Guidelines for the management of professional associations in the fields of archives, library and information work

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<> Guidelines for the management of professional associations in the fields of archives, library and information work

Prepared by

Russell Bowden

Based on contributions from Ray Palmer and David Bender

General Information Programme and UNISIST

United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organisation


Paris, September 1989

Recommended catalogue entry :

Bowden, Russell

Guidelines for the management of professional associations in the fields of archives, library and information work / prepared by Russell Bowden [for the] General Information Programme and UNISIST. Paris : Unesco, 1989. -ii, p.93 + vii appendices; 30cm. - (PGI-89/WS/11).

I - Guidelines for the Management of professional associations in the fields of archives, library and information work.

II - Unesco, General Information Programme and UNISIST.

© Unesco, 1989

<> Contents


Author's introduction

1. Professional associations

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Context

1.3. Background


2. Role and function of library, information science and archive professional associations

2.1. The role of the profession

2.2. What is professionalism?

2.3. Status and reputation

2.4. Essential elements


3. Organisational structure


3.1. Membership

3.2. Qualifications

3.3. Structure

3.4. Objectives

3.4.1. Personal members’ services

3.4.2. Institutional members' services

3.4.3. Joint individual and institutional members' services


4. Governance of the association

4.1. Social and political factors.

4.2. General assembly or congress

4.3. The council

4.4. Council - relationships

4.5. Council - operation

4.6. Council - makeup

4.7. Executive committee or bureau

4.8. Sub-organisations

4.9. Summary

5. Operation


5.1. Officers.

5.2. Officers

5.3. Responsibilities.

5.4. Full-time staff

5.4.1. Responsibilities

5.4.2. Organisational chart


6. Programmes and services


6.1. Personal services

6.1.1. Careers advice

6.1.2. Education

6.1.3. Continuing professional development

6.1.4. Seminars and conferences

6.1.5. Salaries and conditions of service work

6.1.6. Job market and career development

6.1.7. Newsletters and journals

6.1.8. Information services

6.1.9. Code of conduct

6.2. Institutional

6.2.1. Standards

6.2.2. Resourcing

6.2.3. Legislative change

6.2.4. Politics and lobbying

6.2.5. Freedom of information

6.2.6. Public awareness

6.2.7. Research

6.3. Other services - both to personal and institutional members

6.3.1. Publishing

6.3.2. Bibliographical work

6.3.3. Other services


7. Policies, planning and procedures


7.1. Policy - definition

7.1.1. Policies

7.1.2. Internal

7.1.3. External

7.1.4. Code of conduct

7.2. Formulation

7.3. Policy activities

7.4. Adoption/Rejection

7.5. Procedures for implementation

7.6. Planning - why and how


8. Finance : accounts and budgeting


8.1. Planning and budgeting

8.2. Accounts maintenance

8.2.1. Cash basis - accounting

8.2.2. Accrual - accounting

8.3. Financial reports

8.3.1. Statements of revenues and expenditures

8.3.2. Balance sheet

8.3.3. Statement of changes in fund balances

8.4. Internal controls

8.4.1. Independent audits

8.4.2. Cash flow

8.5. Financial reserves and investments

8.6. Sources of income

8.6.1. Membership

8.6.2. Categories of subscription

8.6.3. Association services income

8.6.4. User-service sources

8.6.5. Grant-aid and foundations

8.6.6. Government support


Appendix I

1. Election of chairman of council

2. Chairmen

3. Members

4. Quorum

5. Courtesy

6. Relevance

7. Discipline

8. Speeches

9. Right of reply

10. Matters arising

12. Withdrawal of motions

13. Absence of mover

14. Notices of motion

15. Committee's reports or minutes

16. Voting

17. Procedural motions

18. Amendment to motions

19. Reference back

20. Postponements

21. Next business

22. Closure

23. Adjournment

24. Distribution of Rules

25. Amendment to Rules

26. Suspension of Rules

Index to rules of procedure to be followed at council, committee and general meetings

