Freshwater Ecoregions of North America

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Abell, R. A. et al. 1999. Freshwater Ecoregions of North America. Island Press. A comprehensive assessment of the types and status of freshwater ecoregions.

Abramovitz, Janet N. 1996. Imperiled Waters, Impoverished Future: The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems. Worldwatch Paper 128. Worldwatch Institute

Agarwal, Anil and Sunita Narain. 1997. “The Decline and Revival of Traditional Water Harvesting systems in India. The Ecologist 27(3):112-116. Reviving centuries-old water harvesting techniques in India could offer an alternative to large dams and water development projects.

American Rivers. 2002. The Ecology of Dam Removal: A summary of Benefits and Impacts. American Rivers Association. Dam removal is complex when they’ve been in place for many years.

Anderson, Terry L. and Peter J. Hill, eds. 1996. Water Marketing: The Next Generation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Discusses market incentives for water conservation.

Barlow, Maude and Tony Clarke. 2003. Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water. W.W. Norton Co. Privatization of municipal water supplies by multinational corporations threatens access to this vital resource for many poor people.

Baron JS, Jackson RB, et al. 2002 ”Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater,” Ecological Applications 12 (5): 1247-1260.

Barry, John M. 1998. Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood Of 1927 And How It Changed America. Simon & Schuster. The worst flood in American history changed our management of rivers.

Bates, Sarah F., et al. 1993. Searching Out the Headwaters: Change and Rediscovery in Western Water Policy. Island Press. A thorough analysis of western water use and the outmoded rules that govern it.

Black, Peter E. 1996. Watershed Hydrology, 2nd ed. Island Press. An introduction to hydrology.

Bosshard, Peter. 2003. Karahnjukar – a Project on Thin Ice. International Rivers Network. An Analysis of the Karahnjukar Hydropower and Reydaral Aluminum Smelter Project in Iceland. Not all renewable energy projects are environmentally benign.

Bromberg, Gideon. 2004. “Water and Peace” World Watch 17 (4): 24-30. Water diversions are drying up the Dead Sea. Can Israel, Palestine, and Jordan find ways to save it?

Brower, Ken. 2002. “Just Add Water.” Sierra 86 (6): 34-41. Restoring a California marsh.

Caufield, C. 1983. “Dam the Amazon.” Natural History 92 (7): 60-70. Discusses the ecological troubles of several major dams on the Amazon.

Cicin-Sain, Bililana and Robert W. Knecht. 2000. The Future of U. S. Ocean Policy: Choices for a New Century. Island Press. An analysis of the most important ocean and coastal issues facing the nation.

Chau, K.C. 1995. “The Three Gorges Project of China: resettlement prospects and problems.” Ambio 24 (2): 98-102. More than one million people are being moved to make way for this giant dam.

Clarke, Robin. 1993. Water: The International Crisis. MIT Press. A comprehensive look at a vital resource.

Collier, M., et al. 1996. “Dams and Rivers: Primer on the Downstream Effects of Dams.” Circular 1126 U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services, Tuscon, Ariz and Denver, Colo.

Davie, Timothy. 2002. Fundamentals of Hydrology. Routledge Press. An introduction to the study of water resources and hydrological processes.

Davis, Tony. 2004. “A thirst for growth.” High Country News 36 (16): 7-12. The San Pedro, Arizona’s last free-flowing river and an oasis for wildlife, is threatened by urban growth and uncontrolled groundwater pumping.

De Villier, Marq. 2000. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Mariner Books. Water shortages will be more serious unless we change our ways.

Dixon, J.A., et al. 1989. Dams and the Environment: Considerations in World Bank Projects. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. The bank often has been criticized for its role in financing big dams.

Dolan, R., et al. 1974. “Man’s impact on the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon.” American Scientist. 62: 392-401.

