Student warning: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference




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НазваниеStudent warning: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference
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STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.

This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.







INTL621
Signals
Intelligence
3 Credit Hours
16
-Weeks
Prerequisite(s): None



Table of Contents



Instructor Information

Evaluation Procedures

Course Description

Grading Scale

Course Scope

Course Outline

Course Objectives

Policies

Course Delivery Method

Academic Services

Course Materials

Appendices



Instructor Information



Table of Contents

Course Description (Catalog)

INTL621 Signals Intelligence (3 hours)


This course examines Signals Intelligence focusing on the underlying technology of SIGINT and its application to various military and civilian intelligence questions at both the tactical and strategic level primarily through the use of the case study approach.   Focusing primarily on communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) this course will also address the lesser-known disciplines of MASINT, FISINT, etc.  Collection platforms will be studied in relation to their inherent capabilities and application against various intelligence targets.  The peculiar constraints on intelligence analysis in the SIGINT environment will be explored with the purpose of understanding the limitations of SIGINT and SIGINT’s role in the broader all-source intelligence analysis process.  The course is held at the unclassified, open-source level.

Table of Contents



Course Scope



INTL 621, Signals Intelligence is a three part course focusing on current issues and future prospects for signals intelligence. The course assumes some basic understanding of what SIGINT is and some of its history. Part one is about communications intelligence (COMINT). Part two covers specialized technical SIGINT methods including ELINT, FISINT, and Information Operations. Part three deals with the changing world of SIGINT policy.

The US SIGINT community has changed significantly in the last two decades, in part as a result of:

  • World events – the collapse of the USSR, China’s rise in international prominence, and the explosion of the terrorist threat;

  • Increased need for sharing SIGINT in multinational operations and in domestic law enforcement;

  • Advances in communications technology -- the internet, cell phones, wireless personal communications among others; and

  • The “flattening” of the world through international commerce (licit and illicit) and the global economy.

These changes have forced a continuing examination of the tradeoffs between effective use of COMINT and the public policy concerning domestic privacy or on maintaining amicable international relations with friendly states. In 1929 Secretary of State Henry Stimson, in closing down the Black Chamber, noted that “Gentlemen do not read other people’s mail.” It is now accepted that the US COMINT community will read other people’s mail. The question now is “which mail is acceptable to read, and which is unacceptable?”

The course explores these issues using a series of short case studies and readings. Some technical understanding is required in part two for dealing with ELINT, FISINT, and Information Operations techniques.

The course has one textbook, relying heavily on a series of reports or excerpts from longer texts. Many of these reports originate with the Congressional Research Service (CRS), a branch of the Library of Congress. CRS provides specialized expertise to the Congress and provides studies of particular issues only at the request of Members. Their reports are non-partisan and timely, as well as high quality.

The readings for this course discuss a wide range of SIGINT collection assets and SIGINT operations. For the purpose of the course, we will assume that these assets and operations exist and are accurately described in the readings, but that may not be the case. I will not comment on the accuracy of the descriptions, and no student should do so in the discussion groups.

Table of Contents

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the student should be able to:



  • Explain how COMINT targeting is done.

  • Distinguish between operational and technical ELINT as to customers, nature of information collected, and targeting;

  • Evaluate the processes by which signals intelligence requirements are prioritized and allocated against collection assets.

  • Evaluate the processes for collecting, processing, exploiting and disseminating communications and electronic intelligence.

  • Explain the advantages and pitfalls of liaison as a force multiplier in communications intelligence.

  • Contribute to the body of knowledge about current trends, structures, functions, capabilities, limitations, and successes and failures of signals intelligence.

  • Evaluate the nontechnical (organizational and cultural) factors that constrain or facilitate the effective use of signals intelligence.

Table of Contents

Course Delivery Method

This course will offer the student a highly interactive virtual classroom. Each week’s lesson will have assigned readings and an announcement including lecture notes provided by the instructor. Three weeks will feature a discussion group based on the research paper topics submitted at the end of the previous week. Since the student is expected to fully participate in discussions and interact with the instructor and other students, reading assignments should be completed in a timely manner.

The centerpiece of the course is the research and writing of three short reports on a topic selected by the student with assistance of the assigned faculty. These research projects involve the following stages:

  • Selection of the research topic problem statement by the student on a COMINT (report 1), Technical Collection (report 2) or SIGINT policy (report 3) subject;

  • Submission of the topic in a student discussion group session, followed by discussion group comments on other students’ proposed topic submissions; and

  • Presentation of the project report, in the form of a research paper of no more than 1500 words, during the next week.

Table of Contents

Course Materials



Books:

Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency. Anchor; 1st Anchor Books ed edition (April 30, 2002).


The following is the list of required reports. Readings are identified by the initial acronym in the list below.

Agrell: Agrell, Wilhelm, “Sweden and the Dilemmas of Neutral Intelligence Liaison”, Journal of Strategic Studies, August 2006, available on EBSCO.

Aid: Aid, Matthew M., “In the right place at the right time: US signals intelligence relations with Scandinavia,1945–1960”, Journal of Strategic Studies, Aug2006, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p575-605, Available on EBSCO .

