Karl Marx and Frederick Engels were the first in human history to give scientifically grounded warnings concerning man's attitu­de to his environment




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НазваниеKarl Marx and Frederick Engels were the first in human history to give scientifically grounded warnings concerning man's attitu­de to his environment
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The Earth Is Our Home


Karl Marx and Frederick Engels were the first in human history to give scientifically grounded warnings concerning man's attitu­de to his environment.

Today the contradictions between man and nature are acquiring a dramatic character. Every year world industry pollutes the at­mosphere with about 1,000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. People of many cities suffer from smog. Forests are disappearing and this upsets the oxygen balance. The pollution of the air, of the world's oceans, seas, rivers and lakes, and the destruction of the ozone layer could lead our planet to a global catastrophe. That is why serious measures to protect the environment should be undertaken.

As many as 159 countries—members of the United Nations Organization — have set up environmental protection agencies. They have worked out hundreds of projects to protect nature. A global strategy of nature protection has been worked out by large international organizations. One of its fundamental provisions is the transfer of industry to low- and non-waste technologies.

In his speech at the United Nations General Assembly in December 1988, M. S. Gorbachev, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, President of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, emphasized the opportunities opened up for ecological revival in the process of disarma­ment — first of all, nuclear. He proposed that an emergency ecological aid centre should be set up within the United Nations Organization. M. S. Gorbachev also said that the Soviet Union is prepared to cooperate in the establishment of an international space laboratory or manned orbiting station that would deal with control over the state of the environment.

In the USSR more attention has been given to the problems of ecology of late. Resource saving has become the slogan of perestroika. A special Resolution "On a Radical Restructuring of the Protection of Nature in the Country" has been passed by the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers. The State Committee of the USSR for Environmental Control has been established. The role of the Soviet public in the solution of ecological problems has greatly increased.


Clean Air for the City


At the beginning of 1988 the citizens of Nizhny Tagil, a large metallurgical and engineering centre in the Urals, got together to discuss the painful question of pollution, According to the town sanitary-epidemiological station some 658,000 tons of harmful substances — nearly two tons per person — are discharged every year into the air. The main polluter is the Nizhny Tagil iron-and-steel plant. Some time ago it was decided to build a new coking plant there. And it was built in a hurry, the design was poor and the system for cleaning and trapping harmful substances was left unfinished. When the new coking plant went into operation, it became even harder to breathe in the city.

The Komsomols of Nizhny Tagil initiated the movement "Clean Air for Our City". The City Party Committee, the City Soviet and the City Komsomol Committee drew up a detailed plan of measures necessary to improve the ecological situation in Nizhny Tagil.

At the meeting held in 1988 various proposals were put forward. The plan to improve the ecological situation was supported. In particular, it was demanded that the new coking plant should operate according to the norms set to protect the environment.

The idea of the meeting was not just to draw attention to the difficult situation, it was also to urge all those who wish to keep their city's air clean to take some action.


The Struggle for the Protection of Lake Baikal


More than twenty years ago a pulp-and-paper factory was built on the shore of Lake Baikal, though scientists disapproved of the project. They warned that the purification system was imperfect, but the factory continued to function. As a result,

about 1,500 million cubic metres of industrial waste water have been discharged into the lake, that is, more than 50 per cent of the world's purest water have been ruined. The whole ecological system of the lake has changed greatly. Growth rates of Baikal fishes and seals have slowed down, some organisms found in no other place but Lake Baikal are disappearing. Trees are dying from the dust and gas blow-outs of the factory.

It was the problem of Lake Baikal that made our people think seriously about the principles of man-nature relations. After many discussions on Lake Baikal in the 1960s, resolutions and laws on environmental protection began to appear and an article in the USSR Constitution was formulated. However, the decisions on the protection of Lake Baikal adopted at that time did not solve the problem. Truthful information about the real situation in the area was kept from the press and the people.