Donahue, John M. and Barbara Rose Johnston, (eds). 1997. Water, Culture, and Power: Local Struggles in a Global Context. Island Press. Control of water resources is a critical issue in many areas.

Driscoll, Charles T., et al. 2001. “Acidic Deposition in the Northeastern United States: Sources and Inputs, Ecosystem Effects, and Management Strategies,” BioScience 51 (3): 180-199. Although acid rain has been diminished in many places, it remains a serious problem in parts of New England.

Duncan, D. J. 2000. "Salmon's Second Coming," Sierra 85 (2): 30-41. Conservationists argue that obsolete dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers should be removed.

Dunne, Thomas and Luna B. Leopold. 1978. Water in Environmental Planning. Freeman. A great reference on hydrology and planning.

Dziegielewske, B., and D. D. Baumann. 1992. "Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands," Environment 34 (9): 6-10. By 2010, southern California may have enough water to fulfill only 70 percent of its needs. The authors discuss demand-management as a solution to water scarcity.

Egbert, G. D. & Ray, R. D. 2000. “Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite alimeter data”. Nature 405: 775 (2000). About a third of the energy that the Moon supplies to the sea goes into the deep ocean, causing turbulence and mixing that drives ocean circulation.

Ezzell, Carol. 2001. “The Himba and the Dam.” Scientific American 284 (6): 80-89. A proposed dam in Namibia would drive a self-sufficient tribe of indigenous people off their ancestral lands.

Fiege, Mark. 2000. Irrigated Eden : The Making of an Agricultural Landscape in the American West (Weyerhaeuser Environmental Book.). Univ. of Washington Press. A study of the coming of irrigation to southern Idaho's Snake River valley.

Fischetti, Mark. 2001. “Drowning New Orleans.” Scientific American 285 (4): 76-86. A major hurricane could swamp the sinking city under 20 feet of water, killing thousands.

Folger, Tim. 2004. “A thirsty nation.” OnEarth 26 (3): 30-37. Describes how springs on which the Hopi depend for survival are being dried up by the Peabody Coal Company, and how the contract that allowed strip mining of Black Mesa and tapping of its aquifer was negotiated by Attorney John S. Boyden who represented both the tribe and Peabody simultaneously.

Foster, Stephen, et al. 2000. Groundwater in Rural Development Technical Paper No. 463. World Bank, Washington, DC, Providing clean water is a major factor in development.

Fradkin, Philip L. 1996. A River No More : The Colorado River and the West. Univ. of California Press. The damming of the Colorado River and its impact on the American West.

Franklin, Chris. 1997. “Let the Colorado River Run Free,” Earth Island Journal 12 (2): 23. States the case for draining Glen Canyon.

Gardner, Gary. 1995. “From oasis to mirage: the aquifers that won’t be replenished,” Worldwatch 8 (3): 32-36. We’re mining fossil water from aquifers.

Gleick, Peter. H. 2003. Global freshwater resources: soft-path solutions for the 21st century.” Science 302: 1524-1528. Part of a special issue on the state of the planet.

Gleick, Peter. H., et al. 2002. The World's Water 2020-2003. Island Press. A biennial report on freshwater resources, dam construction, water law, and water conflicts.

Gleick, Peter. H. 2000. The World's Water 2000-2001. Island Press. A comprehensive catalog of freshwater resources, dam construction, water law, and water conflicts.

Gleick, Peter. H. 2001. “Making Every Drop Count” Scientific American 284 (2):40-45. An overview of the world’s freshwater supplies.

Gleick, Peter H. 1994. “Water, war and peace in the Middle East,” Environment 36 (3): 6-12. Since antiquity, water has been a prize and weapon of war.

Glennon, Robert. 2003. Water Follies Island Press. Excessive groundwater pumping is threatening freshwater supplies.

Graf, W. L. 1985. “The Colorado River: instability and basin management.” Resource Publications in Geography. Association of American Geographers. Allocation of the Colorado River water was based on an unusually wet year.

