National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System [npoess]




НазваниеNational Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System [npoess]
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National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System [NPOESS]

Preparatory Project [NPP]


NPP

Calibration and Product Validation

Plan


December 30, 2001

Updates for OMPS: May 2003


NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL
ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM (NPOESS)

INTEGRATED PROGRAM OFFICE


and the


NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION


Calibration and Product Validation Plan


Prepared by: NPP Calibration / Validation Team


Reviewed by: ___________________________________________

Stephen A. Mango, NPOESS IPO Date

NPOESS Project Scientist


___________________________________________

Robert E. Murphy, NASA GSFC Date

GSFC Project Scientist


Approved by: ___________________________________________

John D. Cunningham, NPOESS IPO Date

System Program Director, NPOESS


___________________________________________

Phil Sabelhouse, NASA GSFC Date

Associate Director of Flight Projects for EOS-G


List of Contributors


Name Area of Contribution/Responsibility


Gail Bingham CrIS Sensor, Characterization and Calibration

Ralph Bennartz MW Cal/Val

Wayne Esaias Visible Calibration, Ocean EDRs

Larry Flynn OMPS

Mitch Goldberg CrIS, Product QA

Andy Heidinger Atmospheric/Cloud EDRs

Ernest Hilsenrath OMPS

John Hornstein OMPS

R. O. Knuteson Field Experiment, IR Radiative Transfer

Louis Kouvaris CrIMSS and CDRs

Allen Larar CrIMSS Chair

Chuck McClain Data management

Steve Mango Government Team Co-Chair

Paul Menzel VIIRS Chair

Peter Minnett VIIRS SDR, SST

Dan Mooney CrIS Sensor

Jeff Morisette Validation, VIIRS Land

Bob Murphy Government Team Co-Chair

Hassan Ouaidrari VIIRS Cal/Land, NPP Cal/Val Executive Secretary

Steve Platnick VIIRS Atmosphere

Jeff Privette VIIRS Land EDRs

Gail Reichert NPP Direct Broadcast

Hank Revercomb CrIS EDRs, Sensor Design, Characterization & Calibration

Joe Rice NIST Calibration and Verification

David Roy Data Issues (QA)

