Dr. Darya Pushkina, Associate Professor, Smolny College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Bard College and St. Petersburg State University)




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Central Asia’s State-Making: Democratization and Islam, Nations and Clans, Oil and Environment


Dr. Darya Pushkina, Associate Professor, Smolny College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Bard College and St. Petersburg State University)


This course examines complex political, environmental and social issues involved in contemporary Asia in the context of international politics. The readings for the course consist of the general international relations literature on the relevant subjects such as state-making and state-breaking, democratization and Islam, national versus clan loyalties, natural resources development and environment as well as scholarly works that focus specifically on Central Asia (the region that includes Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). In addition, we will look into some cross-national comparisons (mostly from Africa) and examine the role and aspirations of external actors in the region (including Russia, United States, China, Iran, Turkey and Afganistan).

In the course of the semester we will visit State Ethnographical Museum that has a rich collection of materials on peoples of Central Asia. We will also watch the short movie the known Kyrgyz director, Okeev, There Are Horses (65) and compare it with the recent movie by Tajik’s director Usmonov Angel on the Right (02). Both talk about ancient traditions and modernization but with the very different contexts that is conditioned by the very different periods they created.


The course will be structured around 14 lectures with 14 follow-up discussion sessions.

Each week there will be required and recommended readings assigned.


Week 1: History and Approaches

Introduction to the course. Approaches to the study of Central Asia (competing views of Central Asia, the new subject of Russian Oriental Studies, Old and New Asia).

Historical Background (Pre-Soviet History: geography, tribes and khanates, the Silk Route, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, Muslim conversion of the Turkic people, tsarist era: Peter the Great’s Caspian campaigns, General Skobelev’s campaign in Central Asia, the revolution).


Required reading:

Pauline Jones Luong, “Politics in the Periphery: Competing Views of Central Asian States and Societies,” in The Transformation of Central Asia edited by Pauline Jones Luong, (Cornell University Press, 2004).

Panarin, Sergei, “Introduction: The Soviet East as a New Subject of Oriental Studies” in State, Religion and Society in Central Asia, Vitaly Naumkin, ed. (Ithaca Press, 1993) 1-16.

Manz, Beatrice F. “Historical Background” in Central Asia in Historical Perspective, Beatrice Manz ed. (Harvard UP, 1994) 4-22.


Recommended reading:

Soucek, Svat. A History of Inner Asia (Cambridge: CUP, 2000)

Bregel, Yuri, Notes on the Study of Central Asia (Indiana UP, 1996) 1-26

Adshead, Samuel. Central Asia in world history (St. Martins Press: 1993)

Karpat, Kemal, “The old and new central Asia” Central Asian Survey, 12 (4), (1993), 415-25

История Средней Азии, Самарканд, Ташкент, Хивинское, Бухарское и Кокандское ханства, Туркестан: Сборник исторических произведений (сост. Булдаков А.И., Шумов С.А., Андреев А.Р.) Изд. Евролинц, Русская Панорама, 2003.


Week Two: The Soviet Era.

Redefining the region. Redefining ethnicity in Central Asia. Collectivization and Basmachi. The Virgin Lands initiative. General principles of government. Gorbachev’s period – glasnost and perestroika. Collapse of the Soviet Union, formation of the CIS. Independence by historical circumstances.


Required:

Anderson, John, The International Politics of Central Asia (Manchester University Press, 1997). Chapter 1

Soucek, Svat. A history of inner Asia (Cambridge: CUP, 2000) chapters. 14 and 15.


Recommended:

Clem, Ralph S. “The frontier and colonialisation of soviet central Asia: Integrating the Central Asian Frontier” in Geographic perspectives on soviet central Asia, Robert Lewis ed. (London 1991) 19-36

Critchlow, James, “Corruption, nationalism, and the native elite in soviet central Asia” Journal of Communist Studies, 4 (2), (June 1988) 142-61.

Lansdell, Henry, Russian Central Asia (NY, 1970)

Rywkin, Michael, Moscow’s Muslim Challenge: Central Asia (M.E. Sharp, 1990) 3-18.


Week Three: Independence and State-(Re)building


State-(re?)building: state-making and state-breaking. Various paths after independence. The transitional context. What democratization is… and what is not? Different national politics, different electoral systems, civil society and religion. Democratization and violence. Collapsed and collapsing states (Somalia and Tajikistan).