Grenoble, Penelope. 2003. “Yangtze Farewell.” Orion 22 (6): 26-33. Photographs and essays on the flooding of China’s Three Gorges.

Haddad, B. M. 2000. Rivers of Gold: Designing Markets to Allocate Water in California. Island Press. A discussion of market-based approaches to water conservation.

Hallowell, Christopher. 2001. Holding Back the Sea: The Struggle for America's Natural Legacy on the Gulf Coast. HarperCollins. The vanishing wetlands of the Gulf Coast.

Harvell, C. D., et al. 1999. "Emerging Marine Diseases-Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors," Science (US) 285: 1505-1510. September 3, 1999. Pollution and global warming are causing new examples of marine diseases.

Helle, I.D., et al. 1998. “Long-Term Growth Enhancement of Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) from Municipal Wastewater Application,” Environmental Management 22 (1): 119-127. Trees can effectively remove aquatic pollutants.

Hinrichsen, Don. 1995. “Waterworld,” The Amicus Journal 17 (2): 23-27. A century of politics in the Florida Everglades.

Hobbie, J. 2000. Estuarine Science. Island Press. An overview of the importance of and threats to estuaries.

Hoffman, Abraham. 1981. Vision or Villainy: Origins of the Owens Valley-Los Angeles Water Controversy. Texas A&M Press. The history of water wars and the origins of Los Angeles.

Holland, Marjorie M., et al. 2003. Achieving Sustainable Freshwater Systems. Island Press. How can we satisfy human demands and the needs of nature for this vital resource?

Homer-Dixon, T. F., et al. 1993. "Environmental Change and Violent Conflict," Scientific American 268 (2): 38-46. Examines the potential for armed conflict over diminishing environmental resources, especially fresh water.

Hulme, M., and M. Kelly. 1993. "Exploring the Links between Desertification and Climate Change," Environment 35 (6): 4-11. Describes desert spreading and climatic cycles as well as the effects of long-range drought on people's lives.

Jenkins, Matt. 2003. “California’s water binge skids to a halt.” High Country News 35 (20): 8-15. California’s Imperial Valley agrees to the largest farm-to-city water transfer in the nation’s history.

Jenkins, Matt. 2002. “The Royal Squeeze.” High Country News 34 (17): 8-13. For nearly a century, irrigation wastewater has kept the Salton Sea alive. Now, diversion of water from agriculture to cities may threaten wildlife.

Juhler, R.K., S.R. Sørensen and L. Larsen. 2001. “Analysing transformation products of herbicide residues in environmental samples” Water Research,. 35 (6) 1371-1378. Outlines techniques for assaying pollutants in ground water at parts per billion levels.

Kay, James W. 2003. “The Comeback Canyon.” Sierra 88 (6): 44-46. Drought is draining Lake Powell and revealing the Colorado’s Glen Canyon.

Koberstein, Paul. 1997. “Dam Slayers Have Their Day,” Inner Voice September/October 1997: 16-18. Across the U.S., there is growing support for removing dams that block fish habitat. This is one of six article in a special issue on river management.

Kraker, Daniel. 2004. “The New Water Czars.” High Country News 36 (5): 7-12. Court settlements over native American water rights have given a few tribes control over much of the water in the American southwest.

Kumar, M. Dinesh and O.P. Singh 2001. Water Policy 3(5): 387-403. Market instruments for demand management in the face of scarcity and overuse of water in Gujarat, Western India”. A lion's share of the scarce water in this area goes for irrigating cash crops at the cost of subsistence farming and rural drinking, while the pricing of canal water and electricity used for groundwater pumping is highly inefficient and inequitable.

Lansing, J. S. 1991. Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali. Princeton University Press. A fascinating account of how culture, religion and communal irrigation projects intertwine on this remarkable island.

