11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote

Название11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote
Размер1.55 Mb.
1   ...   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   ...   56


This report constitutes the SAB Panel’s response to charge questions posed by the

EPA Office of Water. This Advisory reaffirms the major findings of the Integrated Assessment, while pointing out the need for economic incentives to encourage conservation in the Mississippi Atchafalaya River basin. Although the science has

grown, actions to control hypoxia have lagged. The SAB urges the EPA and other

agencies to utilize the recommendations of this Advisory and move ahead with implementing programs, strategies and policies to reduce the size of the hypoxic zone and improve water quality in the Mississippi Atchafalaya River basin.

Most of the research and monitoring needs identified in the Integrated Assessment have not been met, and fewer rivers and streams are monitored today than in 2000. The majority of monitoring recommendations in the Integrated Assessment remain relevant and should be heeded, specifically the CENR’s call to improve and expand monitoring of the temporal and spatial extent of hypoxia and the processes controlling its formation; the flux of nutrients, carbon, and other constituents from non-point sources throughout the MARB and to the NGOM; and measured (rather than estimated) nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes from municipal and industrial point sources. Echoing the CENR, the SAB Panel affirms the need for research on the ecological effects of hypoxia; watershed nutrient dynamics; effects of different agricultural practices on nutrient losses from land, particularly at the small watershed scale; nutrient cycling and carbon dynamics; long-term changes in hydrology and climate; and economic and social impacts of hypoxia. A suite of models is needed to simulate the processes and linkages that regulate the onset, duration and extent of hypoxia. Emerging coastal ocean observation and prediction systems should be encouraged to monitor dissolved oxygen and other physical and biogeochemical parameters needed to continue improving hypoxia models.

Although there are over 90 recommendations in this report, the following major recommendations reflect the SAB Panel’s consideration of the new science that has emerged since the Integrated Assessment.

To advance the science characterizing hypoxia and its causes, the SAB Panel finds that research is needed to:

  • collect and analyze additional sediment core data needed to develop a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends in hypoxia;

  • investigate freshwater plume dispersal, vertical mixing processes and stratification over the Louisiana-Texas continental shelf and Mississippi Sound, and use three-dimensional hydrodynamic models to study the consequences of past and future flow diversions to NGOM distributaries;

  • advance the understanding of biogeochemical and transport processes affecting the load of biologically available nutrients and organic matter to the Gulf of Mexico, and develop a suite of models that integrate physics and biogeochemistry;

  • elucidate the role of P relative to N in regulating phytoplankton production in various zones and seasons, and investigate the linkages between inshore primary production, offshore production, and the fate of carbon produced in each zone;

  • improve models that characterize the onset, volume, extent, and duration of the hypoxic zone, and develop modeling capability to capture the importance of P, N, and P-N interactions in hypoxia formation.

With respect to advancing the science on sources, fate and transport of nutrients, the SAB Panel finds that research is needed to:

  • develop models to simulate fluvial processes and estimate N and P transfer to stream channels under different management scenarios;

  • improve the understanding of temporal and seasonal nutrient fluxes and develop nutrient, sediment, and organic matter budgets within the MARB;

To enhance the scientific basis for implementation of management options, the SAB Panel finds that research is needed to:

  • examine the efficacy of dual nutrient control practices;

  • determine the extent, pattern, and intensity of agricultural drainage as well as opportunities to reduce nutrient discharge by improving drainage management;

  • integrate monitoring, modeling, experimental results, and ongoing management into an improved conceptual understanding of how the forces at key management scales influence the formation of the hypoxia zone; and

  • develop integrated economic and watershed models to support adaptive management at multiple scales.

To reduce the size of the hypoxic zone, the SAB Panel recommends at least a 45% reduction in N accompanied by a comparable reduction in P. The Panel found five areas that offer the most significant opportunities for N and P reductions:

  • promotion of environmentally sustainable approaches to biofuel production and associated cropping systems (e.g. perennials).

  • improved management of nutrients by emphasizing infield nutrient management efficiency and effectiveness to reduce losses;

  • construction and restoration of wetlands, as well as criteria for targeting those wetlands that may have a higher priority for reducing nutrient losses;

  • introduction of tighter N and P limits on municipal point sources; and

  • improved targeting of conservation buffers, including riparian buffers, filter strips and grassed waterways, to control surface-borne nutrients.