In an atmosphere of glasnost scientists, writers, Party officials, workers — all those who are not indifferent — put the problem of Lake Baikal sharply in the press, among public and Party bodies and in the govern­ment. A special government commission has been set up to work out new, optimal and efficient measures for the protection of the lake. The drafts drawn up by this commission were examined at the CPSU Central Committee and a resolution has been passed. Lake Baikal and its shores have been declared a specially protected zone of the country. Strict control will be exercised over any economic activity around the lake. The pulp-and-paper factory will be turned into a furniture-assembling works. The State Forestry Committee will take care of the forests around Lake Baikal. Many other important measures will be taken. Now the thing is to fulfil strictly what has been outlined, to see to it that each line of the new documents becomes a reality.

Soviet Writer Valentin Rasputin and American Musician Paul Winter: "We Have Lake Baikal in Common"


When Valentin Rasputin first heard of Paul Winter's "ecological jazz", he did not think that jazz had much in common with nature protection. But meetings with Paul Winter in Moscow, in the USA and in Irkutsk have convinced Valentin Rasputin that Paul's music is really unusual. He does not simply join the voices of animals and birds with his compositions; he develops them into dialogues. He made his music defend living nature. "Live on, Baikal, clear-water Baikal, ancient Baikal, sacred Baikal," Paul Winter sang in Russian. Then he removed his saxophone from his lips for a moment and said that "The Hymn to Baikal" was dedicated to the researchers of the Limnological Institute of Irkutsk, who were doing all they could in the battle to end the pollution of this unique lake.

"I know that Paul Winter's performances help Lake Baikal no less than my books," Valentin Rasputin says. "Another important thing is that jazz attracts those young people who usually don't even read serious literature and newspapers... But hearing Paul Winter's band, they discover that jazz can be very diverse, that it can even promote nature protection and peace."

Paul Winter's ideas are the same as those of the Russian author. He believes that the Earth is our common home, a big green home. All its inhabitants — people, animals and birds — need to live in peace and harmony. Paul believes that art and music provide the basis for realizing the wisdom of life.


Movement to Save the Ara! Spa and Lake

More than 30 years ago the Aral was a bright blue sea with a lot of fish. The Central Asian rivers Amudarya and Syrdarya supplied it with water. But then the water of the rivers was diverted to cotton plantations. As a result, the level of the sea has dropped 13 metres and the shores have gone back 70 — 80 kilometres. The exposed seabed has turned into a desert which sends 70 million tons of salty dust into the atmosphere every year. The disaster in the Aral puts in a dangerous position the health and lives of nearly three million people living by the sea.

If no immediate measures are taken, the Aral Sea will disappear by the year 2010. What can be done to correct the situation? This question was discussed at a press conference which took place in Alma-Ata in 1987. It was organized by the Committee to save the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash (the situation is unfavourable at the area of this lake, too). The Committee consists of scientists, writers, heads of ministries of Kazakhstan and other state and public figures. Several projects to correct the situation were mentioned at the press conference.

The public, in its own way, expressed concern for the fate of the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash. Account No. 1700979 was opened at the State Bank of the USSR at the end of 1987. Individual persons and whole enterprises and organi­zations began making contributions.

In 1988 the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers passed a special resolution on the Aral area. The Aral will be saved by the high ecological standards mentality and intelligent decisions.


No More Whaling


On May 20, 1987, the Sovetskaya Ukraina flotilla of whaling ships returned to their home port of Odessa from the Antarctic Regions. The Soviet government had decided to stop whaling, so this had been the last trip by the flotilla.

The first Soviet whaling trip was in 1933. The whalers provided the country with oil, meat and bone-meal. Since 1987 the whaling industry has been stopped and the former whalers have been transferred to other types of fishing.

The Soviet Union's decision to stop whaling proves the country's desire to maintain its international prestige as an environmental-control-minded nation.

