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Getting a job
Getting a job begins with locating and applying for jobs that will advance your career plans. It also involves convincing employers that you are the best applicant for their job openings. The way you apply for a job and present your qualifications can greatly influence an employer's impression of you. Therefore, you should know how to contact employers, how to complete application forms, and how to make a good impression in job interviews.
It is also important to know how to write a good resume, or summary of background and qualifications. All these skills can improve your chances for employment. Most employers consider several applicants for each job opening, and many people make number of applications before being hired.
One of the most common ways to learn about job opportunities is by word-of month. Many jobs are filled by people who have heard of job openings from friends, relatives, teachers and others. You should therefore tell the people you know and meet that you are looking for certain kinds of work.
Another common way to locate job opportunities is through the classified section of newspapers. Many professional and union newsletters, magazines, and other trade publications carry advertisements for job openings. From such advertisements you can learn, what profession, skills, and experience are necessary for the job.
Information about job openings is also available from employment agencies.
Your first contact with an employer will be either to apply for a known job opening or to find out if any jobs are available. Your contact with employers should be effective and orderly. The most
common ways of contacting employers are by mail, by telephone, and by personal visit to an employer's office.
Most applicants for white-collar jobs get in touch with employers by mail. A letter to an employer should be type-written or neatly handwritten in ink. In the letter, introduce yourself and explain why you are writing. Briefly indicate any experience and skills you have that relate to the kind of job you are seeking. Finally, ask for an interview. Be sure include your address and telephone number so that the employer can reach you. If you contact an employer by telephone, try to provide the same information that you would cover in a letter.
Getting a job is a very hard period in the life of most people. Companies choose an employee from hundreds of candidates according to special rules, that's why there're special 'typical' factors, influencing on employer's choice. Among such factors are: age, sex, experience, family background and marital status, personality and references. If you're to go to an interview tomorrow, sleep well before it and don't forget your CV at home — is the basic rule. Moreover, there're some recommendations, which can help you, for example, to read annual report, or company newspaper of the company to show your understanding of the corporate strategy on the interview. What's more, you should choose corresponding dress code for the interview. Even such advices are to help you make a good impression; some companies don't want to hire a man, who follows every advice. To illustrate this, it is necessary to quote Artemiy Lebedev, the most famous Russian web-designer: «If you enclose a standard stupid resume, written by the rules of American bureaucracy, we would delete it immediately after receiving. If your CV is composed according to all rules, we wouldn't choose you, as we might think, that your profession is to acquire a job». After getting a job, you may have some unexpected troubles with boss, too: e.g. if you dye your hair or wear something not appropriate. The best solution of such situation is to ask a trade union for advice, which can always help you in your fight with an employer. Of course, if you affect company discipline not coming in time or working badly, your dismissal wouldn't be unfair.
If you are applying for a new work place before the interview you have to send your Resume, the Cover Letter, and the Letter of Recommendation that are expected in such cases.
A resume or a CV (curriculum vitae) is a summary of your history and professional qualifications.
Make sure your resume (CV) focuses on the kind of work you can and want to do.
If you have worked successfully in an area related to the job you are applying for, emphasize it. It sometimes happens that the most qualified people don't always get the job. It goes to the person who presents himself well in person and on paper.
Here is how you should organize your resume:
1. Your name and address go at the top. The resume usually consists of the following sections: Personal, Education, Work Experience, Interests and Skills, Hobbies. Also your phone number.
2. Under Personal you say:
1) when and where you were born;
2) your marital status (whether you are married, single or divorced), your children;
3. Under Education you describe:
1) the school you finished and the years of study (for example 1956-1966);
2) University, the diplomas and degrees obtained, also mention the subject (e. g. the University of St. Petersburg, Economics);
3) any higher degrees, e. g. Ph.D., and the university which granted it.
4. Then comes Work Experience:
This can be done in a number of ways; if you are a research scientist or an academic (having to do with colleges, universities or studies), you should list selected publications and mention in brackets their total number. You always list the jobs, the years you worked, the positions you held and the addresses.
This should be presented in the reverse chronological order starting from the last job.
In case you have no work experience in the field, mention your summer jobs, extracurricular school activities, awards. Choose the activities that will enhance your qualification for the job you want.
5. Then come Interests and Skills:
Include the foreign languages you speak, computer skills, extensive travel, particular interests or professional membership, the clubs you belong to.
This is your chance to let your future employer get some idea of your person.
For example, if you are after a job in computer programming, and you enjoy playing chess, mention it. Chess playing requires the ability to think through a problem.
