Скачать 164.05 Kb.
Due Date April 8
Change & Continuity in American History Project
Overview & directions: To this point much of our approach to American history has been chronological in nature. Now it is time to look for generalizations and make note of trends over time. Each student will be assigned one of the 29 topics listed below and will research the key information provided. Send an electronic copy of the timeline to Mez by the due date. A booklet will be created to help the class review, so each student will:
1607- Jamestown was founded in Virginia along the Chesapeake Bay, becoming the first permanent English colony in North America
1619- Twenty Africans are brought by a Dutch ship to Jamestown for sale as indentured servants, marking the beginning of slavery in Colonial America.
1620- The Mayflower lands. The Mayflower Compact is signed by 41 men which is the first form of local governing in the new world.
1636 - Harvard College founded.
1639 - First colonial printing business established by Stephen Daye in Boston, Massachusetts Colony.
1639 - Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony signed.
1649 - Maryland Toleration Act was signed, guaranteeing religious freedom to all Christians.
1675 - King Philip's War (1675-76) in New England, war between colonists and Native Americans.
1735 - John Peter Zenger is brought to trial for seditious libel but is acquitted after his lawyer successfully convinces the jury that truth is a defense against libel.
1754 - The French and Indian War erupts as a result of disputes over land in the Ohio River Valley.
1763 - King George's Royal Proclamation of 1763 (October 7) establishes administration in territories newly ceded by France. To prevent further violence between settlers and Native Americans, the Proclamation sets a western boundary on the American colonies.
Treaty of Paris- This treaty ends the French and Indian War, and under this treaty France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi.
Royal Proclamation- This was signed by King George III that prohibited any settlement west on an imaginary line running down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains and required those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans.
Stamp Act- The first direct tax on American colonies, this act basically ordered every newspaper, pamphlet, public/legal document to have a stamp on it and the stamp cost money.
Quartering Act- Passed by Parliament, this legislation ordered each colonist to house British troops and to supply them with food.
Sons of Liberty- In retaliation to the Stamp Act, many secret societies were formed including the Sons of Liberty. They relied on violence and public protests to rebel against the acts that the British government put on them.
Circular Letter- This was a letter written by Samuel Adams in opposition to taxation without representation and called for the colonists to unite in protest against the British government.
The Boston Massacre- In March, a heavy British presence in Boston caused a mob to provoke the British soldiers who then fired their muskets pointblank into the crowd. This afterwards sparked the rebellion in numerous colonies.
The Tea Act- This act gave a monopoly on tea sales to the East India Company which was floundering financially and burdened with eighteen million pounds of unsold tea. This tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price.
The Boston Tea Party- In Boston Massachusetts Royal Governor Hutchinson commanded to not allow the ships out of the harbor until the tea taxes are paid. In response, the Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians, boarded the ships, and dumped all 342 containers of tea into the harbor.
“Give me liberty or give me death!”- On March 23, at St. John’s Church during the Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech against British rule. This speech helped to convince the Virginia House of Burgesses to pass a resolution delivering the Virginia troops the Revolutionary War.
Coercive Acts- These were a series of five laws that included the closing of the port of Boston, until such time as the East India tea company received compensation for the tea dumped into the harbor.
Battle of Bunker Hill- On the Charleston Peninsula American troops were dug in along the high ground of Breed's Hill (the actual location) and were attacked by a frontal assault of over 2000 British soldiers. The British succeed in taking the hill, but at a loss of half their force.
Olive Branch Petition- The Continental Congress adopted this petition in hope of for reconciliation with Britain, appealing directly to the King for help. The king refused to look at the petition and instead issued a proclamation declaring the Americans to be in a full rebellion.
“Common Sense”- Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” is a 50 page pamphlet that challenged King George III and it was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
Declaration of Independence- Adopted by the Continental Congress, this statement announced that the thirteen American Colonies were now independent states and were no longer part of the British Empire.
The Battle of Saratoga- This was the first major American victory in which the British lost 1,000 troops while the Americans only lost 500.
An article of Confederation- Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation as the government of the new United States of America. This charter needed the ratification of all 13 states before it would become the first "Constitution" of the United States of America.
