Approved Course Pattern and Syllabi w e. f. 2007-2008 academic year




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Approved Course Pattern and Syllabi w.e.f. 2007-2008 academic year

Credit System in M.Sc. (Meteorology)


I-Year First Semester


Course No.

Title of the Paper

Periods per week

Internal assessment marks

Semester end examination marks

Total

Marks

Credits

L

P

T

Theory:

M–101

Physical and Dynamical Climatology

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–102

Physical Oceanography

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–103

Physical Meteorology

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–104

Dynamical Meteorology

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

Practicals:

M–105



Meteorology and Oceanography Computations

-

6

6


15


85

100

4

M–106


Computer Programming and Data Processing

-

6

6

15

85

100

4

M–107

Viva-voce

-

-

-

-

50

50

2




Total

16+4*

12

28+4*

90

560

650

26


I-Year Second Semester


Theory:

M–201

Synoptic Meteorology

4+1*

-

4+1*


15


85

100

4

M–202

Electronics

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–203

Dynamical Oceanography

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–204

Advanced Dynamical Meteorology

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

Practicals:

M–205


Synoptic Analysis

-

6

6


15


85

100

4

M–206

Electronics

-

6

6

15

85

100

4

M–207

Viva-voce

-

-

-

-

50

50

2




Total

16+4*

12

28+4*

90

560

650

26


II-Year Third Semester


Theory:

M–301

Observational Techniques

4+1*

-

4+1*


15


85

100

4

M–302

Cloud Physics

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–303

Numerical Weather Prediction

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–304

Air-Sea Interaction

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

Practicals:

M–305


Instruments

-

6

6


15


85

100

4

M–306

Numerical Weather Prediction

-

6

6

15

85

100

4

M–307

Viva-voce

-

-

-

-

50

50

2




Total

16+4*

12

28+4*

90

560

650

26


II-Year Fourth Semester


Theory:

M–401

Satellite Meteorology

4+1*

-

4+1*


15


85

100

4

M–402

Tropical Meteorology

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–403

Climate Modelling

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

M–404

Agricultural and Hydrometeorology

4+1*

-

4+1*

15

85

100

4

Practicals:

M–405


Applied Meteorology

-

6

6


15


85

100

4

M–406

Dissertation

-

6

6

15

85

100

4

M–407

Viva-voce

-

-

-

-

50

50

2




Total

16+4*

12

28+4*

90

560

650

26

Grand Total (1+2+3+4 semesters)

64+16*

48

112+16*

360

2240

2600

104

* Tutorial


M.Sc. Meteorology & M.Sc. Physical Oceanography


Syllabi for I year – First Semester


M-101/PO-101: Physical and Dynamical Climatology


Unit-I:


Introduction : Weather and climate concepts - World climate system - climate of the hemispheres. Solar radiation - heating and cooling rates of the atmosphere - latitudinal distribution of the radiation balances of the earth’s surface, atmosphere and earth’s atmosphere system. Global distribution of temperature, precipitation pressure and winds - Circulation pattern during winter and summer seasons. Jet streams. Monsoons – Asia, Australia, E. Africa and North America; Systems of climatic classification - Koppen - Thornthwaite.


Unit-II:


General circulation of the atmosphere - convective and meridional circulation - Rossby’s tricellular model - Palmen’s modified model - Circulation indices - Experiments of General Circulation – Dishpan experiment; Dynamics of atmospheric circulation-- Maintenance of the General circulation – Kinetic energy, angular momentum, absolute vorticity balance. NAO and Pacific oscillations


Unit-III:


Climatic changes - local and planetary evidences - carbon dating - theories of climate changes; Paleoclimate - Climate change and variations in Earth’s orbit; Climate trends - ENSO - teleconnections of the world climate system - Ozone hole; Nuclear winter ; Global warming -Consequences of global warming; Volcanic eruptions and aerosols; Impact of climate change on weather and climate; Climate change and agriculture


Text Books:

  1. Physical climatology, William D. Sellers.

  2. Climatology - Bernhard, Haurwitz and James M. Austin.

  3. Dynamical and physical Meteorology, George J.Haltiner and Frank L. Martin.

  4. Physics of monsoon, Keshav Murthy and Sankar Rao

  5. Essentials of meteorology – C. Donald Ahrens



M-102/PO-102: Physical Oceanography


Unit-I:


Physical properties of seawater: Temperature, Salinity and Conductivity, Density, Sound in the sea, Light in the sea, Colour of seawater. Temperature, Salinity and density distributions. Transparency of seawater.

Heat budget of the oceans: Heat budget terms, Short and Long wave radiation, Evaporation, Heat conduction.


Unit-II:


Oceanographic Instruments: Temperature measurements; Protected and unprotected reversing thermometers, MBT, XBT, Sea Gliders, CTD. Current measurements: Lagrangian and Eulerian methods with examples, Aandhera current meter, ADCP, Position fixing at sea, GPS. Wave and Tide measurements.


Unit-III:


Marine Geology: Continental shelf; Slope, Shelf sediments, mineral resources of the world ocean, submarine topography, mid oceanic ridge system. Manganese and other deposits and the factors control their distribution. Beach material, Shape and size. Beach terminology.