Berman: Berman, Jerry, Amending FISA: The National Security and Privacy Concerns Raised by S.2659 and S.2586, July 31, 2002. http://www.cdt.org/testimony/020731berman.shtml

Best Best, Richard A., Jr. The National Security Agency: Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, January 16, 2001, http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL30740.pdf

Brandwein: David S. Brandwein, “Telemetry Analysis” https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/docs/v08i4a03p_0001.htm

Campbell: Campbell, Duncan, “Interception Capabilities 2000”, April 1999, http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/ic2000/ic2000.htm ion

Dam: Dam, Kenneth W. and Lin, Herbert S., eds., Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society, NRC, 1996 (Available in APUS ebrary)

Day: Day, Dwayne A., “Ferrets Above: American Signals Intelligence Satellites During the 1960’s” International Journal of Intelligence & Counter Intelligence, Summer 2004, Vol. 17, Issue 2, p449-467; Available on EBSCO

Don: Don, Bruce W., Frelinger, David R., Gerwehr, Landree, Eric, and Jackson, Brian A., “Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists” RAND, 2007, http://rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR454/

Hager: Hager, Nicky. Secret Power - New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network, 1996. e-print of chapters one and two at http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/sp.

Rudner: Rudner, Martin, “Canada's Communications Security Establishment, Signals Intelligence and counter-terrorism” Intelligence & National Security, Aug2007, Vol. 22 Issue 4, p473-490 Available on EBSCO.

Segell: Segell, Glen M., “French Cryptography Policy: The Turnabout of 1999.”, International Journal of Intelligence & Counter Intelligence, October 2000, Vol. 13, p345-358; Available on EBSCO Sims, Jennifer E., “Foreign Intelligence Liaison: Devils, Deals, and Details” International Journal of Intelligence & Counter Intelligence, Summer 2006, Vol. 19, Issue 2, p195-217; Available on EBSCO

Wettering: Wettering, Frederick L., “The Internet and the Spy Business”, International Journal of Intelligence & Counter Intelligence, July 2001, Vol. 14, Issue 3, p342-365; Available on EBSCO

Table of Contents

Evaluation Procedures



The student’s grade is based primarily on completion of three short research projects that produce useful insights into Signals Intelligence. The final grade will be based on the following:

  1. Three short research papers of not more than 1500 words each, the first two being worth 25% of the final grade, the last being worth 26% of the final grade.

  2. Participation in three discussion groups which require collaboration in the framing of research paper topics, each worth 8% of the final grade.

Table of Contents

Course Outline

Week0

Topic

Objectives

Readings

Assignment




1

Course Overview and Definitions

Student introductions and review of SIGINT at the top level

Bamford chs 1-3

Post bio info




2

COMINT: Collection

OH, airborne, groundbased, shipborne, clantech (acoustic);

Day; Bamford chs 4,5







3

COMINT: Customers and Targets

Physical targets and intelligence targets. Strategic vs. tactical; economic; Support to military and law enforcement.

Campbell 1, 2, 3, 5; Bamford chs 6, 7

Research paper topic due




4

COMINT: Analysis and Cryptanalysis

Basics of encryption and the increasing challenges of breaking encryption schemes; The language and cultural challenges in interpreting COMINT. Use of collateral

Dam; Campbell annex; Bamford ch 14

Discussion group #1




5

Research Paper #1: COMINT

Focus on current challenges and trends in COMINT

No readings assigned







6

Technical Collection: Information Operations

Network targets, collection methods, and the collection vs. takedown tradeoff.

Don, Wettering; Bamford ch 8







7

Technical Collection: Unintentional Emissions and Geolocation

TDOA, FDOA, AOA techniques; Unintentional emissions.

Bamford chs 9, 10; Instructor’s notes







8

Technical Collection: ELINT

Operational and technical ELINT; targets and analysis methods

Bamford 456-480; Instructor’s notes

Research paper topic due




9

Technical Collection: FISINT

Types of FIS, collection and analysis techniques

Brandwein; Bamford ch 11

Discussion group #2




10

Research Paper #2: Specialized Technical Collection

Potential future opportunities for specialized technical collection

No readings assigned







11

Policy: Liaison, Sharing, and Cooperative COMINT

Case studies and challenge in COMINT and ELINT liaison and sharing

Agrell; Aid; Hager; Rudner; Bamford 394-405







12

Policy: Legal and Political Issues in Electronic Surveillance

FISA; domestic collection; issues with economic products of COMINT

Best; Berman; Campbell 4 & policy sec; Bamford 406-451







13

Policy: Encryption Proliferation

US and other countries’ export policies on encryption and the impact on COMINT.

Segell; Dam App G







14

Policy: Managing SIGINT collection, processing and analysis

Assess SIGINT mgt. systems, mgt. by collection discipline and function; SIGINT in the Multi-INT world

Best; Instructor’s notes

Research paper topic due




15

Policy: SIGINT in 2020

Assess current and future challenges. Focus on SIGINT’s role in multi-INT coordination, and law enforcement support

Campbell 6; Bamford ch 13

Discussion group #3




16

Research Paper #3: SIGINT Policy


Trends in globalization, the flat world, and SIGINT policy consequences.

