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1 Alexander Wendt distinguishes three cultures that have influenced world politics – Hobbesian war, Lockean rivalry and Kantian security communities (Wendt 1999). Hobbesian war and Lockean rivalry overwhelmingly characterize the modern society. The ideal type for building security regimes for the post-modern system of states should be a Kantian security community.

2 Firstly, Richard van Wegenen introduced the concept of security communities in the early 1950s (Bellamy 2004, 6). However, first Karl Deutsch notably promoted the concept and later Emmanuel Adler and Michael Barnett have revived the concept foremost.

3 My definition to liberal democracy in post-modern society is – this is a social order which possesses values like free elections, free market economy, institutionalisation, international law, civil control over armed forces, individual and civil liberties, division of powers, tolerance against other cultures and principles of human security. In addition, liberal democratic security community highly values human security even more than it values state security (see also Zakaria 2003, Dahl 1989, Held 1995).

4 With the exception of some areas in the former Soviet Union, especially in Caucasus but there is problem with shared liberal democratic values.

5 I have examined the current European security architechture in my recent article NATO’s Role in the Post-Modern European Security Environment Cooperative Security and the experience of the Baltic Sea region. Baltic Security and Defence Review vol .8, 2006. pp. 7-33. http://www.bdcol.ee/fileadmin/docs/bsdr/1-NATO,%20European%20Security%20and%20the%20Baltic%20Sea%20Region-Holger%20Molder.pdf

6 Institutionalisating the concept of security communities and adapting security communities as value-based entities, we must be aware that there may exist different kind of security communities. For example hegemonic security communities based on non-democratic identities and values (such as the Warsaw Pact was) (Mölder 2006, 10). Security community itself does not be necessarily liberal democratic. Therefore I refer to the term “pluralistic security communities” discussing liberal democratic security communities.

7 complex interdependence can be described by multiple channels connecting societies, absence of hierarchy among issues and absence of use of military force against each other (Keohane, Nye 1977)

8 Deutsch characteristics for amalgamated security community – similar values (political ideologies but also economic and religious values); the formation of a common sense of us; similar lifestyles; group of leading actors (so to avoid that the logic of the balance of power prevail; high economic growth; positive expectations with respect to the advantages of integration; intensive transactions and communication; widening of the lieding elites; stable links among the elites of different states; high geographical mobility of the population (Deutsch, Karl et al. 1957, Political community and the North atlantic Area. p.6 ), all these condions to greater or lesser extent are represented in the European Union.

9 In 1998, the UK-France summit in St.Malo made a significant progress regarding the European Security and Defence Policy.

10 This is a minor security dilemma and could be easily resolved by Bulgaria and Romania joining the EU in 2007, and Turkey’s movement towards EU membership. Norway, although rejected EU membership twice, has become more favorable for EU membership now.



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