Dave Staelin ATMS, MW Radiative Transfer, ATMS Products

Bill Smith Product Grouping, CrIS Sensor/CrIS/ATMS EDRs

Dave Starr Cal/Val Management Issues

Larrabee Strow CrIS EDRs, Forward Model, Characterization & Calibration

Joel Susskind CrIMSS and CDRs

Les Thompson Sensor Design

Dave Tobin CrIS SDR, Field Experiment, IR Radiative Transfer

Fuzhong Weng Microwave Sounding, Sounding Products

Jack Xiong VIIRS Characterization and Calibration, Imagery EDR


List of Contents



1 Executive Summary 10

1.1 The Government Team 10

1.1.1 IPO Activities 11

1.1.2 NASA Activities 11

1.2 NPP Calibration Validation Activities 12

1.2.1 Sensor Test Data 12

1.2.2 Simulated data 12

1.2.3 Aircraft Validation Data 12

1.2.4 Other Sensors Validation Data 13

1.2.5 Coordinated Measurement Campaigns 13

1.2.6 Data Processing 13

1.3 Phasing of Activities and Evolution of This Plan 14

2 Introduction 16

2.1 Bridging the EOS and NPOESS Eras 18

2.1.1 Maintaining Continuity of Data Records 18

2.1.2 NPP Bridging Mission 18

2.1.3 NASA Project Science Office (PSO) 20

2.1.4 Integrated Program Office (IPO) 20

2.2 Overview of NPP Sensors 21

2.2.1 VIIRS 21

2.2.2 CrIS 21

2.2.3 ATMS 21

2.3 Overview of Calibration/Validation Efforts 22

2.3.1 Pre-launch Test Data 24

2.3.2 Ground Validation Network 25

2.3.3 Field Experiments 25

2.3.4 Intercomparison with Other Satellite Sensors 26

2.4 Getting Ready for NPP 26

2.4.1 NPP Calibration and Validation Program Management 26

2.4.2 Calibration and Validation Team Responsibilities 27

2.4.3 Timeline of Major Activities 27

2.4.4 Participants 27

3 NPP Product Summary 28

3.1 NPP Product Generation 28

3.1.1 IDPS Operational Products 28

3.1.2 SDS Climate Research Products 29

3.2 Description of SDRs/Level 1B Products 29

3.3 Description of Level 2 (EDR/CDRs) Products 30

3.4 Summary of EDRs/CDRs Performance Requirements 33

4 Instrument Pre-launch Characterization and Calibration 35

4.1 Common Issues for Instrument Characterization and Calibration 35

4.2 VIIRS Pre-Launch Characterization and Calibration 37

4.2.1 VIIRS Instrument Characterization 38

4.2.2 On-Board Calibrator Characterization 39

4.3 CrIS Pre-launch Characterization and Calibration 39

4.3.1 CrIS Radiometric Calibration 40

4.3.2 CrIS Noise Performance Verification 41

4.3.3 CrIS Spectral Calibration 41

4.3.4 Additional CrIS Characterization 42

4.4 ATMS Pre-Launch Characterization and Calibration 42

4.4.1 ATMS Temperature Sensitivity (NEDT) 42

4.4.2 ATMS Bandpass Characteristics 42

4.4.3 ATMS System Linearity 42

4.4.4 ATMS Calibration 43

4.4.5 ATMS Antenna Pattern Measurements 43

4.4.6 ATMS Polarization Angle Alignment 43

4.5 Verification of NPOESS Calibration/Validation Standards Using NIST Traceability 47

4.5.1 Plan Overview 47

4.5.2 Summary of the Intercomparison Activities 48

5 Level 1 Product Post-launch Validation 51

5.1 Radiative Transfer Models Calculations 52

5.1.1 VIIRS Radiative Transfer (Visible to Infrared) 53

5.1.2 CrIS Radiative Transfer (Infrared) 54

5.1.3 ATMS Radiative Transfer Model (Microwave) 56

5.2 Radiance Validation 64

5.2.1 Visible, Infrared and Microwave Radiance Validation 64

5.2.2 Approaches for Routine Radiance Validation 65

5.2.3 Approaches Planned for Radiance Validation 66

5.3 Spatial co-registration validation 72

5.3.1 Instrument and spacecraft alignment data verification 73

5.3.2 Band-to-Band Registration (BBR) verification 73

5.3.3 Instrument-to-Instrument Registration In addition to pre-launch spatial characterization that includes the determination of band-to-band registration, it is essential to validate and monitor on-orbit variation of BBR and its long-term stability. For sensors with multi-focal plane assemblies, this also includes the co-registration among different focal planes. For comparison of science products derived from different sensors, sensor-to-sensor co-registration is also needed. Most likely this can only be done from on-orbit observations. 73

5.3.4 Sensor Navigation Validation 74

6 Level 2 and Higher Product Post-launch Validation 75

6.1 Validation of Groups of NPP Products 76

6.1.1 Surface Validation Sites 78

6.1.2 Airborne Validation Platforms 79

6.1.3 Satellite Sensor-to-Sensor Cross-Validation 79

6.2 Activities Supporting NPP Products Validation 79

6.3 Routine Validation Approaches 80

6.3.1 Product Validation Using NWP Analysis 80

6.3.2 Product Validation Using Operational Radiosondes 81

6.3.3 Regeneration of Products Using Ancillary Data 81

6.3.4 Product Validation Using Sun-photometer Networks (AERONET) 81

6.3.5 Product Validation Using Ship Cruises and Buoys 81

6.3.6 Product Validation Using Tower Data (EOS Validation Core Sites) 82

6.4 Planned Validation Approaches for NPP EDR Operational Products 82

6.4.1 Validation Approaches for Atmospheric Sounding Products 82

6.4.2 Validation Approaches for Aerosol Products 84

6.4.3 Validation Approaches for Cloud Products 85

6.4.4 Validation Approaches for Land Products 85

6.4.5 Validation Approaches for Ocean Products 88

6.4.6 Validation Approaches for Snow/Ice Products 89

6.5 Planned Validation Approaches for Other NPP EDR and CDR products 91

6.5.1 Atmospheric Sounding Profile Validation 91

6.5.2 Validation Approaches for Aerosol Products 94

6.5.3 Validation Approaches for Cloud Products 95

6.5.4 Validation Approaches for Land Products 95

6.5.5 Validation Approaches for Ocean Products 96

7 Data Processing Support for Calibration, Quality Assessment and Validation 97

7.1 Calibration, Quality Assessment and Validation 97

7.2 NPP Data Approach 98

7.3 Production System Support for Calibration, Quality Assessment, and Validation 99

7.3.1 Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) 99

7.3.2 Science Data Segment (SDS) 99

7.3.3 Direct Broadcast System 100

7.4 Archive and Distribution System Support for Calibration, Quality Assessment, and Validation 100

7.4.1 Archive & Distribution Segment (ADS) 101

7.4.2 SDS archive 101

7.4.3 ADS and SDS Archive Requirements 101

7.5 Validation Data Set Needs and Management 102

7.6 Examples of Validation Data Supporting QA System 103



Appendices



Appendix A: Overall Approach to Calibration and Validation 105

Appendix B: EDR and CDR Performance Requirements 115

Appendix C: Verification to NIST Standards 134

Appendix D: VIIRS Instrument Characterization and Calibration Tests 145

Appendix E: CrIS Instrument Characterization and Calibration Tests 152

Appendix F: ATMS Instrument Characterization and Calibration Tests 154

Appendix G: Surface Based Networks / Field Campaigns Relevant to NPP Cal/Val 158

Appendix H: EDR/CDRs Validation Specifics 191

Appendix I: Matrix of Who, What, When and How Much (from Co-Chairs) 219

Appendix J: Definitions 220

Appendix K: References 224

Appendix L: Acronyms 226


List of Figures



Figure 2 1: Agency Responsibility for NPP Segments and Data Flow 17

Figure 4 2: Instrument Characterization Occurs at all Levels of Assembly 36

Figure 5 3: High Level Schematic of the Radiance Validation Process 51

Figure 6 4: High Level Schematic of the EDR/CDRs Validation Process 75



List of Tables


Table 2 1: Data Set Processing Levels 19

Table 3 2: SDR/Level 1B information required for NPP sensors 30

Table 3 3: IDPS EDRs, Product Group, & Primary Associated Instruments 32

Table 3 4: Potential CDRs, Product Group, and Primary Associated Instruments 33

Table 4 5: Characterization and Calibration of the VIIRS Instrument 39

Table 4 6: Plan of the Intercomparison Activities during the NPP Pre-Launch Phase 50

Table 4 7: Participants in NIST Traceability Verification Activities 50

Table 6 8: NPP Validation Strategies 76

Table 6 9: Validation Strategies for NPP EDR/CDRs 77

Table 6 10: NPP Ground Validation Sites 78



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