Английский язык




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Схема специального вопроса:

Вопросительное слово

Вспом. или модальный глагол

Подлежащее

Смысловой глагол

Дополнение

Where

Куда

are

you

вы

going?

идете?

 

How

Как

do

you

тебе

like

нравится

it?

это?

When

Когда

did

he

он

come

пришел

here?

сюда?

Why

Почему

have

you

ты

done

сделал

it?

это?

What

Что

can

можете

you

вы

tell  

сказать

me?

мне?

 

Специальный вопрос строится по той же схеме, что и общий вопрос (смотри раздел – Общие вопросы): первый вспомогательный глагол или модальный глагол ставится перед подлежащим, в Present и Past Indefinite (где отсутствует вспомогательный глагол) используется вспомогательный глагол to do (do, does, did), а смысловой глагол ставится в инфинитиве без to (словарная форма). Глаголы to be и to have (в роли смыслового глагола) не требуют вспомогательного глагола to do, (они сами ставятся перед подлежащим).

Альтернативные вопросы (Alternative Questions)

Альтернативный вопрос имеет значение выбора одного из двух лиц, предметов, действий, качеств и т.д. и может быть поставлен к любому члену предложения. Альтернативный вопрос может начинаться с глагола (как общий вопрос) или с вопросительного слова (как специальный вопрос) и обязательно содержит союз or.

Ответы на альтернативные вопросы ко всем членам предложения, кроме ответа на вопрос к подлежащему, даются в полной форме:

Do you work or (do you) study?- - Вы работаете или учитесь? -

I study. Я учусь.

When will you come: in the evening - Когда вы придете: вечером или

or in the morning? – I shall come in утром? - Я придy утром.

the morning.

Разделительные вопросы (Disjunctive Questions)

Разделительные вопросы состоят из двух частей. Первая - пoвecтвовательное предложение в утвердительной или отрицательной форме, вторая - краткий общий вопрос, состоящий из подлежащего-местоимения и вспомогательного или модального глагола или глаголов из первой части. При отсутствии в первой части указанных глаголов в вопросе употребляется глагол-заменитель tо dо. Если первая часть утвердительная (когда ожидается ответ Yes), то вторая - отрицательная; если первая часть отрицательная (когда ожидается ответ No), то вторая не содержит отрицания.

Разделительные вопросы соответствуют в русском языке вопросам с вводными словами: «Не так ли? Не правда ли? Правда? Да?» или полувопросу-полуутверждению с усилительным наречием «ведь»:

He is here, isn’t he? - Он здесь, не так ли?

He isn’t here, is he? - Его здесь нет, не правда ли?

Jаne doesn’t play tennis, does she? - Джейн не играет в теннис, да?

You have such a book, haven’t you?- У тебя ведь есть такая книга?

Упражнение. Поставьте вопросы к предложениям, начиная их с вопросительных слов, данных в скобках:

Образец: She lives in Minsk. (where) - Where does she live?

1. Ann lives in Sadovaya street. (where) 2. She works at the hospital. (where) 3. Jane goes to Moscow. (where) 4. Nick comes to school every day. (how often) 5. After classes we go to the canteen. (where) 6. Peter goes to the library. (who) 7. The library opens at 10 o’clock. (what time) 8. Peter usually gets home at 7 o’clock. (what time) 9. She leaves the house at 8 o’clock every day. (when)

Texts

Nice to meet you

Hello! I am Rob Fellows. Rob is my first name and Fellows is my surname. I am nineteen years old. I come from Dundee, a town on the east coast of Scotland, but now I’m a first year student at Durham University in the north of England. I study Management and Economics. I also study two languages - French and German and I can speak them quite well. I enjoy the course a lot, but it’s very hard work!

My classes begin at 8.30 and finish at 3. in the afternoon. After classes I often spend a lot of time at the university library, because I have to read much for my classes. We have a lot of work to do in the first year. I want to do some research on Marketing. After I graduate from the University I’m going to work in a bank or in a big firm, but I’m not sure yet.

Now I live in a hostel with about a hundred of other students. I share my room with Nick Johnson. He is a very nice boy. He entered the university two years ago, so he is in his third year now. He always helps me with my studies. Nick and I have got much in common: we are both fond of sports and we play in our university football team. Nick is also a good tennis player and on Sunday we often spend some hours on the tennis court. We usually spend our free time together. In the evening we like to go to a cafe or to a disco and have some fun.

