Draft: August 2July xxanuary x19, 20065 abstract [For presentation at the Advisory Group on apec financial System Capacity Building meeting at Seattle, February 28, 2007.]




НазваниеDraft: August 2July xxanuary x19, 20065 abstract [For presentation at the Advisory Group on apec financial System Capacity Building meeting at Seattle, February 28, 2007.]
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DATA REQUIREMENTS TO SUPPORT EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AMELIORATING THE IMPACT OF ADVERSE VOLATILE CAPITAL FLOWSIMPROVING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS


Volatile Capital Flows: Assessment of the Current Policy Environment


Principal Investigator:

J. Kimball Dietrich**,

University of Southern California

Collaborators:

Carlos Budnevich, Universidad Finis Terrae

Kevin Cohlglazier, CMG First State Investments

Ching Ma, University of Southern California

Igor Cialenko, University of Southern California

Draft: August 2July xxanuary x19, 20065




ABSTRACT

[For presentation at the Advisory Group on APEC Financial System Capacity Building meeting at Seattle, February 28, 2007.]



Efficient markets rely on timely and high quality data and other information to provide the price discovery and liquidity functions relied upon by market participants. International capital market data from official disclosures are examined and evaluated against the standards of timeliness, completeness, and adequacy in meeting market users’ needs to anticipate problems and develop early-warning systems. Among the many efforts since the 1990’s crises to improve capital flow data, the balance sheet approach offers the most promise. Hedge fund data from regulatory filings and private data sources are reviewed next, with the amount of proprietary hedge fund statistics on their activity presenting the best prospects for an analysis of their investment strategies that might threaten market stability. The availability of data on derivatives is described and evaluated. Thise final section of the paper summarizes contains a number of recommendations concerning the publication and use of data to increase the ability of regulators and policy-makers to anticipate and deal with possible problems to the smooth functioning of international capital markets that resulted from a thorough analysis reported to the Financial Working Group of ABAC at their meeting in Cebu, the Philippines, on August 2, 2006, in the paper “Data Requirements To Support Early Warning Systems Ameliorating The Impact Of Adverse Volatile Capital Flows” prepared by the author as principal investigator.


.


*Marshall School of Business

University of Southern California

Los Angeles, California 90089-1437

213-740-6530

kdietrich@marshall.usc.edu

This paper reviews the international economic and financial situation currently and compares it to the 1990’s and concludes that conditions are very different: it is unlikely that a crisis similar to those of the earlier period will occur now. Capital controls in the 1990s are examined in detail and two examples of the most highly regarded implementation of them – Chile and Malaysia – provide evidence that capital controls have a debatable and inconclusive effect on the variables policymakers are concerned with. Two types policy interventions, “circuit breakers” and “bank holidays,” are described and used to define a spectrum of possible innovative controls to consider. This analysis concludes that innovative policies promising desired results different from those due to the types of capital controls tried in the past are difficult if not impossible to identify. The paper concludes that ABAC should advocate: (1) improvement in collection and dissemination of data useful in assessing potential liquidity problems and required by “early warning systems;” (2) possible controls on the flow of international capital should carefully weigh the short-term advantages, if any, against long-term costs, and if controls are implemented, implementation should be predictable and the controls transparent in application and neutral in impact; (3) policy discussions should focus reactions to the most likely crisis under current circumstances, for example a precipitous adjustment to the dollar in response to accumulating global imbalances.

DATA REQUIREMENTS TO SUPPORT EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AMELIORATING THE IMPACT OF ADVERSE VOLATILE CAPITAL FLOWS

Volatile Capital Flows: Assessment of the Current Policy Environment


J. Kimball Dietrich, Principle Investigator

Marshall School of Business

University of Southern California


EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTABLE OF CONTENTS


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ii


I. Financial Crises and Data: Introduction 1



II. Official Efforts to Improve International Capital Market Data 7


III. Hedge Fund Regulation, Reporting, and Data 22


IV. Data on Derivative Markets Activities 35


V. Summary and Possible Recommendations to APEC Ministers 39


IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS

References 42

DATA REQUIREMENTS TO SUPPORT EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AMELIORATING THE IMPACT OF ADVERSE VOLATILE CAPITAL FLOWS


J. Kimball Dietrich, Principle Investigator


Marshall School of Business

University of Southern California


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Volatile capital flows are usually related to sudden changes in market sentiment coming from revisions in the assessment of future economic outcomes that can be the basis of speculative gains or losses or from profits or losses associated with routine business activities. Better information has economic value in terms of reducing risks of investments in an economy. Research has shown a reduction of one-half percent in the borrowing costs of emerging market economies with the best data dissemination systems. Adequate flows of information to market participants reduce the likelihood of surprises and abrupt revisions in expectations producing capital flow reversals and the possibility of financial crises. Information is essential to efficient market functioning where prices of assets reflect a meaningful balance of expectations concerning future risks and returns in the marketplace and liquidity can be provided to traders at reasonable cost. This paper focuses on the types of information needed by participants in international capital markets: official information on capital flows, cross-border investments, and the structure of economies; information on the activities of active international capital market traders like hedge funds; information on developments in derivative markets used for hedging, risk management, and speculation.