Abridged and adapted from the "Moscow News"


Играем в английский


Каждому современному школьнику ясно - иностранный язык в наше время знать необходимо. Беда лишь в том, что новых слов слишком много и большинство их них сильно отличается от русских. Хотя и не все. Баскетбол, например, - английское слово. Запомни, что «баскет» по-английски - корзин­ка, а «бол» - мяч, и считай, что два слова уже выучил. Добавь к этому футбол - вид спорта, где бьют ногой по мячу. Вычитаем из футбола известный уже «бол». Остается «фут» - нога. Еще новое слово.

Бутерброд - подсказка тем, кто учит немец­кий. «Бутер» - масло, «брод» - хлеб.

Да и обыденная наша жизнь настолько пе­реполнена сейчас иностранными словами, что порой путаешь, на каком языке говоришь. При­ходишь в кафе в любой точке мира и небреж­но бросаешь официанту: гамбургер, хот дог, пепси кола! И тот сразу видит в тебе абориге­на.

Ну а если серьезно, иностранные слова, как, впрочем, и все, что угодно, лучше запоми­нать в игре. Поэтому приглашайте к себе дру­зей и играйте в английский язык. Или в немец­кий. Да хоть в латынь.

Допустим, на уроке вы проходили тему «ВНЕШНОСТЬ».

Тогда разбейтесь на пары. Первая пара встает спинами друг к другу, и каждый пытает­ся по памяти описать наружность партнера.

Кстати, называя цвет глаз, волос, одежды, вы заодно повторите и тему «ЦВЕТ». Осталь­ные оценивают, воспринимая язык на слух, - это тоже очень полезно. Затем пары меняются.

УРОК ГРАММАТИКИ

Сначала распределите роли. Пусть каждый из вас станет членом предложения. Кто-то -подлежащим, кто-то - артиклем, кто-то - вспо­могательным глаголом, кто-то - модальным, в зависимости от того, в каком вы классе и что успели пройти. Пусть все участники быстро приготовят себе табличку с «ролью» - для на­глядности. Ведущий открывает учебник и чи­тает какую-то фразу. Участники при этом дол­жны встать в ряд, чтобы каждое слово заняло правильное место в предложении.

Интереснее, если друзей наберется на две команды. В соревновании процесс запомина­ния сработает надежнее.

Игр таких можно напридумывать сколько угодно. А можно играть и в наши привычные, только на иностранном языке:

«Я ЗНАЮ ПЯТЬ НАЗВАНИЙ»... мебели, животных, растений, частей тела, улиц Парижа и прочее, прочее - по теме урока. Помните, как играть? В ритме отскакивающего мяча приго­варивать название пяти предметов, не сбива­ясь и не пропуская ударов. Заодно и разомне­тесь.

«СЪЕДОБНОЕ-НЕСЪЕДОБНОЕ», называ­ние по очереди слов с одной и той же буквы, составление цепочки слов - последующее сло­во должно начинаться с последней буквы пре­дыдущего - конечно, вы знаете все эти игры.

А может быть, расскажете о них своей учи­тельнице? И тогда школьные уроки иностран­ного языка превратятся для вас в игру, а зна­чит, в праздник.


Если вы хотите стать образованным, культур­ным человеком - без знания хотя бы одного иностранного языка вам будет трудно обойтись. Самое большое распро­странение в мире получает сегодня английский язык. 320 миллионов человек считают ею родным. Примерно пол­тора миллиарда людей пользуются английским языком при официальных контактах или как вторым языком. 70 %

корреспонденции на планете оформляется на английском. На нем общаются политики разных стран, пилоты, менеджеры и многие другие. Даже трудно сосчитать, сколько в мире курсов об­учения английскому языку. Утверждают что самый широкий выбор преподавателей - на лондонской Оксфорд стрит. По сообщению одной из газет в летнее время их здесь больше, чем голубей на Трафальгарской площади.

А каковы ваши познания в английском!