Appendix II

Determination of personnel needs

Recruitment and selection


Performance appraisal




Appendix III

Code of professional conduct

Guidance notes on the code

The status of the code

The substance of the code

Updating professional expertise

Supervision of staff and trainees

Duty to client and employer

Promoting access to information

Discrimination on race, colour, creed, gender and sexual orientation


Personal financial interest

Criminal offences

Co-operation in disciplinary proceedings

Appendix IV

Appendix V

Appendix VI

Appendix VII

<> Preface

For many years the General Information Programme of Unesco has produced guidelines and studies to help Member States develop national information systems, including libraries, information services and archives. The present document, which is part of this programme, aims at assisting in raising the profile of professional associations in the library, information science and documentation and archive fields with the objectives of making them more efficient and better managed. By doing so it is hoped that they will undertake stronger roles in the development in their countries of national library, archives and information services.

This document has been prepared under contract with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) by Russell Bowden, Chairman of the IFLA Round Table for the Management of Library Associations.

The document covers in detail, amongst other issues, the following: the elements that go to make up a professional association; the manner in which associations are governed; the way in which they are operated; the programmes and services that members expect to be supplied; the manner in which policies are formulated and the procedures for planning activities. The management of finances through accounting and budgeting procedures complete the document. It starts with an investigation into professionalism and explains its importance if workers in libraries, archives and information services are to improve their status and reputation and that of their professions.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material throughout the document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Unesco.

Readers are invited to send comments, suggestions or requests for additional copies to the Division of the General Information Programme, Unesco, 7, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France.

<> Author's introduction

This Guideline is a project of the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations) Round Table for the Management of Library Associations and produced under contract -to Unesco through its General Information Programme. It is hoped, when it is published by Unesco, that it will join other guidelines of use in the management of library associations such as that produced by the IFLA Round Table for Editors of Library Journals on the production and editing of these important communication tools.

This Guideline is prepared with the objective of improving the management and efficiency of professional associations in the library, information and documentation and archive fields. It is hoped that improving their efficiency will contribute to the better development of library, information and archive services particularly in the Third World and will assist in improving the image of the profession but specifically its reputation and the salaries that are paid to those that work in it and by so doing enhance the status of these three under - appreciated professions.

This work has benefitted much from three sources: the author's twelve years of experience as Deputy Chief Executive of one of the oldest library associations in the world - The Library Association in the United Kingdom. The experiences gained their and the expertise obtained from colleagues both working in the Secretariat and elected members not only of Council but of its many sub-organisations have made a major contribution. Two colleagues, Ray Palmer of the Medical Library Association of the United States and David Bender of the Special Libraries Association in the United States provided the basis for the original work and particularly for Chapter 8 on Finance: Accounts and Budgeting. Their generous assistance is warmly acknowledged. IFLA itself and my twelve years of experience working for it in a number of areas of its activities has also provided valuable experiences which have been drawn upon, along with the others, in the preparation of this Guideline.

My own personal contribution comes from. experiences gained by working in library and information services for over fifteen years in Iraq, India, Sri Lanka and Nigeria for the British Council and, before joining the Library Association, teaching a course leading to a Masters degree intended to improve the quality and extent of library and information science education in the Third World. My knowledge of archives is limited and I am grateful to the International Council on Archives (ICA) as well as to the International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID) for their approval of the final text. On the library and information side I acknowledge the support of David Bender, Ray Palmer and Klaus Plotz of the Library Association of the GDR for their helpful comments during the final stages of drafting.

The final responsibility however for the contents of document and the views it expresses rests with the author.

I hope that it will prove to be a useful and practical tool that will help many library associations, particularly in the Third World, to be more effective and in so doing help them to raise the reputation and status of the library, information science and archive professions.

