

7.4.5. Photodiodes 59

7.4.6. Laser diodes 60

7.4.7. Light emitting diode (LED) 60

7.4.8. Optocouplers 60

7.4.9. Solar cells 60

7.4.10. Germanium detectors 61

7.4.11. Glasses and optical components 61

7.5. Radiation damage assessment 61

7.5.1. Equivalent fluence calculation 61

7.5.2. Calculation approach 62

7.5.3. 3-D Monte Carlo analysis 62

7.5.4. Displacement damage testing 62

7.6. NIEL rates for different particles and materials 63

7.7. Uncertainties 70

7.8. References 70

8
Single event effects 72


8.1. Introduction 72

8.2. Modelling 73

8.2.1. Overview 73

8.2.2. Notion of LET (for heavy ions) 73

8.2.3. Concept of cross section 73

8.2.4. Concept of sensitive volume, critical charge and effective LET 74

8.3. Technologies susceptible to single event effects 75

8.4. Test methods 75

8.4.1. Overview 75

8.4.2. Heavy ion beam testing 75

8.4.3. Proton and neutron beam testing 76

8.4.4. Experimental measurement of SEE sensitivity 76

8.4.5. Influence of testing conditions 77

8.5. Hardness assurance 78

8.5.1. Rate prediction 78

8.5.2. Prediction of SEE rates for ions 79

8.5.3. Improvements 81

8.5.4. Method synthesis 82

8.5.5. Prediction of SEE rates of protons and neutrons 82

8.5.6. Method synthesis 83

8.5.7. Calculation toolkit 84

8.5.8. Applicable derating and mitigating techniques 84

8.5.9. Analysis at system level 84

8.6. Destructive SEE 85

8.6.1. Single event latch-up (SEL) and single event snapback (SESB) 85

8.6.2. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) and single event dielectric rupture (SEDR) 86

8.6.3. Single event burnout (SEB) 87

8.7. Non-destructive SEE 88

8.7.1. Single event upset (SEU) 88

8.7.2. Multiple-cell upset (MCU) and single word multiple-bit upset (SMU) 89

8.7.3. Single event functional interrupt (SEFI) 90

8.7.4. Single event hard error (SEHE) 91

8.7.5. Single event transient (SET) and single event disturb (SED) 92

8.8. References 93

9
Radiation-induced sensor backgrounds 98


9.1. Introduction 98

9.2. Background in ultraviolet, optical and infrared imaging sensors 98

9.3. Background in charged particle detectors 102

9.4. Background in X-ray CCDs 102

9.5. Radiation background in gamma-ray instruments 103

9.6. Photomultipliers tubes and microchannel plates 106

9.7. Radiation-induced noise in gravity-wave detectors 107

9.8. Other problems common to detectors 107

9.9. References 108

10
Effects in biological material 110


10.1. Introduction 110

10.2. Quantities used in radiation protection work 110

10.2.1. Overview 110

10.2.2. Protection quantities 111

10.2.3. Operational quantities 113

10.3. Radiation effects in biological systems 115

10.3.1. Overview 115

10.3.2. Source of data 116

10.3.3. Early effects 116

10.3.4. Late effects 116

10.4. Radiation protection limits in space 118

10.4.1. Overview 118

10.4.2. International agreements 119

10.4.3. Other considerations in calculating crew exposure 119

10.4.4. Radiation limits used by the space agencies of the partners of the International Space Station (ISS) 120

10.5. Uncertainties 123

10.5.1. Overview 123

10.5.2. Spacecraft shielding interactions 123

10.5.3. The unique effects of heavy ions 124

10.5.4. Extrapolation from high-dose effects to low-dose effects 124

10.5.5. Variability in composition, space and time 124

10.5.6. Effects of depth-dose distribution 124

10.5.7. Influence of spaceflight environment 125

10.5.8. Uncertainties summary 126

10.6. References 126


Figures

Figure 1: CSDA range of electrons in example low- and high-Z materials as a function of electron energy 30

Figure 1: CSDA range of electrons in example low- and high-Z materials as a function of electron energy 30

Figure 2: Total stopping powers for electrons in example low- and high-Z materials 30

Figure 2: Total stopping powers for electrons in example low- and high-Z materials 30

Figure 3: Intensity of mono-energetic protons in a beam as a function of integral pathlength, 32

Figure 3: Intensity of mono-energetic protons in a beam as a function of integral pathlength, 32

Figure 4: Projected range of protons in example low- and high-Z materials as a function of proton energy. 32

Figure 4: Projected range of protons in example low- and high-Z materials as a function of proton energy. 32

Figure 5: Total stopping powers for protons in example low- and high-Z materials. 33

Figure 5: Total stopping powers for protons in example low- and high-Z materials. 33

Figure 6: Stopping power for electrons from collisions with atomic electrons and bremsstrahlung production, and from bremsstrahlung production alone. 34

Figure 6: Stopping power for electrons from collisions with atomic electrons and bremsstrahlung production, and from bremsstrahlung production alone. 34

Figure 7: NORM and SLANT techniques for sector based analysis. 45

Figure 8: Example showing the NORM technique (ray #1) leading to a longer pathlength than the SLANT technique (ray #2) 46

Figure 9: Variation of the number of displacements with imparted energy from Kinchin and Pease. 55

Figure 10: NIEL rates for protons, electrons and neutrons in silicon. 56

Figure 11: Comparison of proton damage coefficients measured in different optoelectronic devices with the calculated NIEL 57

Figure 12: Five electric effects due to defects in the semiconductor band gap [RDE.4] 58