Ackerman, F., Biewald, B., White, D., Woolf, T., and Moomaw, W., 1999, Grand-fathering and coal plant emissions—The cost of cleaning up the Clean Air Act: Energy Policy, v. 27, p. 929–940.

Adviento-Borbe, M.A.A., Haddix, M.L., Binder, D.L., Walters, D.T., and Dobermann, A., 2007, Soil greenhouse gas fluxes and global warming potential in four high-yielding maize systems: Global Change Biology, in press, listed online as Accepted Articles at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01421.x, last accessed August 15, 2007.

Aillery, M., Gollehon, N., Johansson, R., Kaplan, J., Key, N., and Ribaudo, M., 2005, Managing manure to improve air and water quality: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Research Report 9, 65 p., available online at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err9/err9.pdf

Alexander, R.B., Boyer, E.W., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Moore, R.B., 2007a, The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 43, no. 1, p. 41–59.

Alexander, R.B., Elliott, A.H., Shankar, U., and McBride, G.B., 2002a, Estimating the sources and transport of nutrients in the Waikato River basin, New Zealand: Water Resources Research, v. 38, p. 1268–1290.

Alexander, R.B., Johnes, P.J., Boyer, E.W., and Smith, R.A., 2002b, A comparison of models for estimating the riverine export of nitrogen from large watersheds: Biogeochemistry, v. 57/58, p. 295–339.

Alexander, R.B., Slack, J.R., Ludtke, A.S., Fitzgerald, K.K., and Schertz, T.L., 1998, Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water-quality monitoring networks: Water Resources Research, v. 34, no. 9, p. 2401–2405.

Alexander, R.B., and Smith, R.A., 2006, Trends in the nutrient enrichment of U.S. rivers during the late 20th century and their relation to changes in probable stream trophic conditions: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 51, p. 639–654.

Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., and Schwarz, G.E., 2000, Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico: Nature, v. 403, p. 758–761.

Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., and Schwarz, G.E., 2004, Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model: Water Science and Technology, v. 49, no. 3, p. 1–10.

Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., Boyer, E.W., Nolan, J.V., and Brakebill, J.W., in press, Differences in phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River basin: Environmental Science and Technology, (In press), (accepted for publication 10/30/2007).

Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A. Schwarz, G.E., Preston, S.D., Brakebill, J.W., Srinivasan, R., and Pacheco, P.A., 2001, Atmospheric nitrogen flux from the watersheds of major estuaries of the United States: An application of the SPARROW watershed model, in Valigura, R., Alexander, R., Castro, M., Meyers, T., Paerl, H., Stacey, P., and Turner, R.E., eds., Nitrogen loading in coastal water bodies—An atmospheric perspective: American Geophysical Union Monograph 57, p. 119–170.

Aller, R.C., 1998, Mobile deltaic and continental shelf muds as sub-oxic, fluidized bed reactors: Marine Chemistry, v. 61, p. 143–155.

Aller, R.C., Heilbrun, C., Panzeca, C., Zhu, Z.-B., and Baltzer, F., 2004. Coupling between sedimentary dynamics, early diagenetic processes, and biogeochemical cycling in the Amazon-Guianas mobile mud belt: Coastal French Guiana: Marine Geology, v. 208, p. 331-360.

Ammerman, J.W., and Sylvan, J.B., 2004, Phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth in the Mississippi River plume—A case for dual nutrient control?: EOS Transactions AGU, v. 85, no. 47, Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract OS11B-07.

Anand, S., Mankin, K.R., McVay, K.A., Janssen, K.A., Barnes, P.L., and Pierzynski, G.M., 2007, Calibration and validation of ADAPT and SWAT for field-scale runoff prediction: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 43, no. 4, p. 899-910.

Anderson, C.J., Nairn, R.W., and Mitsch, W.J., 2005, Temporal and spatial development of surface soil conditions at two created riverine marshes: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 34, p. 2072–2081.

Anderson, D.M., and Garrison, D.J., eds., 1997, The ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Special Issue, v. 42, no. 5, p. 1009–1305.

