Скачать 232.38 Kb.
Table 6 shows the closely-related information-related skills of Data Management, Content Management, and Records/Archives Management made up 15.5% of all job skills. All of these three sub-categories can be considered as important components of a firm’s codified knowledge, but should be considered as “stock” rather than “flow” and therefore do not represent its total knowledge at any one point in time.
Table 6 Information-Related Job Skill Categorization and Examples
Table 7 shows the Project Management category, which totals 14% of all the job skills.Many hiring organizations commonly combine knowledge management and project management expertise within their organization, as they are complementary skills. Many of the skills for the project management category related specifically to KM tasks. Knowledge Collaboration and Sharing and Knowledge Documentation and Retention were seen as important skills for project managers.
Table 7 Project Management Job Skill Categorization and Examples
The key finding that emerges from this analysis is that, unlike research that posits a so-called “knowledge chain model,” attempting to identify so-called “primary” and “secondary” activities in knowledge management (Holsapple & Jones, 2004, 2005), the actual job skills required in knowledge management positions are so inextricably interwoven among the diverse activities that engage people, information, and technologies within an organization that a better way of visualizing them is the Venn diagram shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 The Knowledge Management Environment
THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION
There are two important points to be made about the findings from the job analysis. The first is that, as explained above, knowledge management involves an integral interweaving of an usually wide variety of skills, both hard and soft, which may explain why it has not to date been easily recognized through the customary means of a single educational credential. The second is that, despite the fact that much emphasis in the preceding has been on identifying major competency areas, there remains a critical issue in the development of knowledge management as a profession to be discussed.
If knowledge management is similar to such previous short-lived fads such as re-engineering and total quality management, its espoused practices will be largely imposed by top management and hired consultants and will be unlikely to become embedded to the organization itself or persist over time. The people filling the various positions described in the job postings analyzed above will tend to consider themselves as practitioners of specific skills, such as data management, supposedly relevant to the production of “commodified knowledge” (Bryant, 2006). In that case, there would be good reason to agree with those critics such as Wilson (2002) who argue that knowledge management is simply a novel term for existing information management practices, and that the business of corporations continues to be the production of goods and services rather than any meaningful form of “knowledge.” However, the fact that the major categories here are such key organizational components as “management,” “strategy,” and “information” highlights the opportunity that exists for knowledge management as a true profession. If those people bearing the “knowledge management” title do in fact begin to think of themselves as knowledge management “professionals” involved in the ethical and mindful sharing and development of information by knowledgeable people throughout the organization (Sheffield & Guo, 2007), it is possible that they will begin to work towards the development of a knowledge management “ethos” that will focus on all aspects of knowledge management, not merely the profit-making and taking ones (Harris, 2005). The emergence and increasing membership of the new knowledge management associations are is very positive signals in this regard.
In his influential work on the development of professions, The System of Professions, sociologist Andrew Abbott (1987) argued that most professions emerge over time from actual problem-solving in a particular area and struggle to claim jurisdiction over a given field of problems. Abbott emphasized the role played by efforts to control new technologies and new kinds of knowledge in these struggles. In one of the book’s case studies, Abbott explored the evolution of the “information professions” in both the “qualitative information task area” (e.g., librarianship) and the “quantitative information task area” (e.g., accountancy), and came to the conclusion that the potential areas of information jurisdiction were too broad to be claimed by a single constituency within the information professions. In the 20 years since the publication of The System of Professions, new technologies, new kinds of knowledge, and new problem-solving opportunities have arisen in today’s organizations, leading to this focus on knowledge management (Prusak, 2001).
The question of what exactly defines a “profession” and, specifically, a “knowledge professional” in today’s knowledge community remains an open one (Darr & Warhurst, 2008). But, as Lester (2000, p. 91) points out, it also provides the opportunity for:
[A] reconstructed professionalism [in which] professionals might typically: be engaged in problem-setting or identification and “managing messes”, as well as problem-solving and developing creative ways forward; demonstrate autonomy of thought and decision-making within the context of working with other professionals, clients or employers as partners in an agreed endeavour; be able to transcend the boundaries of their discipline or specialism, and work with issues holistically while contributing their particular expertise and skills; engage in continual learning and development at a number of levels, from basic updating to re-evaluation of their overall practice and envelope of capability; go beyond uncritical acceptance of a professional code, to a deep-rooted commitment to personal ethical standards and professional practice principles.