About Chuvashia in English


Учащиеся наших школ могут без особого труда описать многие до­стопримечательности Лондона, Парижа или Вашингтона, объяс­нить, почему одна из централь­ных площадей в Лондоне называется Тра­фальгарской, знают, что американцы гото­вят на ужин в День благодарения и какой по счету президент правит Соединенными Штатами сегодня. На уроках иностранных языков они изучают эти страны, их куль­туру, историю, традиции и праздники. А вот о своей республике мы говорим на инос­транных языках явно недостаточно. Ведь школьники хотят знать больше о своих кор­нях, о своей малой родине. Этими знания­ми они с удовольствием делятся на уроках со сверстниками, об этом рассказывают своим зарубежным друзьям. Умение вести беседу зажигает огонек в глазах ребят, вы­зывает потребность в непроизвольном об­щении на иностранном языке.

Однако действующие учебники мало за­трагивают эти проблемы. Ощущение ин­формационного голода, когда материала для урока явно недостаточно, требует от учителей иностранных языков усилий по сбору нужного материала, переводу и его адаптированию. С этой проблемой мы столкнулись при подготовке учебного по­собия для 9—11 классов (см. Коростелева Н. В., Сергеева И. Н., Шуверова Т. Д. «Го­ворим о Чувашии на уроках английского языка». Чебоксары, изд-во ЧГПИ. 1995). Приходилось по крупицам собирать нуж­ную информацию из республиканских га­зет и журналов, разрозненных публикаций разных авторов, обрабатывать собранные сведения в соответствии с научно-методи­ческими требованиями, а по проблемам экологии использовать элементы исследо­вания. Было желание — обеспечить учите­ля материалом о Чувашии на английском языке. В пособие включены следующие блоки:


1) Geografical Location and Population of Chuvashia.

2) Industry and Agriculture.

3) Environmental Problems.

4) Political System.

5) Cheboksary, the Capital of

6) Culture, Science, Educatio Folk Art, Holidays.

7) Choosing a Profession.

8) Chuvashia-New Times.


Все темы выполнены в занимательной форме, построены по принципу возрастающей сложности и увеличения информации за счет расширения словаря и использования пошагового метода обучения. Развитие разговорных навыков у детей основывается на использовании связных текстов, диалогов, дополнительного материала из оригинальных источников. Здесь можно встретить диалоги, монологи, полилоги, газетный материал, поэзию, научные статьи.

Такой материал, на наш взгляд, способствует развитию коммуникативных способностей учащихся, стимулирует их творческую активность и, что особенно важно, создает условия для формирования личности в духе патриотизма, любви к Родине, гордости за свой народ.

Основные блоки завершает материал о выборе профессии старшеклассниками. Эта проблема волнует выпускников школ. Все профессии, о которых идет речь в полилоге, отражают потребность современной Чувашии в этих специальностях.

Рассмотрим раздел, затрагивающий экологические проблемы республики.

A visiting inspector has come to Chuvashia to analyse the ecological situation.

I. Here is the information on the problem presented by the Ecological Committeein the presidential government. Do you think it ref­lects the ecological situation in our Republic?

1. Read the text.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

No other great industrial civilization so sys­tematically and so long poisoned the air, land water and people. None so loudly proclaiming its efforts to improve public health and pro­tect nature degraded both so much.

The result of our great economic achieve­ments is that we are doomed to breathe in poisoned air, eat poisoned food, drink poisoned water and constantly degrade in health. And the next problem is that we appear to be unable to rebuild our economy and repair the ecological damage at the same time.

The towns of the Republic with hundreds of smoky industrial enterprises pollute the air we breathe. Each of us breathes 151 kilogram polluted air in Cheboksary and 149 kilograms in Novocheboksarsk every year. It's'quite enough to cause cancer, the doctors say. It is five times above the allowed limit of dangero­us chemicals in the air. Cheboksary and No­vocheboksarsk suffer from smog. It is rather dangerous to live in Kalinin Street, Jakovlev Avenue, Mir Prospect, the Ninth Five-Year -Plan Prospect in Cheboksary and in Kommu-nisticheskaya Street in Novocheboksarsk, be­cause the air is polluted here, it's not safe to breathe it. Forests arround the towns are cut and sometimes burnt in fire. Their disappea­rance upsets the oxygen balance. Many ani­mals, birds, fish and plants disappear fo­rever.