Leopold, Luna. B. 1990. "Ethos, Equity and Water Resource," Environment 32 (2): 16-25. A useful review of water resources and management by a distinguished hydrologist.

Lewis, J. 1991. "The Ogallala Aquifer, an Underground Sea," EPA Journal 16 (6): 42-44. A good description of the history of and possible solutions to overuse of this imperiled resource.

Levin, Ted. 2004. “Turning Oceans Into Tap Water.” OnEarth 26 (2): 29-33. Tampa, GL is building a large desalination plant. Is that a good thing?

Lichatowich, Jim. 2001. Salmon Without Rivers: A History of the Pacific Salmon Crisis, Island Press. Surveys both the biology and politics of the salmon decline in western rivers.

Light, S., L. Gunderson, and C.S. Holling. 1995. “The Everglades: evolution of management in a turbulent ecosystem,” in Barriers and Bridges: The Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions p 103-168. Columbia University Press. Describes a decades long struggle to reach agreement on a multibillion dollar restoration project.

Lipták, Béla. 1997. “Judgment Day for the Danube,” Earth Island Journal 12(3):25. Report from The Hague on the world’s first environmental trial.

Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Curry, W. B. & Slowey, N. 1999. “Weaker Gulf Stream in the Florida Straits during the Last Glacial Maximum”. Nature 402, 644 (1999). During the last Ice Age, some 12,000 years ago, the deep-water current transported far less water than it does today. Indeed the sinking of dense water at the Poles may have stopped entirely.

Malle, Karl-Geert. 1996. “Cleaning Up the River Rhine,” Scientific American 274( 1): 70-75. An encouraging case study of international efforts to control water pollution.

Mastny, Lisa. 2003. “Messing with the Mekong.” Worldwatch 16 (6): 21-28. China wants to channel and dam the Mekong, to the potential detriment of downstream neighbors.

McCool, Daniel. 2004. “As dams fall, a chance for redemption.” High Country News 36 (12): 12-13, 19. As dams are removed, stream ecosystems can be restored.

McCully, P. 1996. Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams. London: Zed Books. A discussion of environmental effects of dams.

McPhaden, M. J. & Zhang, D. 2002. “Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean”. Nature, 415, 603 - 3608, (2002). A recent slowing in the circulation of Pacific Ocean waters could have raised Pacific sea surface temperatures and may be affecting global climate.

McPhee, John. 2002. The Founding Fish. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. An amazing collection of information about this once abundant anadromous fish, why it’s popular among anglers, and how we have depleted it.

Mincher, P. 1993. "The Philippine Energy Crisis," The Ecologist 23 (6): 228-232. Hydroelectric dams in badly deforested watersheds are silting up and causing an energy crisis. Local groups are calling for small-scale renewable-energy projects and energy conservation, but the government is pressing ahead with more mammoth projects.

Mitchell, J. 1993. “James Bay: where two worlds collide,” National Geographic 184 (5): 66-75. Great photos and good description of the social and ecological costs of Quebec’s James Bay hydropower project.

Murdoch PS, Baron JS, Miller TL. 2000 „”Potential effects of climate chance on surface-water quality in North America,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36(2):347-366.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Ocean Service. 2000. “Hypoxia In The Gulf of Mexico: Progress towards the completion of an Integrated Assessment.” available at A comprehensive report on causes, effects, and solutions to the dead zone.

Olmstead, Sheila M. 2003. “Water Supply and Poor Communities: What’s Price Got To Do With It?” Environment 45 (10): 22-35. Inadequate supplies can’t fully explain the problem of drinking-water access, many poor people simply can’t afford water.

O’Malley, P. G. 2003. “Yangtze Farewell.” Orion 22 (6): 26-33. Stories and photographs of the Yangtze as the water rises behind the Three Gorges Dam.

Outwater, Alice. 1997. Water : A Natural History Basic Books. A popular introduction to where our water comes from and where it goes after we use it.