<> 1. Professional associations

<> 1.1. Introduction

1.1.1 Associations exist to provide organisation for individuals working in similar areas of activity and facing similar problems to meet and exchange views and learn from each other. They exist, in general terms, to provide a range of services to members and to provide a focus of expertise to be made available to external bodies. They represent, to outside organisations, the concerns of their members. The long-term benefactors of such organisations are the end-users of the services that the members of that association provide. They lay down standards for performance, protect the continuing existence of services and monitor the levels of provision of services as well as look after the interests of their own members.

Like any organisation such an association has a life of its own. It has to be organised, its activities directed and its assets administered. For this purpose it requires finances and these have to be managed. It needs objectives and these require the involvement of individuals to identify them and to implement programmes of activities and to provide a range of services to achieve them.

Good management therefore becomes a necessary prerequisite for success. These Guidelines are produced by the IFLA Round Table for the Management of Library Associations with the objective of assisting towards the more successful management of library, archive and information science and documentation associations worldwide and to help them, in turn, to improve their effectiveness and to strengthen their roles in the communities of which they are a part.

1.1.2 In many countries the development of library, archive and information services has been a slow and not altogether successful operation. Despite objectives of the library, archive and information services professions and the assistance of external agencies, amongst which Unesco has been one of the most committed, these services have often lagged far behind the development of other services such as those to industry, education, health and cultural programmes despite the fact that none of these are able to achieve their maximum effectiveness without the support of information, archive and library provisions.

The integrated planning of library and information services was recognised relatively early in Unesco, primarily by C.V. Penna, as a prerequisite to the provision of services of an acceptable standard and wide-ranging not only in geographical coverage but also in the types of services to be provided. Penna's interest in library and information and archive planning can be traced back to the early sixties, although his interest in planning as a methodology pre-dates that.

During that decade his awareness of the important role that planning could play in library and information services development increased. In his period to retirement from Unesco in 1971, Penna played an important role in obtaining international recognition for this concept of the national planning of library and information services. Four seminars in the main regions of the world were organised - in Quito, Ecuador in 1966 (Meeting of Experts on the National Planning of Library Services in Latin America), Colombo, Ceylon in 1967, Kampala, Uganda in 1970 and Cairo, Egypt in 1974. They culminated in the Intergovernmental Conference on the Planning of National Documentation, Library and Archives Infrastructures the NATIS Conference in Paris in 1974. Despite this international activity the development of library and information services has been slow with some few honourable exceptions. There are many reasons for this but one of them, it might be successfully argued, is because of the lack of involvement of professional library, information and archive workers in the implementation of the NATIS Conference proposals. At the most senior levels they were involved as participants but the messages from the Conferences, particularly the 1974 Paris NATIS Conference, were to sectors of government, such as national planners, economists and civil servants - particularly in developmental agencies. The message was rarely directed at those who themselves were closely involved in the provision of library, information and archive services, however weak their influence, and whose work and professional commitments were more likely to result in a fighting force anxious to see the NATIS objectives implemented. Stephen Parker, surveying Penna's early interest in planning writes: "The main object of Unesco's activities in this respect, however, appear to have been to introduce the concept of library development planning to educational planners, rather than to introduce library planners to the concepts and techniques of planning in general''.1 A view made even more clear later in a book Penna part-edited in which the introduction states: "So, whereas in the past a book such as this would have been oriented towards librarians, and would therefore have been rather different in content and treatment, we have set out to cater primarily for political, educational and administrative authorities who in many cases have had to assume responsibility for LIS planning with very little information or precedent to guide them".2

1.1.3 It is the contention of the Round Table for the Management of Library Associations that it is librarians, information and archive workers who have the strongest motivation to obtain the resources that they require to provide services to their publics and the Unesco NATIS Conferences tended to overlook the contribution that they might have made. However well-intentioned was the desire to involve senior government officials, planners, economists etc. they had no reason to listen any more sympathetically to information workers' requests for resources and a place in future development planning than health workers, agronomists or family planning specialists who they might have agreed to possess far stronger reasons for favourable consideration of their plans and requests for developmental resources than did the information professionals.