Treaty of Amity and Commerce and a Treaty of Alliance- In Paris, the French and Americans pledged to fight until American independence is won, with neither country concluding any truce with Britain without the other's consent.
Surrender at Yorktown-
The British fleet retreats to New York, leaving the French fleet in control of the Chesapeake. The French fleet establishes a blockade, cutting Cornwallis off from any retreat by sea. After a five-day bombardment, the combined American and French forces attacked and overwhelmed Cornwallis's fortified position
Treaty of Paris- Signed in Paris, this treaty officially ended the Revolutionary war. Under the treaty, Britain recognized the US as an independent nation and agreed to remove all of its troops. The treaty also set new borders for the United States, including all land from the Great Lakes on the north to Florida on the south, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River.
1789 – Constitution
1793 – Fugitive Slave Act
1797 – XYZ Affair
1803 – Marbury v. Madison
1807 – Embargo Act of 1807
1812 – The War of 1812
1814 – Treaty of Ghent
1820 – Missouri Compromise
1823 – Monroe Doctrine
1828 – Tariff of Abominations
1832 – Veto of the Bank of the United States
1795: Pinckney's Treaty/Treaty of Madrid. Thomas Pinckney negotiates with Spain, and they agree that the southern boundary of the U.S. with the northern border of the Spanish colonies in Florida will run at the 31sh degree north latitude line. This line causes a dispute during the selling and purchase of the Louisiana Territory 8 years later.
1803: Louisiana Purchase. The U.S. buys 828,800 square miles of France's land for $11,250,000 plus cancellation of debts worth 3,750,000, a total cost of 15 million dollars for the Louisiana territory. It doubles the size of the United States and adds Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Louisiana.
1819: Adams-Onis Treaty. Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, Spain cedes all of Florida to the United States. It settles the boundary dispute in Texas and firmly establishes a border of the U.S. through the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. The U.S. government paid about 5 million dollars in resident claims against the Spanish government and loses part of western Texas that it gained from the Louisiana Purchase.
1823: Monroe Doctrine. President James Monroe makes this doctrine, which states further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas will be viewed by the United States of America as acts of aggression requiring US intervention. It also says that Europe can't colonize land in the Western hemisphere, and that the U.S. will leave European colonies and issues alone.
1842: Webster-Ashburton Treaty. Secretary of State Daniel Webster negotiates with Britain to establish the location of the Maine–New Brunswick border. It also establishes the details of the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris (1783) and reaffirmed the location of the border (at the 49th parallel) in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains, originally defined in the Treaty of 1818. A final end to the slave trade on the high seas is called for and is agreed to be enforced by both countries.
1845: Texas, Florida, Manifest Destiny. On March 3rd, Florida is admitted to the U.S. as the 27th state. In February, Congress approves the annexation of Texas, President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the annexation in March, and Texas is actually admitted as the 28th state in December. On December 2nd, President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the Monroe Doctrine should e strictly enforced and that the U.S. should aggressively expand into the West. This is referred to as Manifest Destiny.
1846: Mexican-American War. This is caused by the U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico still considered to be theirs. Manifest destiny is in full swing, and by the end of the war in 1848 Mexico accepts both the Rio Grande as the national border and the loss of Texas.
1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This peace treaty, largely made by the U.S., is the end of the Mexican-American War. Mexico loses 55% of its pre-war territory, but the United States gains parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and all of Texas, California, Nevada, and Utah.
1853: Gadsden Purchase. Signed by President Franklin Pierce, it is the last major territorial acquisition in the continental United States. The Gadsden Purchase is for the purpose of the U.S.'s construction of a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route. It is also related to reconciliation of outstanding border issues following the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848.
1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act. This invalidates the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and creates the Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory. It also has a provision so the settlers of the territory can vote on the issue of slavery, which eventually leads to Bleeding Kansas.
1898: Guam, Hawaii. During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. captures Guam, making it the first U.S. overseas territory June 21st. July 7th, the U.S. annexes Hawaii.