6. The last is Hobbies:
It is good to mention here a hobby that can help get the job you are after.
It should be noted that a resume (CV) can be structured differently and may vary in length from one page to three or more.
Send your Resume, along with a Cover Letter and a Letter of Recommendation or Reference to a specific person.
The person should be the top person in the area where you want to work. The Cover Letter should appeal to your reader's own needs. Briefly explain why you are approaching his company. Refer him to your Resume and ask for an interview.
Here are the samples of a Resume, a Cover Letter and a Letter of Recommendation:
PATRICIA A. RUNDLE
41 BECCLES ROAD
FALMOUTH, VA, 02540
Date of Birth: November 25, 1944 — London, England.
Status: British citizen, possessing United States Alien Registration and
Married: April 1975, 4 children.
1956-1961 St. Mary's School, Calne, Wiltshire, England. 7 Ordinary Levels,
2 Advanced Levels
1968-1971 Bedford College, London University, England. B.A.- History.
1971-1972 Bergen University, Bergen, Norway.
1972-1974 University College, London University, London, England. MA.
1994-Present Tourist Company: Discover New England, Public
relations officer. 205 Heritage Place. Falmouth, MA, 02540.
1991-1994 Part-time secretary, Saint Barnabas Memorial Church,
Falmouth, MA, 02540.
1988-1991 Assistant to the Director, Pilgrim Hall Museum, 75 Court Street,
Plymouth, MA, 02360.
1982-1988 Wrote and produced video film for television, «Bermuda's Heritage»,
a tribute to senior citizens.
1968-1970 Ground hostess, British Airways, Heathrow Airport, London, England.
Interests and skills:
Languages: French, German, Norwegian. Computer skills
Hobbies: Skiing, cooking, reading
References: Will be furnished upon request.
30 June. 1997 Dear Mr. Jones,
I am writing to apply for the job (position) of accountant advertised in yesterday's «Daily Telegraph». I enclose my Resume and a Letter of Recommendation from Mr. J. Smith of Smith and Sponsor Bank, Manchester.
I have recently moved to your town for family reasons and feel that my qualifications would enable me to be a productive member of your company. I am available for an interview at your convenience.
References on request.
I look forward to hearing from you,
Yours sincerely, ...
LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION
(1 st sample)
19 November, 1997
Dear Dr. Jones,
Having known Dr. Crown for five years as a staff-member of my department, I am pleased to write this Letter of Recommendation for him.
During the five years that Dr. Crown worked with us he always excelled in whatever activity he undertook.
It is important to mention here that he has a good command of French and German and speaks both languages fluently. I also want to emphasize his experience in computing (his computer skills).
Dr. Crown has my fullest support and should it be appropriate 1 would be pleased to provide further information.
Yours sincerely, ...
LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION
19 November, 1997
Dear Mr. Brown,
Having known Mr. Evans for five years as a staff-member of my laboratory, I am pleased to write this Letter of Recommendation for him.
During the five years that Mr. Evans worked in my laboratory, he was actively involved in research into semiconductor materials and showed extraordinary ability in it. It is important to mention here that Mr Evans has a good command of French and German.
I also want to emphasize his computer skills. He has an excellent command of multiple platforms (hardware) and is thoroughly at home within a UNIX environment. Mr. Evans has my fullest support and I would be pleased to provide further information if necessary.
Yours sincerely, ...
Reference or Letter of Recommendation is sent to the prospective employer together with Resume and Cover Letter. Evans found all the recommendations very helpful.
How to create a good impression at your first interview
With unemployment so high, and often scores of applicants chasing every job, you have to count yourself lucky to be called for an interview. If it's your first, you're bound to be nervous. (In fact if you're not nervous, maybe your attitude is wrong!) But don't let the jitters side-track you from the main issue — which is getting this job. The only way you can do that is by creating a good impression on the person who is interviewing you.
1. Find out as much as you can about the job beforehand. Ask the job centre or Employment agency for as much information as possible.
2. Walk into the interview chewing gum, sucking on a sweet or smoking.
3. Jot down your qualifications and experience and think about how they relate to the job. Why should the employer employ you and not somebody else?
4. Choose your interview clothing with care; no one is going to employ you if you look as though you've wandered out of a disco. Whether you like it or not, appearance counts.
5. Make sure you know where the interview office is and how to get there.
6. Be on time, or better, a few minutes early.
7. Bring with you any school certificates, samples of I your work or letters of recommendation from your teachers or anyone else you might have worked part-time for.
8. Bring a pen; you will probably be asked to fill in an application form. Answer all the questions as best you can. And write neatly. The interviewer will be looking at the application during the interview; he or she must be able to read it.