With few eminent exceptions history has shown that an individual librarian fighting for resources on his own has rarely been successful. An occasional service or individual library with a high standard of service provision has been established but they have been few and far between. An information professional arguing for resources alone and isolated from his community has rarely been successful.

NATIS, introducing the concept of the planning of integrated l library, information and archive services at national levels appeared to provide the answer in suggesting the need to involve others outside these professions. However it failed in at least one respect.

It omitted to argue for the integration of the professionals most closely involved and to advise them that by coming together they could as a body more effectively press for the approval of professionally - approved objectives and for the provision of the required resources. As a consequence although. "integration" was a keyword it did not reach the professionals and, as a further consequence, librarians, information scientists and archivists, the three professions involved, continued to fight their battles isolated each from the other.

1.1.4 Voices calling in unison are usually better heard than one in isolation. An English saying "three heads are better than one" makes sense when calling for the adoption of strategies and when arguing for resources. Unity of the library, information and archive professionals can be provided, the Round Table for the Management of Library Association's believes, through professional associations. These organisations speaking on behalf of professionals, are the most likely bodies to arrive at agreements on objectives and the strategies required to reach them and which will be more effective than individual voices. What was missing in the 1974 Paris NATIS Conference report was the realization of a need for library, information and archive professional organisations to be recognised as one of the prime constituent elements in achieving integrated national library, information and archive services.

1.1.5 At the present time however few of these organisations are in a fit condition to be able to provide that unified voice, agree upon objectives, identify strategies to archieve them and then embark on activities to fulfil these targets. In most Third World countries library, information and archive associations suffer from a lack of Headquarters and a permanent address to know where, for instance, to send subscriptions. Newsletters, with which to communicate with the membership, are unreliable and as a consequence members become disillusioned and drift away or fail to be recruited. Required statutory activities such as Annual General Meetings and elections are not always undertaken. Without a channel of communication members do not know of meetings in which policies and strategies are to be agreed and adopted. Often the motivations of officers to be elected are more concerned with personal gain than a desire to serve the members. Of course not all associations present such a bleak picture but many suffer from one or more of these inadequencies.

It is to help to remedy situations such as these that these Guidelines have been formulated by the IFLA Round Table for the Management of Library Associations.

<> 1.2. Context

1.2.1 Little concern at the highest international levels had been shown in the past for the need to improve the situation in the professional associations in the library, information and archive world. Indeed little if any appreciation existed there of the importance that strong and effectively organised professional bodies might play in the development of integrated library, information and archive services until March 1987. Then Unesco organised with FID, (International Federation for Information and Documentation) and ICA, (International Council of Archives) and IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) a two day meeting with the aim of encouraging the development of strong and well-organised professional associations for archives, librarianship and information science in regions of the developing world. That meeting agreed that "national progress and development in the areas of information, documentation, libraries and archives will remain slow in developing countries where active and well-organised professional associations do not exist."3.

It noted that the experience of the three Non-Governmental organisations (NGOs), with their existing regional structures, showed that regional associations had to be based on strong and active national associations and that any 'top-down' development would not be advisable. Developments should be linked to the needs and requirements of the area, thus making a single model for them all to follow impossible to achieve. Instead it was agreed that "the creation and development of national professional associations is a requirement in which the NGOs should have an important role to play." Unesco offered its expertise.

On developments at the national level the meeting observed that co-operation between the professions should be grouped around practical projects and action-orientated activities. It noted that Government attention will need to be concentrated on realising the importance of the library, information science and archive (LISA) professions at national levels and on improving the status of the profession as a whole. A structure in which all relevant professions are properly represented will be required - one possible form being a National Information Council. The meeting recommended "that more needs to be done to strengthen national professional associations and to foster professional co-operation at the regional level before further consideration is given to the establishment of inter-professional associations at the regional and national level."