1899: Anti-Imperialist League, Spanish-American treaty. The American Anti-Imperialist League, an organization established on June 15 to battle the American annexation of the Philippines, opposed annexation on economic, legal, and moral grounds. Also, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain is ratified by the senate during the Spanish-American war. (Aspirin and the paperclip are also invented.)
1903: Panama, Cuba. February 23rd, Cuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. "in perpetuity." panama also declares its independence, with American aid. The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty is also signed into action between the U.S. and Panama, which gives the U.S. exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone. (The first box of Crayola crayons is also made and sold for 5 cents and the first World Series game is played.)
1754-1763 French and Indian War
A War between England and France in North America where the Indians sided with the French and the Colonists sided with the English. The war officially ended in 1763 with the treaty of Paris. In 1763, The French gave up Canada in return for fishing rights in the Caribbean and the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.
1775-1783 The American Revolution
The American Revolution was a war where the colonists of America decided that they had enough of England’s vicious rule. The Parliament wouldn’t let the colonists represent themselves so they started a revolution. The revolution ended when the English army got stuck ay Yorktown between the militia and the French Navy.
1812-1814 The War of 1812
In the war of 1812, the English decided that they could take America back because of Washington’s death. The army moved down the coast, captured the capital, and burned it but the militia continued to fight until the English army was needed in England to help fight France.
1846-1848 Mexican-American War
In the Mexican American war, Texas had just been annexed as part of The U.S. and this didn’t fly well with Mexico. They started causing trouble in Texas so the U.S. Government sent troops to aid. The U.S. started off loosing but finally attacked the Mexicans while they were taking their siesta. The war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe which declared that Texas was part of the United States and the border was the Rio Grande River.
1861-1865 American Civil War
The American Civil war was the bloodiest war on American soil, it started when the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter. For the first 2 years of the war, the Confederates dominated the Union. In the battle of Gettysburg in 1863, the Union won their first decisive battle. Later in 1865, at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, Lee surrendered the entire confederate Army to General Grant.
1898 Spanish American War
In early 1898, a U.S. battleship, the Maine blew up spontaneously in the Havana Harbor in Cuba. The U.S. blamed the Spanish for this tragedy. When the Spanish never said that they didn’t do it and insulted the U.S., the U.S. declared war. First, the navy sailed to the Philippines and crushed the Spanish there, later, Teddy Roosevelt led his Calvary on a campaign through Cuba crushing the Spanish. The war ended in 1898 with another Treaty of Paris.
1917- United States enters World War I, also known as the ‘Great War’ and the ‘War to End all War.’
1918- WWI ends, with the Allied forces of Britain, France, and the U.S the victors.
1941- Germany invades Soviet Russia, and Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, which leads to U.S joining.
1945- Allied forces in Europe stop Germany, U.S drops atomic bomb on Japan, ending the War unofficially. Japan surrendered in August, officially ending WWII.
1950- America sends troops to Korea, attempting to stop Communism in the north.
1953- Korean War ends in a stalemate at the 38th parallel, Communism reigns in the north.
1954- Vietnam War begins over issue of Communism spreading to Vietnam
1973- America, after nearly 20 years, withdraws forces from Vietnam.
1993- America enters Somalia in what was code named ‘Operation: Restore Hope’.
2001- President George W. Bush declares a ‘War on Terror’ after the 9/11 bombings of the Twin Towers and the Pentagon.
1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act allowed the US to suspend immigration; the ornery Californian government convinced the Federal government to put a 10-year ban on all Chinese immigrants.
1894: The Immigrant Restriction League was created by five Harvard graduates who hoped to prevent “undesirable” immigrants from entering the United States (primarily people from southern and eastern Europe). They warranted great political influence, and many immigration-related restrictions were their ideas.
1907: The Gentlemen’s agreement between the US and Japan took place. The Japanese government agreed not to allow any more of their citizens to immigrate to America, under the condition that Japanese people who had already moved to the United States would be recognized by our government.
1917: Congress passed a bill requiring all incoming immigrants to pass a literacy test (in any language) before they could gain passage to the nation. This was the first time in history a literacy test was a universal requirement.
1921: The Emergency Quota Act restricted immigration to the US based on a person’s nation of origin. Each year, only 3% of a foreign nation’s immigrant population was allowed to migrate.