For my Christmas and summer holidays I go to my native town and stay with my family. My family is not very large. I have got a mother, a father and two sisters, Alice and Julia. Alice is two years elder than me and she is a student too, and Julia is the youngest, she is a schoolgirl. We have got a lovely cottage with a big garden around it. The time I stay with my family is the most pleasant and joyful for me as I love them very much.

A happy man is that who is happy in his family

I am Jack Brown. I am seventeen years old. I want to tell you a few words about my family. My family is large. I have got a mother, a father, a sister, a brother and a grandmother. There are six of us in the family.

First of all there are some words about my parents. My mother is a teacher of biology. She works in a college. She likes her profession. She is a good-looking woman with brown hair. She is forty-four but she looks much younger. She is tall and slim.

My father is a computer programmer by profession. He is very experienced. He is a broad-shouldered, tall man with fair hair and grey eyes. He is forty-six. My father often sings when we are at home and have some free time, I play the guitar and we sing together. My father is handy with many things. When he was small, he liked to take everything to pieces. My grandmother told me a story that once my father tried to “repair” their kitchen clock. He managed to put all the wheels and screws back again - but the clock did not work. They had to give it to a repairman. But that happened a long time ago. Now he can fix almost everything: a vacuum cleaner, a washing machine, a fridge and what not. He’s got a few shelves where he keeps everything he needs.

My parents have been married for twenty-six years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports. For example, my father likes horror films and my mother likes soap operas. My father is fond of tennis but my mother doesn’t play sports. But my parents have the same opinion about my education and upbringing.

My parents are hard-working people. My mother keeps house and takes care of me and my father. She is very good at cooking and she is clever with her hands. She is very practical. Besides, my mother is fond of gardening. All our family is proud of the wonderful roses she grows in our garden. My father and I try to help her with the housework. I wash dishes, go shopping and tidy our flat.

My grandmother is a pensioner. She lives with us and helps my mother to run the house. She is good at knitting.

My sister Helen is twenty-five. She is married and has a family of her own. She works as an accountant for a bank. Her husband is a scientist. They have got twins: a daughter and a son. They go to a nursery school.

My brother Boris is eleven. He is a schoolboy. I think he takes after our father. He also wants to become a specialist in computing but he is not sure yet. Three months ago he dreamt of being a cosmonaut.

I want to become a specialist in marketing. Now I study at the university, and I like to learn about different markets and financial strategies. I look like my father - I’ve got his long nose and big mouth - but I’ve got my mother’s personality. I am even-tempered and always try to be in a good mood.

We have got a lot of relatives. We are deeply attached to each other and we get on very well.

Life is nothing without true friends

Friendship plays a very important role in our life. It is impossible to imagine our being without true friends. I have a lot of friends. Some of them live in other parts of Russia and even abroad. Last year, when I was on holiday in Italy, I got acquainted with Nora, an American student. She also was in Italy on her vacation. We made good friends with her and spent much time together. Now we are penpals. I always look forward to receiving a letter from her. Her letters give me a good opportunity to learn more about Americans and their life, customs and traditions, and also help me to master my English.

But I have many good friends at home too. My best friend’s name is Oleg. He is my former classmate. We are of the same age. Oleg’s birthday is on the 21st of December.

Oleg lives in Samara. He is a student. He studies at the Academy of Economics and Finance. He is an industrious student. He studies Computing, Mathematics, Marketing and Accounting. He is going to become a specialist in marketing.

Oleg has a family. His family is neither large nor small. His mother is a doctor and his father is an engineer. He has an elder sister. Her name is Nina. She is four years older than he. She has a family of her own. She is an interpreter in a big joint venture company.

Oleg is a many-sided person. He is fond of reading. He likes to read classical books, science fiction, historical novels and plays. He is a good sportsman. He doesn’t go in for sports professionally but he enjoys swimming and playing tennis in summer and skiing and playing hockey in winter.

He is keen on music. He likes to listen to rock-n-roll and jazz. Besides, he plays the guitar very well.

Oleg lives in the centre of Samara. We visit one another very often. We go to the cinema or to the theatre, go to the library and read books together. He gives me a helping hand any time I need it. I’m happy to have such a good friend.