Required:

Pauline Jones Luong, “After the Break-up: Institutional Design in Transitional States,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 33, no. 5, June 2000, 563-592.

Matveeva, Anna, “Democratization, legitimacy and political change in Central Asia”, International Affairs, 75 (1) (Jan 1999) pp. 23-44.

Dmitri Trenin, Bruno Coppieters, and Alexei Zverev, Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia. (Frank Cass, London, 1998.), selections.

Chehabi, HE and Juan Linz eds. Sultanistic Regims. (London: John’s Hopkin’s UP, 1998) pp. 3-25 and 26-48.

Ayoob, Mohammend, State Making, State Breaking and State Failure, pp. 127-143 in Turbulent Peace, eds. Chester Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall, USIP 2001.


Recommended:

Pauline Jones Luong, “Reconcentualizing the State: Lessons from Post-Communism,” Politics and Society 30, 4 (December 2002): 529-554. with Anna Grzymala-Busse.

Melvin Neil, “New Authoritarianisms in Central Asia: A comparative analysis of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz republic and Uzbekistan’ forthcoming in Yaacov Ro’I ed. The New EurAsia (2000).

Anderson, John. “Constitutional Development in Central Asia”, Central Asian Survey, 16 (3) (Sept. 1997) pp. 301-20.

---. “Elections and political development in Central Asia”, Journal of Communist and Transition Politics, 13 (4) (Dec 1997) pp. 28-53.

Touraj Atabaki, “The Impediments to the Development of Civil Societies in Central Asia,” in Atabaki and O’Kane, eds. 1998, pp. 35-44.

John Anderson, Chapters 2-4 from Anderson 1997.

Brown, Bess. “The Public Role in Perestroika in Central Asia”, Central Asian Survey, 9 (1), (1990) 87-96.

Ronald Inglehart, Changing Values, Economic Development and Political Change, International Social Science Journal, no. 145 (September 1995), pp. 379-404.

Grant, Jonathan. “Decolonization by Default: Independence in Soviet Central Asia”, Central Asian Survey, 13 (1), (1994) 51-8.

Guillermo O’Donnell, Delegative Democracy in Journal of Democracy.

Schmitter and Karl, What Democracy Is and is not.

Linz, Juan, “The perils of presidentialism”, also the short commentaries on his thesis Journal of Democracy, 1 (1990), pp. 202-35.

Kubicek, P. “Authoritarianism in Central Asia: Curse or cure?”, Third World Quaterly, 19 (1) (1998) pp 29-43.

Gleason, Gregory. Central Asian States: Discovering Independence (London: Westview, 1997) 48-81, also you might read: 1-24, 82-135, 168-86.

Shahrani, M. Nazif, “Muslim Central Asia: Soviet Development Legacies and Future Challenges” in Mesbahi ed. Central Asia and the Caucasus After the Soviet Union: Domestic and International Dynamics (University Press of Florida, 1994). pp 56-73.

Soucek, Svat. A history of Inner Asia – chaps. 16 and 17

Kulchik, Yurii, “Central Asia After the Empire: Ethnic Groups, Communities, and Problems” in Roald Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower eds. Central Asia: Conflict, Revolution and Change (Chevy Chase, Maryland: CPSS Press, 1995) 91-114

Shirin Akiner, “Social and Political Reorganization in Central Asia: Transition from Pre-Colonial to Post-Colonial Society,” in Atabaki and O’Kane, eds. 1998, pp. 1-35.


Week Four: Islam


Islam. Debates about the relationship between Islam, the state and democracy. Islam as a religion. Islam as a political force. Organization of Islam, policies to eradicate Islam, relationship between political and religious authorities. Radical versus secular Islam. Taliban in Afganistan. Islam in the Central Asia.


Required:

Kramer, Gudrun, Islam and Pluralism, pp. 113-131 from Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World., eds. Rex Brunen, Bahgat Korany, and Paul Noble, Vol. 1, (Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1995).

Pauline Jones Luong, “Muslims Under Siege in an Islamic State: Religious Persecution in Uzbekistan,” Yale Journal of Human Rights, December 2001.