1924: The National Origins Act was basically a continuation of the 1921 quota; it lowered the percentage of immigrants allowed from 3% to 2%.
1929: The originally temporary National Origins Act is made to be the permanent United States policy on immigration, a regulation that would remain intact until 1952.
1952: The Immigration and Nationality Act was passed by Congress. The legislation erased racial and gender discrimination from the immigration process, revised the nation-origins quotas, and allowed many skilled workers and relatives of current immigrants to enter the United States.
1965: Amendments were added onto the Immigration and Nationality Act. These new regulations abolished the nation-origins system, and set a 170,000 visa limit on immigration from the Eastern Hemisphere.
1980: The Refugees Act again changed the annual quota of immigrants allowed into the United States. Instead of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern hemisphere, Congress decided to issue only 270,000 visa worldwide per year.
1986: The Immigration Amnesty Act granted thousands of illegal immigrants the chance to become citizens. It also created hefty fines for employers who continued to hire people who were not legally allowed to be in the United States.
1990: An annual limit on the number of unskilled laborers allowed into the nation is created. This allowed more skilled or educated foreigners to enter the country.
1791: The Bank of United States is created. Hamilton fought Jefferson for the Bank of the United States and won. It is a private institution the government partly owns.
1816: First Protectionist Tariff of 1816. As part of Henry Clay’s American System, the first protectionist tariff of 20-25% was introduced in 1816.
1828: Tariff of Abominations. At the end of John Quincy Adams’ presidency, he enacted the Tariff of Abominations. The south was particularly against the tariff because the southern economy was primarily agriculture.
1832: Nullification in South Carolina. After years of the Tariff of Abominations, and no end to high tariffs in sight, South Carolina held a convention to nullify the tariff. They believed that individual states had the power to choose what is constitutional and what isn’t. Jackson, however, disagreed. He threatened to use the army and navy to enforce the tariff, and consequently, South Carolina repealed the nullification.
1877: Pullman Strike. When four railroad companies decided to cut employees’ wages, the workers began a strike. President Hayes sent in the military to stop the strike, favoring the big business.
1886: Haymarket Riot. In Haymarket Square, Chicago, the Knights of Labor began a strike. Someone unrelated to the group threw a bomb that killed several people.
1887: Interstate Commerce Act. The Interstate Commerce Act prohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish rates openly. However, it wasn’t very effective.
1890: McKinley Tariff Act. The McKinley Tariff put rates at the highest peacetime level yet.
1902: Anthracite Coal Strike. A major coal strike began in Pennsylvania which threatened to cut off the fuel supply for towns in eastern Pennsylvania. Theodore Roosevelt talked with both parties and told them that if the strike doesn’t stop, he would take control of the mines with the military. The strike ended quickly after.
1903: Elkins Act. Part of Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal, the Elkins Act abolished “rebates” in the railroad business.
1906: Hepburn Act. Part of Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal, the Hepburn Act established maximum rates for shipping, strengthened the Elkins Act, and abolished “free passes.”
1913: Federal Reserve Act. Important banking reform in Wilson’s administration.
1914: Clayton Anti-Trust Act. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act strengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by banning more specific business practices like interlocking directorates (a policy in which the same people were directors of competing companies).
1930: Hawley-Smoot Tariff. One of the highest tariffs in American history, the Hawley-Smoot Tariff was also one cause of the great depression.
1939: American Neutrality Act of 1939. America began the cash and carry program, which stated that the United States could trade with nations in war if the other nations paid in cash and arranged for the transport of the materials.
1619- First African slaves enter america- This importation of slaves though not important economically to the colonies immediately led the way for further expansion of slavery in the south.
1793- Eli whitney applies for a patent on the cotton gin- The cotton gin revolutionizes cotton picking in the south, requiring less slave labor than ever before with an increase in production allowing plantations to grow in size and economic potential.
1834- Cyrus mccormick creates his mechanical reaper- The invention of the mechanical reaper makes harvesting wheat easier and simplifies farm work for many individuals.