Andraski, T.W., and Bundy, L.G., 2003, Relationships between phosphorus levels in soil and in runoff from corn production systems: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, p. 310–316.

Arnold, J.G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R.S., and Allen, P.M., 1999, Continental scale simulation of the hydrologic balance: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 35, no. 5, p. 1037–1051.

Arnold, J.G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R.S., and Williams, J.R., 1998, Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment—Part I, Model development: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 34, no. 1, p. 73–89.

Atwood, J.D., Benson, V.W., Srinivasan, R., Walker, C., and Schmid, E., 2001, Simulated nitrogen loading from corn, sorghum, and soybean production in the Upper Mississippi Valley, in Stott, D.E., Mohtar, R.H., and Steinhardt, G.C., eds., Sustaining the Global Farm, 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting, Purdue University, IN, May 24–29, 1999, p. 344–348.

Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 2006, The composite method—An improved method for stream-water solute load estimation: Hydrological Processes, v. 20, p. 3029–3047.

Aulenbach, B.T., Buxton, H.T., Battaglin, W.A., and Coupe, R.H., 2007, Streamflow and nutrient fluxes of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin and subbasins for the period of record through 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1080, available online at: http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/of-2007-1080/index.html.

Babcock, B.A., Gassman, P.W., Jha, M., and Kling, C.L., 2007, Adoption subsidies and environmental impacts of alternative energy crops: Iowa State University, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Briefing Paper 07-BP 50, 15 p, available on line at: http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/07bp50.pdf.

Baker, J.L., David, M.B., and Lemke, D.W., in press, Understanding nutrient fate and transport, including the importance of hydrology in determining losses, and potential implications on management systems to reduce those losses, in Proceedings of Gulf Hypoxia and Local Water quality Concerns Workshop, Ames, IA, September 26-28, 2005. (in press)

Baker, J.L., Melvin, S.W., Lemke, D.W., Lawlor, P.A., Crumpton, W.G., and Helmers, M.J., 2004, Subsurface drainage in Iowa and the water quality benefits and problem, in Cooke, R., ed., Proceedings of the Eighth International Drainage Symposium, Sacramento, CA, March 21, 2004, ASAE Pub #701P0304, p. 39–50.

Baker, J.L., Mickelson, S.K., and Crumpton, W.G., 1997, Integrated crop management and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides, in Hatfield, J.C., Buhler, D.B., and Stewart, B.A., eds., Weed biology, soil management, and weed management—Advances in soil science: Boca Raton, CA, CRC Press, p. 135–160.

Baker, D.B., and Richards, P.R., 2002, Phosphorus budgets and riverine phosphorus export in northwestern Ohio watersheds: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 31, p. 96–108.

Baltz, D.M., Hiram, W.L., Rossignol, P.A., Chesney, E.J., and Switzer, T.S., 2006, A qualitative assessment of the relative effects of bycatch reduction of fisheries and hypoxia on coastal nekton communities in the Gulf of Mexico: Paper presented at Hypoxia Effects on Living Resources in the Gulf of Mexico, September 25–26, 2006: New Orleans, Louisiana, Tulane University, sponsored by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research.

Barker, D.W., Sawyer, J.E., and Al-Kaisi, M.M., 2006a, Assessment of the amino sugar-nitrogen test on Iowa soils—I. Evaluation of soil sampling and corn management practices: Agronomy Journal, v. 98, p. 1345–1351.

Barker, D.W., Sawyer, J.E., and Al-Kaisi, M.M., 2006b, Assessment of the amino sugar-nitrogen test on Iowa soils—II. Field correlation and calibration: Agronomy Journal, v. 98, p. 1352–1358.

Batie, S.S., Gilliam, J.W., Groffman, P.M., Hallberg, G.R., Hamilton, N.D., Larson, W.E., Lee, L.K., Nowak, P.J., Renard, K.G., Rominger, R.E., Stewart, B.A., Tanji, K.K., Van Schilfgaarde, J., Wagenet, R.J., and Young, D.L., 1993, Soil and water quality: An agenda for agriculture: National Academy of Sciences, Board of Agriculture, 278 p.