Figure 12: Five electric effects due to defects in the semiconductor band gap [RDE.4] 58

Figure 13: SEE initial mechanisms by direct ionisation (for heavy ions) and nuclear interactions (for protons and neutrons). 72

Figure 13: SEE initial mechanisms by direct ionisation (for heavy ions) and nuclear interactions (for protons and neutrons). 72

Figure 14: Example of SEE cross section versus LET. 74

Figure 15: Tilt-angle dependence for the SP44100 4Mbits DRAM SEU sensitivity for two azimuth angles. 78

Figure 16: Example differential LET spectrum. 80

Figure 17: Example integral chord length distribution for isotropic particle environment. 80

Figure 18: Accuracy of predictions when compared with in-flight MIR data. 82

Figure 19: Diagram illustrating parasitic bipolar transistors and current flow associated with single event latch-up. 85

Figure 20: Charge deposition and collection processes associated with single event gate rupture in a power MosFET. 87

Figure 21: Charge deposition and collection processes associated with single event burn out. 88

Figure 22: ISOCAM images for quiet conditions (top) and during solar flare event of November 1997. 100

Figure 22: ISOCAM images for quiet conditions (top) and during solar flare event of November 1997. 100

Figure 23: Predicted and measured background spectra observed in OSSE instrument on Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory 419 days
after launch [RDG.10]. 104


Figure 23: Predicted and measured background spectra observed in OSSE instrument on Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory 419 days
after launch [RDG.10]. 104


Figure 24: Effects of radiation on cells. 111

Figure 25: Relationship of quantities for radiological protection. 115

Figure 25: Relationship of quantities for radiological protection. 115


Tables

Table 1: Summary of radiation effects parameters, units and examples. 15

Table 2: Summary of radiation effects and cross-references
to other chapters (part 1 of 2) 16


Table 2: Summary of radiation effects and cross-references
to other chapters (part 2 of 2) 17


Table 3: Description of physics models (part 1 of 4) 40

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 2 of 4) 41

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 3 of 4) 42

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 4 of 4) 43

Table 4: Example radiation transport simulation programs which are applicable to shielding and effects analysis. 46

Table 5: NIEL rates for electrons incident on Si
(from Summers et al based on Si threshold of 21 eV [RDE.11]) 63


Table 6: NIEL rates for protons incident on Si (part 1 of 2). This is a subset of NIEL data from Huhtinen and Aarnio [RDE.12]. 64

Table 6: NIEL rates for protons incident on Si (part 2 of 2). This is a subset of NIEL data from Huhtinen and Aarnio [RDE.12]. 65

Table 7: NIEL rates for neutrons incident on Si (part 1 of 2). This is a subset of NIEL from Griffin et al [RDE.13]. 66

Table 7: NIEL rates for neutrons incident on Si (part 2 of 3). These data are from Konobeyev et al [RDE.14]. 67

Table 7: NIEL rates for neutrons incident on Si (part 3 of 3). This is a subset of NIEL from Huhtinen and Aarnio [RDE.12]. 68

Table 8: NIEL rates for electrons in Si and GaAs (Akkerman et al [RDE.15]) 69

Table 9: NIEL rates for protons in Si 69

Table 10: NIEL rates for protons in GaAs. 70

Table 11: Typical materials for UV, visible and IR sensors, with band-gap and electron-hole production energies (e-h production energy for MCT is based on Klein semi-empirical formula. 99

Table 12: Lifetime mortality in a population of all ages from specific cancer after exposure to low doses. 117

Table 13: Estimates of the thresholds for deterministic effects in the adult human testes, ovaries, lens and bone marrow. 118

Table 14: CSA career ionising radiation exposure limits. 120

Table 15: ESA ionising radiation exposure limits. 120

Table 16: NCRP-132 recommended RBEs. 121

Table 17: NCRP-132 Deterministic dose limits for all ages and genders (Gy-Eq.). 121

Table 18: NCRP-132 career ionising radiation exposure limits. 121

Table 19: NCRP-132 career effective dose limits for age and gender specific ionising radiation exposure for
10-year careers. 121


Table 20: JAXA short-term ionising exposure limits 122

Table 21: JAXA career ionising radiation
exposure limits (Sv). 122


Table 22: JAXA current career exposure limits by age and gender 122

Table 23: RSA short-term ionising exposure limits. 123

Table 24: Russian career ionising radiation
exposure limits 123





  1. Scope


This handbook is a part of the System Engineering branch and covers the methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins. Both natural and man-made sources of radiation (e.g. radioisotope thermoelectric generators, or RTGs) are considered in the handbook.

This handbook can be applied to the evaluation of radiation effects on all space systems.

This handbook can be applied to all product types which exist or operate in space, as well as to crews of on manned space missions.

This handbook complements to ECSS-E-ST-10-12C “Methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects and a policy for the design margin”.


  1. Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms


    1. Terms from other documents

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 and ECSS-E-ST-10-12C apply.

    1. Terms specific to the present handbook

None.

    1. Abbreviated terms

The abbreviated specified in ECSS-E-ST-10-12C apply to this handbook.


  1. Compendium of radiation effects


    1. Purpose

This clause provides a brief summary of the various mechanisms for radiation damage and effects, and is summarised in the context in Table 1, which identifies important parameters to quantify effects, and gives units and examples. Table 2 can be used by the reader to cross-reference component/instrument technology to radiation effects discussed in detail elsewhere in this document.

Table 1: Summary of radiation effects parameters, units and examples.

Effect

Parameter

Typical units

Examples

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   24

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