9. Have a light meal to eat, and go to the toilet. If you don't, you may well be thinking about your insides during the interview.
10. Have a drink beforehand to give you courage.
The interview is designed to find out more about you and to see if you are suitable for the job. The interviewer will do this by asking you questions. The way you answer will show what kind of person you are and if your education, skills and experience match what they're looking for.
11. Forget to shake hands with the interviewer.
12. Make a real effort to answer every question the interviewer asks. Be clear and concise. Never answer 'Yes' or 'No' or shrug.
13. Smoke or sit down until you are invited to.
14. Give the interviewer a hard time by giggling, yawning, rambling on unnecessarily or appearing cocky or argumentative.
15. Admit it if you do not know something about the more technical aspects of the job. Stress that you are willing to learn.
16. Show some enthusiasm when the job is explained to you. Concentrate on what the interviewer is saying, and if he or she asks if you have any questions, have at least one ready to show that you're interested a have done your homework.
17. Stress poor aspects of yourself, like your problem of getting up in the morning. Always show your bests especially your keenness to work and your sense of responsibility.
18. Sell yourself. This doesn't mean exaggerating! (you just get caught out) or making your experience or interests seem unimportant (if you sell yourself short, no one will employ you).
19. Ask questions at the close of the interview. For instance, about the pay, hours, holidays, or if there is a training program.
20. After the interview, think about how you presented yourself: could you have done better? If so, and if do not get the job, you can be better prepared when you are next called for an interview. Good luck!
Ph. D ['pi: eitj 'di:] — Doctor of Philosophy — a science degree, in Great Britain and the USA, is equivalent to a Candidate degree in Russia.
B.A. ['bi: 'ei] — Bachelor of Arts — the first degree received on graduating a university.
M.A. ['em 'ei] — Master of Arts — the second university degree in England and the USA.
employer — наниматель
hire — нанимать
convince — убеждать
fill in — заполнять
Applicant — податель заявления
consider — считать
resume (CV) — резюме (автобиография)
advertisement — объявление
background (work experience) — опыт работы
available — доступный
white-collar job — высококвалифицированная работа
blue-collar job — низкоквалифицированная работа
position — пост (должность)
reference letter — рекомендательное письмо
I. Answer the questions.
1. In what cases do people have to write a resume?
2. Should the resume you write be a detailed personal history or a summary of your personal history and qualifications?
3. When you write a resume you usually emphasize that you have worked successfully in an area related to the job you want to get. Why is it important do you think?
4. How is a resume structured?
5. What do you begin with?
6. What do you write under Personal, Education, Work Experience, Interests and Skills and Hobbies?
7. Why is it important to present oneself properly in a resume?
8. Do you usually present all the information about yourself in the chronological order?
9. Why do you think it is recommendable to present the information in the reverse chronological order?
10. How important is it to mention your computer skills and your command of foreign languages?
11. Why is it advisable to mention that you can play chess, if you want a job in computer programming?
12. Who is cover letter addressed to?
13. What do you usually write in a cover letter and a letter of recommendation?
14. What does the phrase «References on request» mean?
15. Is it important to send your Resume along with your Cover Letter and Letter of Recommendation?
16. Who is a Letter of Recommendation written by?
II. You want to work as:
III. Try to write a Cover Letter and a Letter of Recommendation.
Use: apply for a job; enclose one's Resume; for family (or other) reasons; be available for an interview; be pleased to write a Letter of Recommendation; excel in every activity one undertook; have an excellent command of some foreign language; have excellent computer skills.
IV. Translate into English
1. Если вы ищете работу, нужно уметь (know how) правильно составить резюме, сопроводительное письмо (Cover Letter) и письмо-рекомендацию (Letter of Recommendation). Если вы ранее работали в области, связанной с работой, которую вы хотите получить (the job you are after), напишите об этом в вашем резюме (CV) В разделе Personal вы должны указать свое семейное положение, есть ли у вас дети, а также гражданство.
2. В разделе Education следует сообщить все об образовании, которое вы получили: годы учебы в школе, университете, научную степень (если таковая имеется). Следует учитывать, что в англоговорящих странах степень Ph.D. эквивалентна степени кандидата наук в нашей стране.
3. В разделе Work Experience укажите в обратном хронологическом порядке (mention, write), где и в какие годы вы работали ранее. Если вы научный работник или преподаватель университета, перечислите (list) основные публикации.
4. Помимо работы, не забудьте упомянуть ваши интересы и хобби, а также написать вместе с резюме (CV) сопроводительное письмо.
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