Battaglin, W., 2006, Streamflow and nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica flux at selected sites in the Mississippi River basin, 1980–2005, presented at Science Symposium: Sources, Transport and Fate of Nutrients in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River basins, November 7–9, 2006, Minneapolis, MN.

Baumol, W., and Oates, W., 1988, The Theory of Environmental Policy, 2nd edition: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 299 p.

Beegle, D.B., 2005, Assessing soil phosphorus for crop production by soil testing, in Sims, J.T., and Sharpley, A.N., eds., Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment, Madison, WI, American Society of Agronomy Monograph Series No. 46, p. 123-144.

Belabbassi, L., 2006, Examination of the relationship of river water to occurrences of bottom water with reduced oxygen concentrations in the northern Gulf of Mexico: College Station, Texas, Texas A&M University, Ph.D. thesis, xii + 119 p.

Benner, R., and Opsahl, S., 2001, Molecular indicators of the sources and transformations of dissolved organic matter in the Mississippi River plume: Organic Geochemistry, v. 32, p. 597–611.

Bermudez, M., and Mallarino, A.P., 2007, Impacts of varable-rate phosphorus fertilization based on dense grid soil sampling on soil-test phosphorus and grain yield of corn and soybean: Agronomy Journal, v. 99, p. 822-832.

Bernot, M.J., and Dodds, W.K., 2005, Nitrogen retention, removal, and saturation in lotic ecosystems: Ecosystems, v. 8, p. 442-453.

Besiktepe, S.T., Lermusiaux, P.F.J., and Robinson, A.R., 2003, Coupled physical and biogeochemical data-driven simulations of Massachusetts Bay in late summer: Real-time and postcruise data assimilation: Journal of Marine Systems, v. 40-41, p. 171-212.

Beven, K.J., 2001, Rainfall-runoff modeling: The primer: Wiley, Chichester, UK, 360 p.

Bharati, L., Lee, K.H., Isenhart, T.M., and Schultz, R.C., 2002, Soil-water infiltration under crops, pasture and established riparian buffer in Midwestern USA: Agroforestry Systems, v. 56, p. 249–257.

Bianchi, T..S., Allison, M.A., Canuel, E.A., Corbett, D.R., McKee, B.A., Sampere, T.P., Wakeham, S.G., Waterson, E., 2006, Rapid export of organic matter to the Mississippi canyon, Mississippi: EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 87, no. 50, p. 572–574.

Bianchi, T.S., Filley, T., Dria, K., and Hatcher, P.G., 2004, Temporal variability in sources of dissolved organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v.68, no. 5, p. 959–967.

Bianchi, T.S., Galler, J.J., and Allison, M.A.,2007, Hydrodynamic sorting and transport of terrestrially derived organic carbon in sediments of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 73, nos. 1–2, p 211–222.

Bianchi, T.S., Mitra, S., and McKee, B., 2002, Sources of terrestrially-derived carbon in the lower Mississippi River and Louisiana shelf—Implications for differential sedimentation and transport at the coastal margin: Marine Chemistry, v. 77, p. 211–223.

Bierman, V.J., Jr., Hinz, S.C., Zhu, D.-W., Wiseman, W.J., Jr., Rabalais, N.N., and Turner, R.E., 1994, A preliminary mass balance model of primary productivity and dissolved oxygen in the Mississippi River Plume/Inner Gulf Shelf region: Estuaries, v. 17, no. 4, p. 886–899.

Blaylock, A.D., 2006, Review of enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers: in Proceedings of Southern Plant Nutrient Management Conference, Olive Branch, MS, October 3-4, 2006, p. 4-10.

Blomqvist, S., Gunnars, A., and Elmgren, R., 2004, Why the limiting nutrient differs between temperate coastal seas and freshwater lakes—A matter of salt: Limnology & Oceanography, v. 49, p. 2236–2241.

Bode, A., and Dortch, Q., 1996, Uptake and regeneration of inorganic nitrogen in coastal waters influenced by the Mississippi River—Spatial and seasonal variations: Journal of Plankton Research. v. 18, no. 12, p. 2251–2268.

Boesch, D.F., 2002, Challenges and opportunities for science in reducing nutrient over-enrichment of coastal ecosystems: Estuaries, v. 25, p. 744–758.