All market participants need data, and market participants always want more information than is available: data is only available at a cost. Date dissemination policies of governments and businesses are determined by weighing the advantages of informed trading market participants and the costs of collecting data and the disadvantages of revealing private or official strategies or possible policy options to the market. Available of information will never be sufficient to satisfy all market participants. This paper provides background material for ABAC members to form opinions on data needs and policy that advance their goal of efficient, integrated, and growing international capital markets.

The paper recommends that APEC economies take actions to address issues that limit the perception of reliability of official data releases. It is suggested that ABAC urge APEC statistical agencies to commit to a uniform code of conduct concerning the quality, completeness, and timeliness of data releases. A second recommendation is that ABAC consider urging economic officials to create investor relations units that would work with investors in an effort to provide them with the data they need to reduce their concerns about risks in the economy and the uncertainty concerning the key economic fundamental determinants of an economy’s financial market performance.

Official data releases on international capital flows and the structure of economies in terms of sector balance sheets have been improved greatly since the financial crises of the 1990’s. Some areas of improvement are more complete than others, as discussed in the paper, and new developments in data collection promise development of more effective early warning systems than in the past. Data necessary for these efforts can be enhanced by additional effort in collecting balance sheet data. The paper recommends that ABAC endorse the further improvement in the quality and completeness of data collection conducted under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) GDDS, SDDS, and balance sheet approach.

Hedge fund regulation and required reporting for their activities, including derivative markets, remain minimal. If hedge funds and/or derivative markets are considered a threat, despite the proliferation of hedge funds and shift away from exchange-rate speculative strategies by the industry in recent years, private and informal data sources will be required to develop intelligence concerning future speculative attacks or massive hedge-fund trading disruptive to markets. The paper suggests that ABAC members weigh the costs and benefits of developing hedge fund surveillance units and, if the costs are warranted, recommends the development of hedge fund expertise within the APEC community housed in individual economies or as a multilateral effort.

Derivative markets are mainly over-the-counter markets and data on activities in those markets is gathered infrequently. An aggressive effort of data collection and combining from various sources might be warranted as an effort to detect possible problems stemming from derivative trading. The paper recommends that these efforts, like hedge fund surveillance efforts, might be considered if they are judged to be worth the considerable costs.


IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS

DATA REQUIREMENTS TO SUPPORT EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AMELIORATING THE IMPACT OF ADVERSE VOLATILE CAPITAL FLOWS

The current economic and financial market situation among the APEC emerging economies is substantially different than it was in the crisis period of the 1990s. With the floating of the Chinese and Malaysian currencies in July 2005, few of the regional currencies have a fixed peg to the dollar and most exchange rates demonstrate substantial variability. International reserve accumulations by emerging market economies in general are large, trade and capital accounts are roughly in balance compared to the large capital inflows and trade deficits characteristic of the crisis economies in the 1990’s. Market conditions are improved, with valuations of stocks in general and of the financial sector strong, and of course, substantial changes in the capitalization and regulation of the financial sector has been undertaken since the crisis years. Hedge funds are on average smaller, less highly leveraged, more carefully scrutinized by their lenders, and pursue more heterogeneous strategies than in the 1990’s.


Based on a review of capital controls imposed by APEC emerging economies, with a particular focus on the most positively assessed use of controls by Chile and Malaysia, the conclusion is that capital controls have a limited effect on policy variables of interest in most economies. Even in the economies believed to have successfully used controls, the effects are difficult to detect and unintended consequences of controls and are believed by many to have had negative long-term impacts and costs.


This study intended to identify possible innovations in capital useful in reducing costs and increasing their effectiveness in future crises. Analysis of circuit breakers on organized exchanges reveals their limited usefulness in controlling international capital movements. Controlling payment flows through system-wide payment halts, as in bank holidays, reveals the large costs and indiscriminate impacts of the measure. Controls on specific transactions by halting certain payments are difficult to implement and have costly implications. The conclusion is that controls used in the past, combined with transparency in application and clarity on their invocation, are the least distorting and costly types of controls, but as always present challenges in definition and implementation. Furthermore, growth in derivative markets makes controls based on domestic institution activity of limited impact on speculation.


Recommendations presented in the report aim at improving the ability to reduce the costs of financial crises. In short, recommendations are: (1) improve data collection in terms of coverage, timeliness, and quality; (2) limit the use of controls to pre-announced trigger levels using tried methods like specified transaction taxes but understand the ease of evasion and the distortions such taxes cause over the long run and the damage they cause to market reputation; and (3) advocate concerted efforts to analyze likely future crises.


Volatile Capital Flows: Assessment of the Current Policy Environment


J. Kimball Dietrich, Principle Investigator

Marshall School of Business

University of Southern California


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