Graham Fuller, The Future of Political Islam in Foreign Affairs 81, no. 2 (March/April 2002): 48-60.

Bernard Lewis, Islam and Liberal Democracy: A Historical Overview,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 7, no. 2 (April 1996), pp. 52-63.


For those fluent in Russian strongly recommended:

Алексей Малашенко, Исламское Возрождение в современной России (Москва: Московский Центр Карнеги, 1998), selections.

Ислам на постсоветском пространстве: взгляд изнутри, (Москва: Московский Центр Карнеги, 2001 (chapters by various authors on Central Asian Islam).


Recommended:

Аhmed Rashid. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale

University Press, 2002.

Haghayeghi, Mehrdad, Islam and politics in Central Asia (New York: St. Martins Press, 1995), пп. 41-70.

Hiro, Dilip. Between Marx and Muhammad: the Changing Face of Central Asia (Harper Collins: 1994)

Keller, Shoshana, “Islam in Soviet Central Asia 1917-1930: Soviet Policy and the struggle for control”, Central Asian Survey, 11 (1), (1992) 25-50.

Panarin, Sergei, “Muslims of the Former USSR: Dynamics of Survival”, Central Asian Survey, 12 (2), (1993) 137-49.

Ro’I, Yaacov. Islam in the Soviet Union: From the Second World War to Gorbachev. (New York: Columbia UP, 2000)

---. “The Secularization of islam and the USSR’s Muslim Areas” in Muslim EurAsia: Conflicting Legacies, Yaacov Roi ed. (Frank Cass and Co., 1995) 5-20.

Saroyan, Mark and Edward W. Walker eds. Minorities, mullahs, and modernity: reshaping community in the former Soviet Union (Berkeley: International and Area Studies, University of California, 1997) 43-56 and 57-87.

Tolmacheva, MA. “The Muslim Woman in Soviet Central Asia”, Central Asian Survey, 12 (4), (1993) 531-48.

Bonner, Arthur, “Islam and the State in Central Asia”, Central Asian Monitor, 6 (1995) 27-37.

Akiner, Shirin, “Melting Pot, salad bowl, cauldron? Manipulation and mobilization of ethnic and religious identities in Central Asia”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20 (2) (1997) 362-98.

Haghayeghi, Mehrdad. “Islamic Revival in the Central Asian Republics”, Central Asian Survey, 13 (2) (1994) 249-66.

Olcott, MB. “Islam and Fundamentalism in Independent Central Asia”, in Muslim EurAsia: Conflicting Legacies, Yaacov Roi ed. (Frank Cass and Co., 1995) 21-39.

Roy Olivier. The Failure of Political Islam (IB. Tauris, 1994) 1-34.

Saroyan, Mark and Edward W. Walker eds. – 88-103,104-24.

Transition, “The Myth of Militant Islam”, 1 (24) (29 Dec. 1995) 6-32.


Week Five. Ethnicity and Nationalism. Clan Loyalty and Regionalism.


Ethnicity and Nationalism. Primodialism and Instumentalism. The lessons of Rwanda. Nationalism as a political resource for state-building and development. Ethnic identity and language. A common Central Asian identity? Clan as an alternative to ethnicity Clan loyalty and regionalism. Centralization and regionalization in Central Asian countries.


Required:

Smith, Anthony. National Identity (Penguin, 1991) 1-42.

Ernst Gellner, Nations and Nationalism: New Perspective on the Past, selections.

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, selections.

Smith, Graham, Vivien Law, Andrew Wilson, Annette Bohr, Edward Allworth, Nation-building in the post soviet borderlands: The politics of national identities (Cambridge: CUP, 1998) “The Central Asia states as nationalizing regimes”, pp 139-64.

Gleason, Gregory, “Fealty and Loyalty: Informal Authority Structures in Central Asia:, Soviet Studies, 43 (4) (1991) 613-28.

Melvin, Neil. “Patterns of Centre-regional relations in Central Asia: The Cases of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan” Federal and Regional Studies (2000)


Strongly recommended for those fluent in Russian:

Нурбулат Масанов, «Казахская Политическая и интеллектуальная элита: клановая принадлежность и внутриэтническое соперничество», в Евразия: Люди и Мифы, 2003, сост. Сергей Панарин,стр. 365-381.