Boesch, D.F., 2003, Continental shelf hypoxia: Some compelling answers: Comments on “Continental shelf hypoxia: Some nagging questions”: Gulf of Mexico Science, v. 21, no. 2, p. 202-205. Available on line at: http://goms.disl.org/tocpages/december2003vol21no2.htm

Boicourt, W.C., 1992, Influences of circulation processes on dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, in Smith, D.E., Leffler, M., and Mackiernan, G., eds., Oxygen dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay—A synthesis of recent research: College Park, MD, Maryland Sea Grant College, p. 7–79.

Booth, M.S., and Campbell, C., 2007, Spring nitrate flux in the Mississippi River basin: A landscape model with conservation applications: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, no. 15, p. 5410-5418.

Boyer, E.W.,Goodale, C.L., Jaworski, N.A., and Howarth, R.W., 2002, Anthropogenic nitrogen sources and relationships to riverine nitrogen export in the northeastern U.S.A.: Biogeochemistry, v. 57/58, p. 137–169.

Boyer, E.W., and Howarth, R.W., in press, Nitrogen fluxes from rivers to the coastal oceans, in Capone, D., Mulholland, M., and Carpenter, E., eds., Nitrogen in the marine environment, 2nd ed.: New York, NY, Academic Press, (in press).

Boynton, W.R., and Kemp, W.M., 2000, Influence of river flow and nutrient loads on selected ecosystem processes: A synthesis of Chesapeake Bay data, in Hobbie, J.E., ed., Estuarine science—A synthetic approach to research and practice: Washington, D.C., Island Press, p. 269–298.

Bradley, M.J., and Jones, B.M., 2002, Emissions—Developing advanced energy and transportation technologies: AMBIO, A Journal of the Human Environment, v. 31, no. 2, p. 141–149.

Bratkovich, A., Dinnel, S.P., and Goolsby, D.A., 1994, Variability and prediction of freshwater and nitrate fluxes for the Louisiana-Texas shelf—Mississippi and Atchafalaya river source functions: Estuaries, v. 17, p. 766–778.

Breetz, H., Fisher-Vander, K., Garzon, L., Jacobs, H., Droetz, K., and Terry, R., 2004, Water quality trading and offset initiatives in the U.S.—A comprehensive survey: Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 337 p. Available on line at: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~kfv/waterqualitytradingdatabase.pdf.

Brezonik, P.L., Bierman, V.J., Jr., Alexander, R., Anderson, J., Barko, J., Dortch, M., Hatch, L., Hitchcock, G.L., Keeney, D., Mulla, D., Smith, B., Walker, C., Whitledge, T., and Wiseman, W.J., Jr., 1999, Effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters within the Mississippi River basin and the Gulf of Mexico: Topic 4 report for the integrated assessment of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico: Silver Spring, MD, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 18, 158 p. Available on line at: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/products/hypox_t4final.pdf.

Bridgham, S.D., Johnston, C.A., Schubauer-Berigan, J.P., and Wesihampel, P., 2001, Phosphorus sorption dynamics in soils and coupling with surface and pore water in riverine wetlands: Soil Sciences Society of America Journal, v. 65, p. 577–588.

Broshears, R.E., Clark, G.M., and Jobson, H., 2001, Simulation of stream discharge and transport of nitrate and selected herbicides in the Mississippi River Basin: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, p. 1157–1167.

Brouwer, M., 2006,
1   ...   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   ...   56


11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconBoard of Elections – Advisory Opinion 1398 – 1399

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconPanel Report on the draft Replacement London Plan

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconDraft: August 2July xxanuary x19, 20065 abstract [For presentation at the Advisory Group on apec financial System Capacity Building meeting at Seattle, February 28, 2007.]

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconDraft – do not quote or distribute

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconRanch hand advisory committee

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconMedical Devices Advisory Committee

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconPositions, training & advisory roles

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconVeterinary medicine advisory committee

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconAdvisory committee on immunization practices

11-19-07 Science Advisory Board (sab) Hypoxia Panel Draft Advisory Report Do Not Cite or Quote iconNational Vaccine Advisory Committee (nvac)

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:

База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Главная страница