The “problems” and “messes” that await a true knowledge management profession are indeed largely found in today’s management, strategy, and information practices involving the aggregation of knowledge in both the public and private sectors. The recent catastrophes in the credit, energy, financial, healthcare, housing, security, and transportation areas all attest to that. Peter Drucker, who coined the term “knowledge worker” in 1959, said some 40 years later: “[T]here is no such thing as knowledge management. There are only knowledge people. Information becomes knowledge only when it is in the hands of somebody who knows what to do with it” (Drucker 1959, 1999). The question remains as to whether knowledge management can emerge as a profession that is willing to deal with all the implications of knowing what to do in order to “manage” knowledge.
Abbott, A. (1987). The system of professions: An essay on the division of professional labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Review: Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 107-136.
Al-Hawamdeh, S. (2002). Knowledge management: Re-thinking information management and facing the challenge of managing tacit knowledge. Information Research, 8(1), paper no. 143. Retrieved January 8, 2009 from http://informationr.net/ir/8-1/paper143.html
Al- Hawamdeh, S. (2005). Designing an interdisciplinary graduate program in knowledge management. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 56(11), 1200-1206.
Al-Hawamdeh, S., & Ritter, W. (2000). Managing formal and informal knowledge within organizations: Re-defining the role of information professionals. In J. Edwards and J. Kidd (Eds.), Proceedings of the knowledge management conference: KMAC 2000 (pp. 277-283). Birmingham, U.K.: Operational Research Society.
Alter, S. (2006) Goals and tactics on the dark side of knowledge management. Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2006. Retrieved January 8, 2009 from http://www2.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/
Andersen, T. G., Bollerslev, T., Diebold, F. X. & Vega, C. (2007). Real-time price discovery in global stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets. Journal of International Economics, 73(2), 251-277.
Andriole, S. J. (2006). Business technology education in the early 21st century: The ongoing quest for relevance. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5, 1-12.
Baskerville, R., & Dulipovici, A. (2006a). The ethics of knowledge transfers and conversions: Property or privacy rights? Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2006. Retrieved January 8, 2009 from http://www2.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/HICSS.2006.465
Baskerville, R., & Dulipovici, A. (2006b). The theoretical foundations of knowledge management. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 4, 83-105.
Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.
Birkinshaw, J., & Sheehan, T. (2002). Managing the knowledge life-cycle. Sloan Management Review, 44(2), 75-83.
Blackler, F. (1995). Knowledge, knowledge work, and organizations: An overview and interpretation. Organization Studies, 16(6), 1021-1045.
Boisot, M. H. (1998) Knowledge assets: Securing competitive advantage in the knowledge economy. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
Bouthillier, F., & Shearer, K. (2002).Understanding knowledge management and information management: The need for an empirical perspective. Information Research, 8(1), paper no. 141. Retrieved January 8, 2009 from http://informationr.net/ir/8-1/paper141.html
Broadbent, M. (1998). The phenomenon of knowledge management: What does it mean to the information profession? Information Outlook, 2(5), 23-36.
Bryant, A. (2006). Knowledge management: The ethics of the agora or the mechanisms of the market? Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2006. Retrieved January 8, 2009 from http://www2.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/HICSS.2006.241
Carlile, P. R., & Rebentisch, E. S. (2003). Into the black box: The knowledge transformation cycle. Management Science, 49(9), 1180-1195.
Choksy, C. B. (2006). Domesticating information: Managing documents inside the organization. Lanham MD: Scarecrow Press.
Cortada, J. W. (1998). Where did knowledge workers come from? In J.W. Cortada (Ed.), Rise of the knowledge worker (pp. 3-21). Boston MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Darr, A., & Warhurst, C. (2008). Assumptions, assertions, and the need for evidence: Debugging debates about knowledge workers. Current Sociology, 56(1), 25–45.
Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Drucker, P. F. (1959). Landmarks of tomorrow: A report on the new 'post-modern' world. New York: Harper.
Drucker, P. F. (1999). Keynote speech at The Delphi Group’s International Knowledge Management Summit (San Diego, March 28-31, 1999).
Faiola, A. (2007). The design enterprise: Rethinking the HCI education paradigm. Design Issues, 23(3), 30-45.
Grossman, M. (2007). The emerging academic discipline of knowledge management. Journal of Information Systems Education, 18(10), 31-38.
Hansen, M. T., Nohria, N., & Tierney, T. (1999). What’s your strategy for managing knowledge? Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 106-116.
Hawamdeh, S., Froehlich, T. J., Srikantaiah, T., Chaudhry, A. S., Chang, Y.-K., & Morales-Arroyo, M. A. (2004). Challenges in knowledge management education. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 41(1), 605-606.
Harris, P. (2005). Managing the knowledge culture. Amherst MA: HRD Press.
Holsapple, C. W. & Jones, K. (2004). Exploring primary activities of the knowledge chain. Knowledge and Process Management, 11(3), 155-174.
Holsapple, C. W. & Jones, K. (2005). Exploring secondary activities of the knowledge chain. Knowledge and Process Management, 12(1), 3-31.
Holsapple, C.W. & Wu, J. (2008). In search of a missing link. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 6, 31-40
Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88-115.
Jashapara, A. (2005). The emerging discourse of knowledge management: A new dawn for information science research? Journal of Information Science, 31(2), 136-148.
Karaszewski, R. (2008). The influence of KM on global corporations’ competitiveness. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(3), 63-70.
Koenig, M. E. D. (1999). Education for knowledge management. Information Services & Use, 19, 17-31.
Kumar, S., & Thondikulam, G. (2005). Knowledge management in a collaborative business framework. Information Knowledge Systems Management, 5, 171-187.
Lee, C. K. (2005). Analysis of skill requirements for systems analysts in Fortune 500 organizations.The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 45(4), 84-92.
Lee, D. M. S., Trauth, E. M., & Farwell, D. (1995). Critical skills and knowledge requirements of IS professionals: A joint academic/industry investigation. MIS Quarterly, 19(3), 313-340.
Lester, S. (2002). Becoming a profession: Conservation in the U. K. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 23(1), 87-94.
Machlup, F. (1962). The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mack, R., Ravin, Y. & Byrd, R. J. (2001). Knowledge portals and the emerging digital knowledge workplace. IBM Systems Journal, 40(4), 925-955.
Marwick, A. D. (2001). Knowledge management technology. IBM Systems Journal, 40(4), 814-831.
Montgomery, K., & Oliver, A. L. (2007). A fresh look at how professions take shape: Dual-directed networking dynamics and social boundaries. Organization Studies, 28(5), 661-687.
Nonaka, I.,& Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company:How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Porat, M. (1977). The information economy. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce.
Prusak, L. (2001). Where did knowledge management come from? IBM Systems Journal, 40(4), 1002-1007.
Roberts, J. (2001). The drive to codify: Implications for the knowledge-based economy. Prometheus, 19(2), 99-116.
Rowley, J. (2003). Knowledge management—the new librarianship? From custodians of history to gatekeepers of the future. Library Management, 24(8/9), 433-330.
Scott, W. R. (2008). Lords of the dance: Professionals as institutional agents. Organization Studies, 29(20), 219-238.
Seers, A. (2007). Management education in the emerging knowledge economy: Going beyond “Those who can, do; Those who can’t, teach.” Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(4), 558-567.
Sheffield, J., & Guo, Z. (2007). Ethical inquiry in knowledge management. International Journal of Applied Systemic Studies, 1(1), 68-81.
Sutton, M. J. D. (2007). Examination of the historical sensemaking processes representing the development of knowledge management programs in universities: Case studies associated with an emergent discipline. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. McGill University.