Recommended:

Naumkin, Vitalii ed. Central asia and Transcaucasia: Ethnicity and conflict. (Greenwood Press: 1994).

Anderson, “The Search for Identity: nation-building and the Islamic factor,” in Anderson 1997, pp. 138-165.

Hussein Adam, “Somalia: A Terrible Beauty Being Born” in Zartman, 1995, pp. 69-91.

Fragner, Bert G., “The nationalization of the Uzbeks and Tajiks” in Muslim communities reemerge: Historical perspectives on nationality, politics, and the opposition in the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, Andreas Akkeler, Gerhard Simon, and Georg Burnner eds, (Duke UP, 1989) 13-32..

Glenn, John. The soviet legacy in central Asia. (Macmillan: 1999) chapters 3-5

Naby, Eden, “Ethnicity and Islam in Central Asia”, Central Asian Survey, 12 (2) (1993) pp. 151-67.


Week Six. The Resource Curse

The Resource Curse? Environment and Natural Resources’ Development. The debate about resource curse (Angola, Sierra Leone). Various ways to develop natural resources. Ecological conflicts (Sudan). Environmental degradation (Aral Sea). Oil and Gas development strategies in the Central Asia. The struggle for Caspian oil. Central Asia and globalization.


Required:

Martin Spechler, “Central Asia in the Edge of Globalization,” in Challenge, vol. 47, no. 3, July/August 2004, pp. 62-77.

Jones Luong, Pauline and Erika Weinthal, “Prelude to the Resource Curse: Explaining Energy Development Strategies in the Soviet Successor States and Beyond,” Comparative Political Studies 34, 4 (May 2001: 367-99.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Environmental Change, Security and Conflict in Turbulent Peace, USIP 2001, pp. 53-69.

Homer-Dixon, Environment, Scarcity and Violence (Princeton University Press, 1999), p

p. 3-28, 133-183.


For those fluent in Russian strongly recommended:

Алексей Малашенко, Экология, общество и традиция. Социальные и политические кризисы в контексте раззрушения природной среды (Таджикистан и Российский Север)(совместно с М.Б. Олкотт), М: Московский Центр Карнеги, 1997.


Recommended:

Erike Weinthal, “Transnational Actors, NGO’s, and Environmental Protection,” in Jones Luong, ed. 2004.

Darya Pushkina “Ethnic Conflict, Environmental Degradation and State Collapse: The Case of Sudan” (manuscript).

Boris Rumer, ed. Central Asia and the new global economy (London: M.E. Sharpe, 2000).

Robert Ebel, and Rajan Menon. “Introduction: Energy, Conflict, and Development in the

Caspian Sea Region.” In Energy and Conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus, edited

by Robert Ebel and Rajan Menon, 1-19. Lanham, M.D.: Rowman and Littlefield

Publishers, Inc., 2000. Read 1-14.

Apostolou, Andrew, “The problems of creating economies in central Asia”, in From the Gulf to Central Asia: Players in the new great game, A. Ehteshami ed. (University of Exeter Press, 1994) 58-73.

Fridman, Leonid, “Economic crisis as a factor of building up socio-political and ethnonational tensions in the countries of central Asia and transcaucAsia”, in Central Asia and TranscaucAsia: Ethnicity and Conflict, Vitaly Naumkin ed. (Greenwood, 1994) 31-68.

Kaser, Michael, “Economic transition in central Asian economies”, Central Asian Survey, 16 (1) (March 1997) pp. 5-26.


Week Seven: First Paper is due!


History and Present through Film


The ancient and traditions and modernity – views from 40 years apart. We will watch and discuss the two films by Central Asian directors – one made during the Soviet Union’s prosper years, another - recently.

We will examine the short movie by the known Kyrgyz director, Okeev, There Are Horses (65) and compare it with the recent movie by Tajik’s director Usmonov Angel on the Right (02). Both talk about ancient traditions and modernization but with the very different contexts.


Recommended:

See other films by Central Asian directors listed at the end of this syllabus

Read: Chingiz Aitmatov. The Day Lasts More Than a Hundred Years. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983.


Weeks 8-12 In depth study of the countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan.


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