Pamela’s day

Pamela Garret is a secretary. She works in an office of a big consulting firm in Cardiff, the capital of Wales. Her working day begins early. She always wakes up at seven o'clock. Before she leaves for work she has a lot of things to do. She always does her morning exercises in the garden and then she goes to the bathroom and has a shower. She brushes her teeth, combs her hair and dresses. Then Pamela makes breakfast for her and her husband David. For breakfast they usually have toasted bread, fried eggs, corn flakes, tea or coffee and some marmalade or jam. While having breakfast Pamela often listens to the latest news on the radio and David looks through a fresh newspaper.

At half past eight Pamela and David leave home for work. David works at a hospital, not far from their house. He usually goes there on foot. But Pamela’s office is in the center of the town, and she usually goes there by bus. It usually takes her fifteen minutes to get there.

Work begins at 9 o’clock. Pamela is never late. She always comes in time. As a rule she works 8 or 9 hours a day. Her boss is a managing director. Mr. Walton is happy to have such a secretary. He says: “Pamela is an ideal employee. She’s friendly and very efficient. She can speak two foreign languages … and she makes very good coffee.” After work she usually goes home. Sometimes she has to stay overtime when there is a lot to do, but this rarely happens.

On her way home Pamela usually does all the shopping. When she returns home she takes a short rest. Then she has some time to do something about the house. She washes and irons linen, tidies the rooms and cooks dinner.

At half past five David comes home and they dine together. Sometimes they have dinner in a restaurant as they often go out in the evening. They often visit their parents who live nor far from them. The Garrets have many friends, and they often arrange parties or go to the cinema or to the theatre. Sometimes, if they are very tired after work, they stay at home and read books, watch interesting programmes on TV, or just talk. Pamela also likes to knit and chat with her friends on the phone.

At 11 p.m. Pamela goes to bed. She likes an old English proverb: “The early bird catches the worm”.

Контрольное задание № 1.

Упражнение 1. Поставьте следующие существитель­ные во множественное число

A table, a plate, a fox, a room, a lady, a knife, a chair, a bus, a Negro, a match, a way, a house, a family, a flag, a town, a wolf, a country, a lion, a park, a play.

Упражнение 2. Образуйте притя­жательный падеж.

1. the toys/the children

2. the mother/Ann

3. the jacket/that man

4. the top/the page

5. the daughter/Charles

6. the cause/the problem

7. the result/the football match

8. the birthday/my father

9. the name/this street

10 the children/Don and Mary

Упражнение 3. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу притяжательные местоимения (his/her/their/my/your/our): 1.I see Liz with … husband. 2. Ann and Ted are with … children. 3. I take … bag. 4. Peter opens … notebook. 5. You write in … copybook. 6. Ann likes … dog. 7. They drink … milk. 8. I like tennis. It’s … favourite sport. 9. Do you like … job? 10. We live with … parents.

Упражнение 4. Вставьте вместо точек has/ have или hasnt got/havent got: 1.1.Sarah … a car. 2. They like animals. They … three dogs and two cats. 3. Charles isn’t happy. He … a lot of problems. 4. “What’s wrong?” “I … something in my eye.” 5. Julia wants to go to the concert but she … a ticket. 6. They don’t read much. They … many books.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present, Past или Future Simple.

1. Мой брат сейчас в школе. 2. Мой брат был вчера в кино. 3. Мой брат будет завтра дома. 4. Ты будешь дома завтра? 5. Она была вчера в парке? 6 Он сейчас во дворе? 7. Где папа? 8. Где вы были вчера? 9. Где он будет завтра? 10. Мои книги были на столе. Где они сейчас? 11. Моя мама вчера не была на работе. Она была дома. 12, Мой друг не в парке. Он в школе. 13. Завтра в три часа Коля и Миша будут во дворе. 14. Мы не были на юге прошлым летом. Мы были в Москве. 15. Завтра мой дедушка будет в дерев­не.

Упражнение 6. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.

Мой дядя инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена врач. Она работает в больнице.

Упражнение 7. Напишите по-английски следующие числа:

3, 14, 12, 52, 89, 64, 13, 71, 95, 26, 38, 142, 491, 789
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12

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