1.2.2 Much of the thinking behind the meeting - not always evident in the brief report was concerned to avoid duplicating the establishment of similar organisations at least in the organisational sense, and the wasteful use of scarce human, physical and financial resources. Indeed in some of the smaller countries, and those where the establishment of archives, libraries and documentation centres are few in number, it was felt that the establishment of one professional organisation might prove practicable and possible.

1.2.3 IFLA, FID and ICA had for some time been anxious to promote greater co-operation between themselves and to this end had met in Bellagio (May 1980) and their education and research committees in Frankfurt (December 1980). Progress has been made, although it has been slow, with perhaps the greatest being in the areas of education, research and conservation. In the first a number of activities have taken place such as two seminars on the teaching of management in Vienna in 1983 and in Varna in 1985. Nevertheless many ambiguities remain. Archivists continue to make major efforts to develop basic standard requirements to facilitate greater harmonisation with library education programmes. A conference on preservation and conservation was held in Vienna in 1986 and this had been proceeded in 1985 with a tri-partite meeting in Veldhoven on this subject and the core programmes of the three NGOs. An examination of problems and advances in the harmonisation of library and information science and archive education formed a major part of an IFLA pre-Conference Seminar in Manila in 1980.4 It helped to lead eventually in 1987 to an International Colloquium on the harmonisation of education and training for library, information and archival personnel in London, the United Kingdom planned by, and involving, these three NGOs.

Two resolutions from it are relevant. Resolution 2 recommends: " to appropriate national, regional, and international organisations that they consider a plan of action to implement activities towards harmonisation of education and training programmes for library, information and archival personnel." And on professionalism Resolution 5 states: "Recognising that the concept of professionalism should permeate the practice of all information professionals, and therefore should be included in their education at all levels, the Colloquium recommends that:

- a code of professional conduct acceptable to the three information professions be established by IFLA, FID and ICA;

- national information professional organisations should encourage harmonisation of education for information professions;

- national information co-ordinating agencies, where they exist, should support action towards harmonisation of education."5

However the lengths to which harmonisation should proceed and the methods to be used are still subjects in the educational world for heated debate and some disagreement.

On the ground, in practice, the actual work of professionals in the information field becomes less and less rigorously defined. As preservation and conservation problems increasingly engage librarians' and information scientists' as well as archivists' attention and as new technology facilitates description of, and access to, archival holdings and as the more sophisticated requirements of library users require the exploitation of computer-based information - handling skills and as information services increasingly realise that print-on-paper products are as important as the ephemeral information on a screen the barriers in the way of increased harmonisation in practices as well as in education begin to diminish.

1.2.4 The creation of an IFLA Round-table for the management of library associations was first considered at the 1980 IFLA Conference in Manila in a programme entitled 'Library Associations on the Move'. In the International Council on Archives a Section of Professional Archival Associations (ICA/SPA) was established in 1976 to be responsible for association problems. Similar IFLA programmes to 'Library Associations on the Move' primarily to judge the interest and support in IFLA for the establishment of some organisation to promote interest in library associations' management, were held in Leipzig in 1981 and Montreal in 1982. It was not until three years later at the Munich Conference in 1983 that the proposed membership of the Round Table and the terms of reference were agreed and it was formally established.6

From its inception its objectives were:

1. "to assist library associations to more effectively con tribute to the formulation and execution of IFLA policies and activities;

2. to monitor and collect information on the structures, management, organisation and activities of LAs;

3. to assist LAs to implement Unesco NATIS/UNISIST - programmes and IFLA's UBC Programme and UAP;

4. to offer advice and assistance from the expertise within the Round Table to LAs in membership;

5. to collect specialist information for exchange of information purposes as, and where, required."7

These were incorporated into IFLA's Third Medium Term Programme (1986 - 1991) and updated in its second edition 8.