No readings assigned







Table of Contents

Policies



GRADING SCALE

Please see the student handbook to review the University's grading scale.

Policies: Please see the student handbook to review University policies regarding Drops/ Withdrawals, Plagiarism, Extensions, and Disability Accommodations.

WRITING EXPECTATIONS

All written submissions should be submitted in a font and page set-up that is readable and neat. It is recommended that students try to adhere to a consistent format, which is described below.

* Typewritten in double-spaced format with a readable style and font and submitted inside the electronic classroom (unless classroom access is not possible and other arrangements have been approved by the professor).

* Arial 11 or 12-point font or Times New Roman styles.

* Page margins Top, Bottom, Left Side and Right Side = 1 inch, with reasonable accommodation being made for special situations and online submission variances.

CITATION AND REFERENCE STYLE

Assignments completed in a narrative essay or composition format must follow Turabian Citation Style guidelines. This course will require students to use the citation and reference style established by Kate Turabian in her A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, 1996.

LATE ASSIGNMENTS

For each week that an assignment is late, two points may be deducted from your grade for the assignment unless the student contacts the instructor ahead of time about an extenuating situation.

NETIQUETTE

Online universities promote the advance of knowledge through positive and constructive debate--both inside and outside the classroom. Discussions on the Internet, however, can occasionally degenerate into needless insults and "flaming." Such activity and the loss of good manners are not acceptable in a university setting--basic academic rules of good behavior and proper "Netiquette" must persist. Remember that you are in a place for the fun and excitement of learning that does not include descent to personal attacks, or student attempts to stifle the discussion of others.

* Technology Limitations: While you should feel free to explore the full-range of creative composition in your formal papers, keep e-mail layouts simple. The Educator classroom may not fully support MIME or HTML encoded messages, which means that bold face, italics, underlining, and a variety of color-coding or other visual effects will not translate in your e-mail messages.

* Humor Note: Despite the best of intentions, jokes and--especially--satire can easily get lost or taken seriously. If you feel the need for humor, you may wish to add "emoticons" to help alert your readers: ;-), : -)

DISLCAIMER STATEMENT

Course content may vary from the outline to meet the needs of this particular group.

Academic Services


The Online Library Resource Center is available to enrolled students and faculty from inside the electronic campus. This is your starting point for access to online books, subscription periodicals, and Web resources that are designed to support your classes and generally not available through search engines on the open Web. In addition, the Center provides access to special learning resources, which the University has contracted to assist with your studies. Questions can be directed to orc@apus.edu.

* Charles Town Library and Inter Library Loan: The University maintains a special library with a limited number of supporting volumes, collection of our professors' publication, and services to search and borrow research books and articles from other libraries.

* Electronic Books: You can use the online library to uncover and download over 50,000 titles, which have been scanned and made available in electronic format.

* Electronic Journals: The University provides access to over 12,000 journals, which are available in electronic form and only through limited subscription services.

* MyDropBox: MyDropBox.com is a tool to improve student research skills that also detect plagiarism. MyDropBox.com provides resources on developing topics and assignments that encourage and guide students in producing papers that are intellectually honest, original in thought, and clear in expression. This tool helps ensure a culture of adherence to the University's standards for intellectual honesty. MyDropBox.com also reviews students' papers for matches with Internet materials and with thousands of student papers in its database, and returns an Originality Report to instructors and/or students.

* Smarthinking: Students have access to 10 free hours of tutoring service per year through Smarthinking <http://www.smarthinking.com/> . Tutoring is available in the following subjects: math (basic math through advanced calculus), science (biology, chemistry, and physics), accounting, statistics, economics, Spanish, writing, grammar, and more. Additional information is located in the Online Research Center. From the ORC home page, click on either the "Writing Center" or "Tutoring Center" and then click "Smarthinking." All login information is available.

Table of Contents

Selected Bibliography



Clark, Robert M., Technical Collection for Intelligence (to be published in 2009)

Jones, R.V., Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1978).

Nance, William H. "Quality ELINT." Studies in Intelligence 12, no. 2 (Spring 1968): 7-19. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/docs/v12i2a02p_0001.htm

Price, A. Instruments of Darkness: The History of Electronic Warfare. (London, 1967).

Richelson, Jeffrey T., The Wizards of Langley: Inside the CIA’s Directorate of Science and Technology, Westview Press, 2001

Richelson, Jeffrey T., “Undercover in Outer Space: The Creation and Evolution of the NRO, 1960-1963.”, International Journal of Intelligence & Counter Intelligence, October 2000, Vol. 13, Issue 3, p301-344; Available on EBSCO

Whitmire, Frank A., and Edward G. Correll. "The Failure of Cosmos 57." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 3 (Summer 1966): 25-29, http://www.svengrahn.pp.se/histind/Cosmos57/Cosmos57.htm





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