Английский язык




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Единичные действия в прошлом обычно употребляются с такими обозначениями времени, как: yesterday  вчера, last week  на прошлой неделе, an hour ago  час тому назад, long ago  давно, a month ago  месяц назад, on Sunday  в воскресенье, in 1980  в 1980 году  

Упражнение. Измените время глаголов с Present Indefinite на Past Indefinite.

1.The teacher asks them questions and they answer them. 2. The children dance together. 3. The water becomes warm. 4. I am not against you. 5. They bring us some red apples. 6. My father comes home when the clock strikes seven. 7. His children speak French and English. 8. We do not write Latin.

Упражнение. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Indefinite:

1. We (not to rest) yesterday. 2. Ann always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. 3. Last week she (to write) a funny story about her pet. 4. You (to tell) your mother the truth about the money? 5. We (to like) to cook, but we (not to like) to wash the dishes. 6. He never (to shout) at his students. 7. He (to be) a wonderful teacher, I remember. 8. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago. 9. He (to live) on the third floor. 10. It (to take) you long to find his house yesterday?

6. Present Perfect

Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия или состояния уже завершившегося к моменту речи, если результат свершившегося имеет значение в настоящий момент.

Форма Present Perfect имеет временной акцент "до настоящего момента" и употребляется тогда, когда необходимо подчеркнуть, что результат некоего действия, случившегося в прошлом (не важно, непосредственно перед моментом речи или в более отдаленное время), присутствует в настоящий момент, например: I have lost the key.  Я потерял ключ. (значит сейчас я без ключа)

Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в настоящем времени (have, has) и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола - Past Participle (III-я форма или ed-форма).

Утвердительная форма

Вопросительная форма

Отрицательная форма

... + have/has +Ved/V3

Have/has ... + Ved/V3 ?

... have/has not + Ved/V3

I have (=I've) played.

Я сыграл. ( уже или ранее )

Have I played?

Я сыграл?

I have not (=I haven't) played.

Я не сыграл.

He

She

It

has played

=(...'s played)

Has

he

she

it

played?

He

She

It

has not played

=(hasn't played)

We

You

They

have played

=(...'ve played)

Have

we

you

they

played?

We

You

They

have not played

=(haven't played)

Present Perfect может употребляться с обстоятельственными словами, обозначающими период времени, который еще не закончился: today   – сегодня, this week (month, year, morning)   – на этой неделе (месяце, году), never  – никогда, ever  – когда-либо, just     только что, already   уже, lately – в последнее время, недавно, by now – уже, к настоящему времени, yet – еще (в вопросах и отрицаниях)

Упражнение. В следующих предложениях изме­ните время глагола на Present Perfect и переве­дите на русский язык.

1 .I am eating my breakfast. 2. We are drinking water. 3. He is bringing them some meat and veg­etables. 4. You are putting the dishes on the table. 5, They are having tea. 6. She is taking the dirty plates from the table. 7. The children are putting on their coats. 8. The pupils are writing a dicta­tion. 9. My friend is helping me to solve a diffi­cult problem. 10. I am learning a poem. 11. She is telling them an interesting story. 12. Kate is sweep­ing the floor. 13. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him. 14. Susan is making a new dress for her birthday party. 15. She is open­ing a box of chocolates.

Упражнение. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Present Continuous.

1. Я только что позавтракал. 2. Он уже позав­тракал. 3. Мы еще не завтракали. 4. Они все еще пьют чай в столовой. 5. Я уже сделал свои уроки. 6. Он все еще делает свои уроки. 7. У нас сегодня было три урока. 8. У них только что было собрание. 9. Она еще не читала этой книги. 10. Она все еще читает. 11. Кто это написал? 12. Что вы ему написали?

Texts

UK Economy

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. The output of industrial goods is larger than is needed for home use. Great Britain exports machinery, motor-cars, aircraft, locomotives, chemicals, woollen and synthetic textiles, radio, TV and navigation equipment. The heart of England's industry is the Midlands. The textile and metal working industries have grown up there in and near the iron ore and coal mining districts. It is also extremely important that the Midlands have good communication with the rest of the country. They are well served by road and rail and by a system of canals.

The city of Birmingham is an important industrial centre in the Midlands. It has over a million inhabitants and is the centre of the metal-working and machine-building industries. The nearest port is Liverpool on the Irish Sea. It is the biggest port in western England. It is first in Great Britain in exports and comes second after London in imports. The district around Birmingham is a land of factories and mines. Birmingham is often called the capital of the "Black Country". The industrial enterprises of Birmingham produce airplanes, motor-cars, electrical and agricultural machinery, tools, railway carriages, bicycles, sewing-machines and almost everything in steel and iron. Birmingham also produces chemicals and tires.

New industries have been developed recently. London, e. g., is an important centre of engineering and chemicals. It also comes first in Britain in clothing and food industry, and in film production. Great Britain also has a highly developed shipbuilding industry. The fishing industry is concentrated mostly on the east coast of Scotland.

The territory of the island is not big, so it’s no wonder that the British farming or agriculture is being developed in an intensive way.

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources. It imports all of its oil, cotton, rubber, sulfur, 4/5 (four-fifths) of its wool, half of its food and iron ore. Manufactured goods made from these materials have been exported since the industrial age began.