Sveiby, K.E. (1996). What is knowledge management? Retrieved January 24, 2009 from http://www.sveiby.com/Portals/0/articles/KnowledgeManagement.html
Thomas, J. C., Kellogg, W. A., & Erikson, T. (2001). The knowledge management puzzle: Human and social factors in knowledge management. IBM Systems Journal, 40(4), 863-884.
Thompson, K., Van der Veer Martens, B., & Hawamdeh, S. (2008). Knowledge management competencies and emerging trends in the KM job market. In S. Hawamdeh, K. Strauss, & F. Barachini (Eds.), Knowledge management: Competencies and professionalism (pp. 13-25). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
Thompson, M. P. A., & Walsham, G. (2004). Placing knowledge management in context. Journal of Management Studies, 41(5), 725-747.
Vasconcelos, A. C. (2007). Dilemmas in knowledge management. Library Management, 29(4/5), 422-443.
Vorakulpipat, C., & Rezgui, Y. (2008). An evolutionary and interpretive perspective to knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(3), 17-34.
Wiig, K.M. (1999). Introducing knowledge management into the enterprise. In J. Liebowitz (Ed.), Knowledge management handbook (pp. 119-158). Boca Raton FL: CRC Press.
Wilson, T. D. (2002). The nonsense of “knowledge management.” Information Research, 8(1), paper no. 144. Retrieved January 8, 2009 from http://InformationR.net/ir/8-1/paper144.html
Zack, M. H. (1999). Managing codified knowledge. Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 45-58.
Zhang, P., & Benjamin, R. (2007). Understanding information related fields: A conceptual framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Society & Technology, 58(13), 1937-1947
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING:
Boisot, M. H. (1998). Knowledge assets: Securing competitive advantage in the information economy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Foray, D. (2004). The economics of knowledge. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Fuller, S. (2002). Knowledge management foundations. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Hawamdeh, S. (2003). Knowledge management: Cultivating knowledge professionals. Oxford: Chandos Publishing.
Nonaka, I.,& Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York:Oxford University Press.
Polanyi, M. (1966) The tacit dimension. New York: Doubleday.
Stewart, T. A. (2001) The wealth of knowledge: Intellectual capital and the twenty-first century organization. New York: Doubleday.
Betsy Van der Veer Martens, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Knowledge Management program at the University of Oklahoma School of Library and Information Studies, where she teaches in the areas of competitive intelligence, digital assets, and information architecture. Her background is in business-to-business publishing and marketing research.
Suliman Hawamdeh, Ph.D., is a professor in the Knowledge Management program at the University of Oklahoma School of Library and Information Studies. Dr. Hawamdeh founded and directed the first Master of Science in Knowledge Management program in Asia at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. He was the founding president of the Information and Knowledge Management Society (iKMS) from 1998-2003. He is the founding Chair of the International Conference on Knowledge Management (ICKM).
Dr. Hawamdeh is the founding editor-in-chief of the first refereed journal in knowledge management, The Journal of Information & Knowledge Management. He is also the editor of a book series on Innovation and Knowledge Management, published by World Scientific.
Dr. Hawamdeh was the Managing Director of ITC Information Technology Consultant Ltd. in the period from 1993-1997.
|Bibliography on Knowledge Management||1. Knowledge Management 1Introduction|
|Avoiding Information Overload: Knowledge Management on the Internet||Toward a Method for Providing Database Structures Derived from an Ontological Specification Process: the Example of Knowledge Management|
|TRack has published the information contained in this publication to assist public knowledge and discussion and to help improve the sustainable management of||Semantic Web : a guide to the Future of xml, Web Services, and Knowledge Management|
|This rtf file was exported from an endnote library of 6204 mainly journal publications on knowledge management on December 9, 2010. The file has been downloaded||Knowledge is a power. That is truth. But the greatest power is the knowledge about knowledge, I e. how to learn|
|Перечень объектов сертификации и нормативных документов, устанавливающих требования к ним|
|Information Systems Journals: Knowledge Castles or Knowledge Gardens? Brian Whitworth|