Parfit, M. 1993. "Sharing the wealth of water," National Geographic 184 no. 5A: 20-30. The lead article in a special issue on water. Beautiful pictures.

Pearce, F. 1991. "Building a Disaster: The Monumental Folly of India's Tehri Dam," The Ecologist 21 (3): 123-126. If completed, the Tehri dam will be the largest in Asia. Its location in an earthquake-prone valley could be an ecological and social disaster.

Perry, James A. and Elizabeth Vanderklein. 1996. Water Quality: Management of a Natural Resource. Island Press. An excellent introduction to international water quality issues.

Pielou, E. C. 1998. Fresh Water. Univ. of Chicago Press. A survey of our water supplies and how we use them.

Postel, Sandra. 1997. Last Oasis : Facing Water Scarcity. W. W. Norton & Co. A Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series publication describing global resource limitations.

Postel, Sandra. 2001. “Growing Food with Less Water.” Scientific American 284 (2): 46-51. Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater in most countries. How can this precious resource be conserved and extended?

Postel, Sandra. 1999. Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last? W. W. Norton Co. Examines limitations to irrigated agriclture.

Postel, Sandra and Brian Richter. 2003. Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature. Island Press. A global perspective on water resources.

Qing, Dai. 1998. The River Dragon Has come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People. Probe International/International Rivers Network. Rare public criticism of top Chinese authorities for their decision to build the Three Gorges Dam.

Qing, Dai, et. 1994. Yangtze! Yangtze! Debate Over the Three Gorges Project. Earthscan. The author was arrested and held without trial for over a year for her outspoken criticism of this project.

Quammen, D. 1990. "A Long River with a Long History," Audubon 92 (2): 68-79. A grand description of the Rio Grande and how it shapes the ecology and culture of the southwest.

Quammen, David 1983. “Bin of water, river of corn,” Audubon 85 (5): 68-80. A wonderfully written article about Nebraska’s Niobara River.

Reisner. Marc. 1993. Cadillac Desert : The American West and Its Disappearing Water

Penguin Books. A fascinating look at western water issues.

Reisner, M., and S. F. Bates. 1990. Overtapped Oasis: Reform or Revolution for Western Water. Island Press. A stinging rebuke of business as usual in western water use.

Rebuffoni, Dean. 2002. “The Mighty Mississippi.” Sierra 86 (6): 50-59. A plea to restore America’s greatest river.

Ricketts, E. F., J. Calvin, and J. W. Hedgpeth. 1939. Between Pacific Tides. Stanford University Press. A classic manual of the sea life of Pacific tide pools. With a forward by John Steinbeck.

Richardson, Boyce. 1976. Strangers devour the land: A chronicle of the assault upon the last coherent hunting culture in North America, the Cree Indians of northern Quebec, and their vast primeval homelands. A.A. Knopf. A moving description of cultural and environmental effects of Quebec’s James Bay hydropower project.

Roberts, Callum M. et al. 2001. “Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries.” Science 294: 1920-1923. No take reserves help restock adjacent populations.

Rothenberg, David and Mara Ulvaeus, ed. 2001. Writing on Water. MIT Press. A collection of essays on all aspects of water.

Rothfeder, Jeff. 2001. Every Drop for Sale: Our Desperate Battle Over Water. Jeremy P. Tarcher Pub. Projects shortages and conflicts over this vital resource.

Rowell, G. 1993. "Flowing Free," Audubon 95 (6): 68-78. California's Tuolumne, which John Muir fought to protect, is one of the premier whitewater rivers in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Hydroelectric and irrigation projects have taken most of its water, but the remaining free-flowing sections are now part of the Wild and Scenic River System. Spectacular photographs.

Roy, Arundhati. 2000. “Before the Flood.” The Amicus Journal 22(3): 12-18. A famous novelist writes about the Narmada valley, its villagers, and the tyranny of big dams.