1862- Abraham Lincoln creates USDA and signs into law the homestead act- The creation of the USDA (then called the USBA) makes controlling farm production in the US easier. In addition, the homestead act has vast effects as it allows people and encourages them to move rapidly into the unclaimed western territories.
1867- Indians relocated to Oklahoma- This relocation of indians to oklahoma opens up vast frontiers in the west previously closed to settlement.
1877- Desert land act created- This act induced people to move into and irrigate desert areas for free land and monitory incentives opening the arid west to further habitation.
1878- A report titled “report on the lands of the arid region of the US” is released- This report instructs the US in dam building in arid areas to increase their habitability and usefulness as farm land.
1886- A drought and blizzard begin in the Great Plains region- Farmers are hard pressed to survive as many cattle die and crops are burnt to a crisp or freeze in the cold winter.
1887- Hatch act passed- This act helped to inform farmers of how to create favorable growing conditions for crops. It was one of the first instances that the government funded a program to educate its citizens on such a topic.
1890- Economic issues strike in the Great Plains Area- Kansas is especially hard hit as 75-90% of farms are mortgaged off. People begin calling for federal warehouses as grain prices drop unbearably low.
1892- The first successful tractor is produced in the US- The invention of the tractor and its wide implementation brought up production significantly and represents the massive increase in efficiency.
1920’s- The economy soars as the US enters the roaring twenties- This surge has a lot to do with dramatically increased agricultural production rates. The golden age ends unfortunately towards the end of the twenties with the depression and the great dust bowl.
1933- The agricultural adjustment act is passed- This act pays farmers to not sell their produce in order to raise prices. The plan was in an aim to cure the sick industry but it did little to rectify the situation.
1961- Kennedy admin. creates emergency grain feed program- This program decreased the amount of grain planted in the US significantly in order to curb plummeting grain prices.
1869 – Knights of Labor are founded. They become the largest and one of the most influential labor unions in 19th-Century America.
1886 – American Federation of Labor founded. They are the first collection of many unions under one larger organization.
1892 – New Orleans General Strike and Homestead Strike take place. The New Orleans strike resulted in a shorter workweek and a closed shop for streetcar conductors, and was considered a great success at the time. The Homestead Strike, however, was a disastrous failure for the unions, as the strike resulted in a large, violent clash between striking laborers and private security forces, and none of the strikes goals were achieved. The Homestead Strike also encouraged distrust of unions.
1894 – Pullman Strike takes place, between various labor unions and railroads. Federal troops are called in to quell the strikes, the first instance in which federal authority is used to break a strike. 13 strikers were killed, and 57 were wounded.
1902 – Coal Strike occurs. Theodore Roosevelt threatens to run the mines with federal troops, but mainly acts as a neutral mediator between the workers and the mine owners. This is the first time the federal government was involved in a strike as mediators, and not against the workers, as had been the norm previously.
1914 – Ludlow Massacre occurs. Colorado National Guardsmen attacked a camp of 1,200 striking laborers, killing 21 strikers. The rest of the strikers armed themselves and occasionally engaged the Colorado National Guard in small firefights. This is the first time strikers and troops fight each other in a relatively organized manner. This guerrilla warfare style conflict lasted ten days. This is arguably the closest any part of America has come to a full-fledged class war.
1935 – National Labor Relations Act is passed. This limits the employer from discouraging or encouraging labor unions, as well as prohibiting the employer from stopping workers from organizing. This is some of the first and most effective pro-labor legislation passed at the time, as well as a sign of the federal government starting to move towards pro-organized labor attitudes.
1938 – Fair Labor Standards Act is passed. This act defines and outlaws “oppressive child labor,” guarantees overtime pay for some positions, and also establishes a minimum wage.
1947 – Taft-Hartley Act is passed by a newly Republican-majority session of Congress. This is a step backwards in the labor movement, limiting the power of unions and making it harder to strike. This also outlawed the “closed shop.”
1981 – Air traffic controllers go on strike. The strike violated a law that prohibited government unions from striking. President Reagan gave and order for them to return to work. However, only one-tenth of the strikers went back to work. Reagan fired the remaining worker. This was a very controversial decision that cemented him in the eyes of many as a great evil against organized labor.