Like any dynamic organisation the Round Table for the Management of Library Associations' programme of work developed to meet expressed needs. During a Berlin (DDR) meeting (April 1985) and subsequently at one in London {April 1986) the then six Core Programmes of IFLA were reviewed in detail to identify, firstly, what roles library association's should be encouraged and assisted to play in implementing in their own countries the activities recommended by the Core Programmes and then what role the Round Table should play to assist them to achieve these objectives. From this emerged the latest plan of activities.

* "Disseminate the Berlin Report and criteria and obtain feedback from library associations;

* produce Guidelines;

* organise a post conference... seminar;

* identify a 'model' library association in each of the three IFLA regions;

* organise regional seminars based on the 'models';

* establish an IFLA Clearing House to collect information on library associations - preferably in IFLA Headquarters;

* assist in the development of income-generating services in library associations - with ROTNAC;

* prepare an investigation into the state-of-the-art on Trans-border Data Flow;

* publish "The role of library associations as effective pressure groups for 'political' action";

* assist associations to encourage 'professionalisation' of their memberships;

* encourage Unesco into understanding and providing support for library associations' development;

* assemble a programme of activities to assist library associations to implement the six Core Programmes.9

To these were added activities based on resolutions from a pre-Session Seminar in 1986 in Kanazawa, Japan that recommended to IFLA: "Recognizing the crying problem of low status of librarians, documentalists and information specialists in some of the Third World countries, this Seminar strongly recommends that the following steps are taken by IFLA as an attempt to redress the situation:

(a) that a Pre-Session Seminar on the "Status of Librarians, Documentalists and Information Specialists" be organised by IFLA preferably in a Third World country and

(b) IFLA should take effective steps to formulate standards relating to the status issue and circulate these standards globally."10

It recognised a problem which was already emerging from the Round Table's own deliberations and which was being brought to its attention from within IFLA and outside organisations. Work on identifying problems concerned with the status and reputation of the profession began in 1987 and will continue until 1992 when it is hoped to place recommendations before IFLA for improvements to this situation at a pre-conference seminar in Delhi.

With the Guidelines and the proposed seminar, assistance to develop three 'model' library associations in Africa (Kenya) Asia (Malaysia) and Latin America (FeBAB-Brazil) and the five year programme on status and reputation the Round Table's Programme of activity is more than full.

1.2.5 Membership of the Round Table at the end of 1988 stood at 57. Its objective is to have in its membership by 1991 all eligible associations in membership of IFLA.

1.2.6 The Round Table for the Management of Library Associations cooperates closely with other sectors within IFLA whose objectives are closely related. The expertise of the Round Table of National Centres for Library Services (ROTNAC) is proving invaluable and close links with it have been forged. The Round Table for Editors of Library Journals has interests which also relate, although not in all respects, to the Round Table. It has produced Guidelines that provide excellent support for library associations attempting to establish journals or newsletters to facilitate communication within their memberships.11

1.2.7 Guidelines, early in the life of the RTMLA, were perceived to be an important tool work on which it should speedily embark. So when the Medical Library and Special Libraries Associations in the US reported that their organisations. had had the same thought and had begun work on drafts which the RTMLA was welcome to use the offer was accepted with alacrity and gratitude. It is upon some of that work that these Guidelines are constructed. Their usefulness is gladly acknowledged.

<> 1.3. Background

1.3.1 Any guideline can only serve as a model not to be followed unquestioningly in every detail but to be translated and interpreted to harmonise with the environment in which the library, information science or archive. association operates. In countries with long-established associations (experiences from which many lessons have been learned and used in the production of these guidelines) they have grown and developed effected by, and responding to, the many influences from outside the organisation These influences come from many sources. These sources, although the specific influences may differ, still exist. They will exert influences today just as much as they have in the past and, particularly, on the newer developing associations.