Roy, Arundhati. 1999. The Cost of Living. Random House. An elegant examination of the environmental costs of big dams.

Runyan, Curtis. 2001. “Liberating Rivers,” World Watch 14(1):31-40. An essay together with excerpts from Arundhati Roy and Patrick McCully on why we should remove some dams.

Sampat, Payal. 2000. “Groundwater Shock” Worldwatch 13 (1): 10-22. Groundwater ,the primary drinking water source for 1.5 billion people worldwide, is increasingly being polluted.

Sears, P. B. 1991. Deserts on the March. Island Press. A reissue of the classic 1935 study of human-caused desertification around the world.

Shirley, Mary. 2002. Thirsting for Efficency. Elsevier Pub. An economic theory of water that calls for institutional, political and economic reform.

Shiva, Vandana. 2002. Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution and Profit. South End Press. “Cowboy economics now govern the world’s fresh water supply putting billions of people at risk of insufficient access to clean water.”

Stegner, W. 1954. Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West. The Riverside Press. A classic history by the dean of western writers about the role of water in western settlement and politics.

Strong-Aufhauser, Lisa. 1995. “The Mono Lake water war,” Earth 4 (5): 50-57. Water diversions for Los Angeles have shrunk Mono Lake dramatically.

Swan, Jon 2004. “The Icelandic Rift.” Orion 23 (2): 60-69. A description of Iceland’s Karahnjukar Dam and its political and environmental consequences.

Tidwell, Mike. 2003. Bayou Farewell: The Rich Life and Tragic Death of Louisiana's Cajun Coast. Pantheon Books. Erosion and rising sea levels are destroying coastal wetlands.

Tortajada, Cecilia 2001. “First meeting of the Club of Tokyo for a global water policy dialogue, Tokyo, 25¯26 September, 2000,” Water Policy 3(5): 359-362

Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1968. The Hydrologic Cycle and The Wisdom of God: A Theme in Geoteleology. University of Toronto Press. A historic and cultural review of attitudes toward nature with special emphasis on the hydrologic cycle.

Van Slyke, Lyman P. 1988. Yangtze: Nature, History, and the River. Addison-Wesley Pub. A good introduction to the natural and human history of the Yangtze.

Viessman, W. and M. Hammer. 2004. Water Supply and Pollution Control 7th ed. Prentice Hall. A technical book on hydraulics and waste water management.

Villiers, Marq De. 2001. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Mariner Books. Examines the checkered history of humankind's water management.

Ward, Diane Raines . 2003. Water Wars: Drought, flood, folly, and the politics of thirst. Penguin Pub. A study of water conflicts—past and future.

Wentz, Patty. 2002. “River of a thousand promises.” On Earth vol. 23(4):14-19. A good description of the water struggles in the Klamath Basin.

White, Richard. 1996. The Organic Machine : The Remaking of the Columbia River. Hill and Wang. A critical history of how the Columbia River basin was transformed.

Wilkinson, Charles F. 1993. Crossing the Next Meridian : Land, Water, and the Future of the West. Island Press. Argues that American land-use and water laws have been become outmoded and must be radically rethought to protect the environment,

Wolf, Aaron T., et al. 1999. “International River Basins of the World.” WaterRresources Development 15 (4): 387-427. A valuable review of freshwater resources.

Wolman, David. 2004. “Hydrates, hydrates everywhere.” Discover 26 (10): 62-67. Creating ethane hydrates in seawater could provide a low-cost supply of freshwater.

Woodard, Colin. 2004. “State of the oceans.” Nature Conservancy 54 (3): 44-66. The oceans are in serious trouble nearly everywhere.

Worster, Donald. 1985. Rivers of Empire : Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. Random House. A masterful account of water and the settling of the American west.


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Freshwater Ecoregions of North America icon1. Lookout tower on the North Umpqua. College of Forestry Photograph Collection (P 61) Forestry Structures. Osu archives. North Umpqua River, history

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