Marine chemistry: Composition of seawater, constancy of composition, dissolved gases, oxygen in the ocean, transfer of particle-aerosols, plankton and climate, bio-geo chemical cycles, marine environment and their characteristics, Marine Eco - system, Rocky shore, Sandy shore, Mangroves and Seaweed


Text books:


Descriptive physical oceanography by G.L. Pickard and W.J. Emery

Oceans by Sverdrup and Johnson and Flemming

Descriptive physical oceanography by M.P.M. Reddy


M-103/PO-103: Physical Meteorology


Unit-I:


State of the atmosphere : Main constituents of dry air, carbon dioxide, ozone, ozone depletion, water vapour and aerosols; Vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere : Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere; Environmental lapse rate; Standard atmosphere; Hydrostatic equilibrium; Hydrostatic equation; Geopotential; Equipotential surfaces.


Unit-II:


Thermodynamics of dry air : Equation of state, Expansion of gas under constant pressure; Law of conservation of energy; specific heats of a gas; First law of thermodynamics; Adiabatic process in the atmosphere; Potential temperature; Equation state of dry air; poisson’s equation for dry air; Alternative forms of the energy equation; Entropy; Enthalpy.


Thermodynamics of moist air: The three states of water substances; The Classius and Clapeyron equation; Equation of state for water vapour; Moisture variables (Absolute humidity, specific humidity, relative humidity, mixing ratio); Relationship between Rm and Rd; Virtual temperature.


Isobaric processes for moist air: Dew point temperature; Wet bulb temperature; Equivalent temperature; Adiabatic expansion of unsaturated air; Adiabatic expansion of saturated air.


Vertical stability of the atmosphere: Dry adiabatic lapse rate; Standard adiabatic lapse rate; Equilibrium states; The parcel method; Application of the parcel method; Latent instability; The slice method; Relation between potential and latent instability; Stability of layers.


Unit-III:


Solar Radiation: Characteristics of the sun; Nature of solar radiation; Definitions and concepts in radiation; Transfer of radiation through a medium; Terrestrial radiation; Characteristics of terrestrial radiation; Absorption of terrestrial radiation; Transmission of terrestrial radiation through the atmosphere; Simpson’s computation of terrestrial radiation transfer; Elsasser’s radiation chart; Radiative cooling or heating of the atmosphere; The mean heat balance of the earth - atmosphere system; The atmospheric green house effect.


Text Books:


  1. Dynamical and Physical Meteorology - G.J.Haltiner and F.L.Martin

  2. Compendium of Meteorology (WMO Pub.) - Physical Meteorology, 1973, Vol.1, No.2

  3. Physical Meteorology - H.G.Houghton

  4. Atmospheric Thermodynamics - J.V.Iribarne and W.L.Godson



M-104/PO-104: Dynamic Meteorology


Unit- I


Inertial and Non Inertial frames- Fundamental Forces-Pressure Gradient Forces, Gravitational Force. Friction or Viscous Force. Apparent forces- Centrifugal Force, Coriolis force, Affective Gravity. Momentum Equations- Cartesian Coordinate System, Spherical – Polar coordinate system. Scale analysis of momentum equations. Hydrostatic approximation. Balanced motion - Geotropic Wind, Gradient Wind, Thermal wind.


Unit- II


Continuity equation – Horizontal divergence, Vertical motion. Isobaric coordinate System - Transformation of momentum & continuity equations. Circulation & Vorticity – Bjerknes circulation theorem. Application to Land & Sea breeze. Vorticity equation. Potential vorticity - Application to Lee of the mountain trough, CAV Trajectories, Scale analysis of vorticity equation.


Unit- III


Atmospheric boundary layer: Atmospheric turbulence; Boussinesq approximation, Reynolds equations; Turbulent kinetic energy; Momentum equations for PBL- well mixed boundary layer, the Flux-gradient theory, Mixing length theory, Ekman layer, Surface layer, Modified Ekman layer; Secondary circulations; Prandtl Layer – Logarithmic Profile Properties of Prandtl Layer


Text Books:


  1. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, J.R.Holton

  2. Dynamical and Physical Meteorology, G.J.Haltiner and Martin

  3. Dynamic Meteorology, B.Haurwitz

  4. Dynamic Meteorology, Ed.Wiin Nielsen, WMO Publication



M-105/PO-105: Meteorology and Ocean Computations


Meteorology computations:


  1. Calculation of horizontal divergence from wind data

  2. Calculation of absolute vorticity from wind data

  3. Calculation of geostrophic wind

  4. Calculation of gradient wind

  5. Calculation of thermal wind

  6. Calculation of vertical velocity

  7. T - Φ gram analysis: analysis of aerological data

Potential temperature

Equivalent temperature

Equivalent potential temperature

Lifting condensation level

Equilibrium level

Stability indices

  1. Elsasser’s Radiation chart: Flux determination


Ocean Computations:


  1. Computation of salinity from Chlorinity

  2. Computation of Density using temperature and salinity

  3. Determine the Specific volume anomaly using Temperature, Salinity and Depth

  4. Computation of potential temperature

  5. Stability characteristics of water column and Richardson number

  6. Computation of relative currents

  7. Vorticity computation

  8. Estimation of tides from tide tables

  9. Analysis on Upwelling and Sinking

  10. Velocity of a tidal wave travelling in a water at a depth H



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