The role and nature of government and the political processes prevalent in the country will be primary influences effecting the perception within the association of the democratic processes and the extent to which individual members' have the ability to influence the management and decision-making processes at different levels within the associations. They will influence the shape and relationships of the governing and executive bodies (even to the names adopted e.g. Praesidium or Executive Committee). The manner of governance of the country obviously will effect the relationship of the association to the government because in some countries associations are seen, and accepted, as 'pressure' groups pressing for particular changes, for instance, from the government. In other countries the governments perceive associations as responsible bodies that are to be consulted before governmental decisions are finally reached and taken. In a similar manner the culture of a country and the structure of its society influence the manner and shape in which an association develops. The level of development of the nation itself, obviously, will also effect the organisation and administration of an association. If the telephone services and the post are unreliable, or if the experiences of ordinary people in using a vote are limited and therefore little understood then an association will need to take such situations into account in the operation of its business.

1.3.2 In these very different situations in which professional associations in the information world are likely to operate it is important to emphasis again that, although what follows has been written with an awareness of the need to appreciate these differences, these guidelines must not be adopted without careful review and without changes being made where necessary. They are not prescriptive but a suggested set of models. The IFLA Round Table for the Management of Library Associations hopes that they are acceptable and that they can be adapted and used in many different social, cultural, political and developmental environments both for professional librarians, information scientists or documentalists and archivists.

<> References

1. Parker, J. Stephen

Unesco and library development planning. London. The Library Association. 1985. p211.

2. Penna, C.V., Foskett, D.J., Sewell, P.H. National library and information services: a handbook for planners. London. Butterworths. 1977. pxi.

3. Report. FID/ICA/IFLA

Consultative meeting for Unesco/PGI on the establishment of interprofessional organisations. of documentalists, librarians and archivists at the regional level. The Hague, 9-10 March 1987.

4. Bowden, Russell. Library education programmes in developing countries with special reference to Asia. Proceedings of the Unesco pre-IFLA Conference Seminar. London. The Library Association. 1982.

5. International colloquium on the harmonization of education and training for library, information and archival personnel. [To be published in IFLA Publications series during 1989. ]

6. See: IFLA Journal 8(2) 1984 and 13(3) 1987.

7. IFLA. Round table for the Management of Library Associations. Newsletter No 1. London. The Library Association. 1983.

8. IFLA. Medium-Term Programme 1986-1991. Second edition compiled by the professional Board of IFLA and edited by Irwin H. Pizer. The Hague. 1988.

9. IFLA. Round Table for the Management of Library Associations. Newsletter No 6. London. 1986.

10. IFLA Journal. 12(1986)4. p370. Recommendations from the Pre-Session Seminar at Kanazawa, Japan, 18-23 August 1986, Theme: "Industrial and Scientific Information for Development - The Role of Special Libraries for National Development".

11. Borchardt, Dietrich H. Library journals; how to edit them. Guidelines prepared for the IFLA Round Table for Editors of Library Journals. The Hague. IFLA. 1987. (IFLA Professional Report No.13).

<> 2. Role and function of library, information science and archive professional associations

<> 2.1. The role of the profession

There are few examples in the world, even in the industralised countries, where the perceptions of the library, information science and archive (LISA) professions can be said to be satisfactory. Where there exist long-established and well organised professional associations the status and reputation of the professions are usually better than in those countries where they are less well organised. However the general picture is not bright. In academic institutions, in local government organisations, in managerial positions in industry and commerce the LISA professionals, in comparison with architects, engineers, accountants and lecturers etc., show little evidence of having much status within their employing institutions with the exception of the archival profession in some European countries, the United States, Canada and Malaysia where it is reckoned to be fairly good. Reputation, not so much of individual workers but of the professions generally, is similarly low and for all the LISA professionals salaries are, with few exceptions poor. A cartoon character or impersonations in film depicting the archetypal information worker are too well known to comment upon here. It is a worrying picture, the reasons for which IFLA's Round Table for the Management of Library Associations has started to investigate.

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