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Credit System in M.Sc. (Meteorology)
I-Year First Semester
I-Year Second Semester
II-Year Third Semester
II-Year Fourth Semester
M.Sc. Meteorology & M.Sc. Physical Oceanography
Syllabi for I year – First Semester
M-101/PO-101: Physical and Dynamical Climatology
Introduction : Weather and climate concepts - World climate system - climate of the hemispheres. Solar radiation - heating and cooling rates of the atmosphere - latitudinal distribution of the radiation balances of the earth’s surface, atmosphere and earth’s atmosphere system. Global distribution of temperature, precipitation pressure and winds - Circulation pattern during winter and summer seasons. Jet streams. Monsoons – Asia, Australia, E. Africa and North America; Systems of climatic classification - Koppen - Thornthwaite.
General circulation of the atmosphere - convective and meridional circulation - Rossby’s tricellular model - Palmen’s modified model - Circulation indices - Experiments of General Circulation – Dishpan experiment; Dynamics of atmospheric circulation-- Maintenance of the General circulation – Kinetic energy, angular momentum, absolute vorticity balance. NAO and Pacific oscillations
Climatic changes - local and planetary evidences - carbon dating - theories of climate changes; Paleoclimate - Climate change and variations in Earth’s orbit; Climate trends - ENSO - teleconnections of the world climate system - Ozone hole; Nuclear winter ; Global warming -Consequences of global warming; Volcanic eruptions and aerosols; Impact of climate change on weather and climate; Climate change and agriculture
M-102/PO-102: Physical Oceanography
Physical properties of seawater: Temperature, Salinity and Conductivity, Density, Sound in the sea, Light in the sea, Colour of seawater. Temperature, Salinity and density distributions. Transparency of seawater.
Heat budget of the oceans: Heat budget terms, Short and Long wave radiation, Evaporation, Heat conduction.
Oceanographic Instruments: Temperature measurements; Protected and unprotected reversing thermometers, MBT, XBT, Sea Gliders, CTD. Current measurements: Lagrangian and Eulerian methods with examples, Aandhera current meter, ADCP, Position fixing at sea, GPS. Wave and Tide measurements.
Marine Geology: Continental shelf; Slope, Shelf sediments, mineral resources of the world ocean, submarine topography, mid oceanic ridge system. Manganese and other deposits and the factors control their distribution. Beach material, Shape and size. Beach terminology.
Marine chemistry: Composition of seawater, constancy of composition, dissolved gases, oxygen in the ocean, transfer of particle-aerosols, plankton and climate, bio-geo chemical cycles, marine environment and their characteristics, Marine Eco - system, Rocky shore, Sandy shore, Mangroves and Seaweed
Descriptive physical oceanography by G.L. Pickard and W.J. Emery
Oceans by Sverdrup and Johnson and Flemming
Descriptive physical oceanography by M.P.M. Reddy
M-103/PO-103: Physical Meteorology
State of the atmosphere : Main constituents of dry air, carbon dioxide, ozone, ozone depletion, water vapour and aerosols; Vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere : Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere; Environmental lapse rate; Standard atmosphere; Hydrostatic equilibrium; Hydrostatic equation; Geopotential; Equipotential surfaces.
Thermodynamics of dry air : Equation of state, Expansion of gas under constant pressure; Law of conservation of energy; specific heats of a gas; First law of thermodynamics; Adiabatic process in the atmosphere; Potential temperature; Equation state of dry air; poisson’s equation for dry air; Alternative forms of the energy equation; Entropy; Enthalpy.
Thermodynamics of moist air: The three states of water substances; The Classius and Clapeyron equation; Equation of state for water vapour; Moisture variables (Absolute humidity, specific humidity, relative humidity, mixing ratio); Relationship between Rm and Rd; Virtual temperature.
Isobaric processes for moist air: Dew point temperature; Wet bulb temperature; Equivalent temperature; Adiabatic expansion of unsaturated air; Adiabatic expansion of saturated air.
Vertical stability of the atmosphere: Dry adiabatic lapse rate; Standard adiabatic lapse rate; Equilibrium states; The parcel method; Application of the parcel method; Latent instability; The slice method; Relation between potential and latent instability; Stability of layers.
Solar Radiation: Characteristics of the sun; Nature of solar radiation; Definitions and concepts in radiation; Transfer of radiation through a medium; Terrestrial radiation; Characteristics of terrestrial radiation; Absorption of terrestrial radiation; Transmission of terrestrial radiation through the atmosphere; Simpson’s computation of terrestrial radiation transfer; Elsasser’s radiation chart; Radiative cooling or heating of the atmosphere; The mean heat balance of the earth - atmosphere system; The atmospheric green house effect.
M-104/PO-104: Dynamic Meteorology
Inertial and Non Inertial frames- Fundamental Forces-Pressure Gradient Forces, Gravitational Force. Friction or Viscous Force. Apparent forces- Centrifugal Force, Coriolis force, Affective Gravity. Momentum Equations- Cartesian Coordinate System, Spherical – Polar coordinate system. Scale analysis of momentum equations. Hydrostatic approximation. Balanced motion - Geotropic Wind, Gradient Wind, Thermal wind.
Continuity equation – Horizontal divergence, Vertical motion. Isobaric coordinate System - Transformation of momentum & continuity equations. Circulation & Vorticity – Bjerknes circulation theorem. Application to Land & Sea breeze. Vorticity equation. Potential vorticity - Application to Lee of the mountain trough, CAV Trajectories, Scale analysis of vorticity equation.
Atmospheric boundary layer: Atmospheric turbulence; Boussinesq approximation, Reynolds equations; Turbulent kinetic energy; Momentum equations for PBL- well mixed boundary layer, the Flux-gradient theory, Mixing length theory, Ekman layer, Surface layer, Modified Ekman layer; Secondary circulations; Prandtl Layer – Logarithmic Profile Properties of Prandtl Layer
M-105/PO-105: Meteorology and Ocean Computations
Equivalent potential temperature
Lifting condensation level
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