Great Britain has a lot of industrial cities, such as London, Birmingham Glasgow, Liverpool, Sheffield, Bristol and many others.

RF Economy

Nowadays it's rather difficult to speak about our national economy. Many years ago we were used to say that the Soviet Union took the first place in Europe and second place in the world in industrial output. It turned out more manufactured goods than Great Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands and Japan taken together.

But since then the situation has changed a lot. Today one tenth of our plants hardly work and have custom (заказы). The rate of unemployment is very high, according to non-state sources it goes up to 20%. In some areas even the official rate is 80%, for example, in Chechnya.

Russia still takes the first place in the world in water resources. The largest river in the European part of the country is the Volga and the longest river in the Asian part of the country is the Lena. Lake Baikal is the largest fresh water lake in Asia and Europe, and the deepest in the world.

It is also one of the world's leading producers of electric energy. The world's largest hydroelectric power stations are at Bratsk on the Angara River and at Krasnoyarsk on the Yenisei River.

Our country is still miraculously rich in mineral resources. It has vast deposits of coal, oil, gold, natural gas, copper, nickel, platinum, lead, zinc, diamonds and other minerals. But the economic development of the country is becoming more and more extensive. It is carried out at the expense of exporting raw materials. This fact can soon become a problem, because people don't want to produce anything, they want to use natural resources which are limited. The extrusion is done in a barbarous way. It actually wastes our riches.

Now Russia is trying to overcome the unpleasant consequences of its political situation and economic breakdowns of 1996 and 1998. Attempts have been made to build a democratic system with market economy.

One of the main tasks for the Government now is to attract foreign investors so as to restore our industry. But foreign businessmen prefer to use their profits to their liking, or better to say, in the most profitable way. But according to Russian law the profit received in country mustn't be taken out of it, it should be used in Russia, as well.

Legal forms of business

There are three legal forms to choose from: sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation (limited company). No one form is better than another. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.

Many businesses are sole proprietorships, they are owned and run by one person. An owner of a sole proprietorship is fully responsible for the success or failure of their business. Any profits go to the owner, any losses are their responsibility as well. This is called unlimited liability. As the business is personal to the owner, it is liquidated upon their death. Sole proprietorships are usually small businesses.

When a proprietor wants to expand a business, one way to do so is to form a partnership, a business formed for profit by two or more co’-owners. The rights and duties of a partnership are regulated by laws and by a legal agreement made by the partners.

All partners are legally responsible for any of the firm’s activities, in other words, each partner has unlimited liability. They share the risks and the profits or losses associated with their business. A way to avoid the risks of unlimited liability is to form a limited partnership. In a limited partnership there are two kinds of partners – general and limited. General partners have unlimited liability for the business. The liability of limited partners is limited to the amounts of their investments. Limited partners are usually not allowed to take an active part in the firm’s management.

A business corporation is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. It is operated by individuals. Their shares of ownership are represented by stock certificates. A person who owns a stock certificate is called a stock - holder.

There are several advantages of the corporate form of ownership. The first is the ability to attract financial resources. The next advantage is the ability to attract a large amount of capital to invest in plants, equipment and research. And the third advantage is that a corporation can offer higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists.

The privately owned business corporation is one type of corporation. There are some other types too – educational, religious, charitable institution can also incorporate. Usually such corporation doesn’t issue stock and non-profit.

Контрольная работа № 3

Упражнение 1. Переведите на английский язык.

Старый, старше, самый старый, самый стар­ший, мой старший брат, мой старый друг, даль­ше, самый дальний, самый длинный, короче, счастливый, счастливее, самый счастливый, са­мый лучший, самый черный, длиннее, хуже, лучше, теплее, ее лучший друг, ее младший сын, его старший сын

Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложе­ния на русский язык.

1. What is your height? You are taller than me. 2. He was the eldest in the family. 3. We started earlier than you. 4. He was more careful than I. 5. This student is the most attentive in our group. 6.1 need a warmer coat. 7. It is easier to swim in the sea than in the river. 8. He was one of the most experienced workers at the factory. 9. Better late than never. 10. This is the smallest room in our flat.

Упражнение 3. Вставьте в пропуски возвратные местоимения по смыслу:

1. Who repaired the bicycle for you? Nobody. I repaired it …. .

2. Did Brian have his hair cut by a hairdresser? No, he cut his hair …. .

3. Do you want me to post that letter for you? No, I'll do it …. .

4. Who told you that Linda was getting married? Linda did it …. .

5. Can you phone John for me? Why can't you do it … ?

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык сле­дующие словосочетания, употребляя предлоги on, in или at.

1. Write your name …. the top of the page.

2. I like that picture hanging …the wall the kitchen.

3. There was an accident … the crossroads this morning.

4. I wasn't sure whether I had come to the right office. There was no name ….the door.

5. …. the end of the street there is a path leading to the river.

6. You'll find the sports results ….the back page of the newspaper.

7. The headquarters of the company are ….Milan.

8. My brother lives ….a small village in the south-west of England.

9. The man the police are looking for has a scar …. his right cheek.

10. Nicola was wearing a silver ring …. her little finger.
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