1803 Marbury v Madison
The first time the Supreme Court decalred something “unconstitutional”. This case established the concept of judicial review and helped define checks and balances. (ch 11)
1819- McCulloch v Maryland
The state of Maryland attempted to destroy the BUS by imposing tax on its notes. John Marshall declared the bank constitutional by invoking the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers. This strengthened federal authority. This ruling followed the doctrine of implied powers. (ch. 12, page 248)
1819- Dartmouth College v Woodward
Dartmouth college was originally granted a charter by king George III in 1769, but New Hampshire wanted to change it. Marshall ruled the original charter must stand because it is a contract; the constitution protects contracts from state encroachments. This ruling safeguarded business enterprises from domination by state governments. Daniel Webster argued on behalf of Dartmouth. (ch 12, page 250)
1824- Gibbons v Ogden (the “steamboat case”)
New York tied to grant to a private party a monopoly of waterborn commerce between New York and New Jersey. Marshall upheld the federal government; Congress alone controls interstate commerce. (ch 12, page 249)
1832- “Bank War” -- Biddle v Jackson
Jackson believed BUS was too powerful because it was privately owned. Jackson considered it unconstitutional regardless of Marshall’s ruling in McCulloch v Maryland.) Jackson believed it should be in control of the government because it was corrupt. President of BUS, Biddle (with support from Henry Clay and Daniel Webster) defended the bank. (ch. 13)
1857- Dred Scott Decision
On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Taney ruled that slaves could not sue in federal court because a slave was private property and could be taken anywhere. (ch 19, page 419)
1866- Ex parte milligan case
“the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are open is unconstitutional” (ch 22)
1886- Wabash case
“states cannot control interstate commerce” This case led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. (ch. 24)
1896- Plessy v Ferguson
“Separate but equal” doctrine- separate facilities were constitutional under the “equal protection” clause of the 14th amendment. (ch 23, page 513)
1904- Interstate Commerce Commission v. Baird
The railroads were charging more money for coal that was being shipped less distance and this was against the Act to Regulate Commerce. This was a step against monopolies.
1908- Muller v. Oregon
Curt Muller had made a woman work more than ten hours in a day which was against Oregon labor laws. He was fined $10. This was a step against sexism and over-labor.
1936- U.S. v. Curtiss-Wright
Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. was going to sell fifteen machine guns to Bolivia. This went against FDR as well as a Joint Resolution of Congress. This was a step towards isolationism and arms control.
1944- Toyosaburo Korematsu v. U.S.
Fred Korematsu refused to leave his house against Executive Order 9066. This was a step towards national security.
1954- Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court decided that segregation based on race was immoral and inappropriate, as was denying a black student an equal education. This was a step against segregation.
1962- Engel v. Vitale
The Supreme Court determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to impose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools. This was a step towards more freedom of religion.
1963- Gideon v. Wainwright
The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorneys. This was a step towards legal and economic equality.
1966- Miranda v. Arizona
The Supreme Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them. This was a step towards equal law enforcement to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.
1971- New York Times Co. v. U.S.
The New York Times had obtained a copy of the ‘Pentagon Papers’ and wanted to publish it but the government was against this. The New York Times won the case. This was a step towards more freedom of the press.
1973- Roe v. Wade
The Supreme Court decided that abortion in the United States was legal. This was a step toward freedom of expression.
1974- U.S. v. Nixon
The Supreme Court decided that President Richard Nixon was guilty in regard to the Watergate scandal. It is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any U.S. president.
|Latin American History and Culture: Series 1: Parts 1-7: The Yale University Collection of Latin American Manuscripts||American military history—general|
|2. The Main Course of American History and Its Next Stage||A brief History of American k-12 Mathematics Education|
|American cultural history before 1865||Across the modern marketing landscape, change increasingly seems to be the only constant. And the fast-paced diversification of the American consumer audience|
|The world as we know it is changing faster than at any other period in history. One of the greatest forces of change has been globalization or as some prefer||Who Rules America: Power Elite Analysis and American History|
|Nineteenth-Century American Literature and History: Trans-Mississippi West||Nineteenth-Century American Literature and History: Trans-Mississippi West|