The quality of the water we drink leaves much to be desired. 8 per cent of water is not allowed for drinking, so we must boil it before drinking. Low level quality water is used in Shumerlya, Yadrin, Kanash, Cheboksary, Novocheboksarsk, in Batyrevski, Shemurshinski, Komsomolski and Poretski regions. Many people suffer from diabetes here because of the low quality of water. Some years ago we could get eatable fish in the Volga, and other rivers. Nowadays hundreds of farms and enterprises pollute the water with waste materials which are poisonous, and it's dangerous not only to drink this water but even to swim in it.

As a result a number of rivers and lakes dry up, the area of ravines is increasing constant­ly.

The same should be said about the land we grow grain and vegetables, about the food we eat.

So, the ecological situation in our Republic is so obvious that the decision makers turn the­ir minds in the direction of solving this prob­lem. And what can we do in this very situati­on? We can fight with acid rains, trying to stop them. Save energy, drive our cars less, try to be careful about animals, birds and plants. We can recycle the things and produce less garba­ge which helps to keer our planet green not only for the sake of the present but also for the future generations. We can try to stop the greenhouse effect by using less energy, protec­ting and planting trees. We can also help the ozone layer from disappearing.

We must keep our environment clean, be­cause the Earth is our home.

2. Check your knowledge of the following words:


poison, n

proclaim, v

effort, n

degrade, v

doom, v

to be unable

repair, v

pollute, v

breathe, v

to cause cancer

suffer from, v

disappearance, n

upset, v

oxygen, attr.

guality, n

boil, v

diabetes, n

waste, n

dry up, v

increase, v

constantly, adv.

obvious, a

decision maker

solve, v

acid rain

to be careful

recycle, v

garbage, litter, n

for the sake

greenhouse effect

protect, v

ozone layer

environment


яд, отрава

провозглашать

усилие, попытки

приходить в упадок, деградировать

обрекать

не быть в состоянии

исправлять

загрязнять

дышать

вызывать рак, быть причиной

страдать от

исчезновение

нарушать

кислородный

качество

кипятить

диабет

отбросы

высушивать

возрастать, увеличиваться

постоянно

ясный, очевидный

законодатель

решать

кислотный дождь

заботиться

рециркулировать

отбросы, мусор

ради

парниковый эффект

защищать

озоновый слой

среда



3. Make up sentences using the following words and word-combinations.

1. The protection of disappearing animals is a subject that concerns everybody.

2. Our rivers and lakes are polluted by gar­bage or by poisonous chemicals which are dumped right into them.

3. Now the ozone layer is being damaged by gases that people have made.

4. We often suffer from noise.

5. We should keep our environment clean for ourselves and for the future generations.

4. Finish the following sentences:

1. The result of our economic achievements is that...

2. The towns of the Republic pollute...

3. It is 5 times above the allowed limit of...

4. Big towns suffer...

5. Forests around the towns are...

6. The quality of the water we drink...

7. Hundreds of farms and enterprises pol­lute the water with...

8. A number of rivers and lakes...

9. The ecological situation in our Republic...

10. We can try to stop...

11. We can help the ozone layer...

12. We must keep...

II. Now the inspector on ecological prob­lems is at school. He suggests the following guestions for discussion.

1. What is the source of people's life?

2. What has industrial civilization brought us?

3. A great number of enterprises pollute the air we breathe, don't they?

4. Why is it dangerous for health to live in big towns nowadays?

5. What is the result of careless interaction with nature?

6. Why did some species of animals, birds, plants disappear forever?

7. What do you know about the quality of water we use for drinking?

8. What should be said about the food we eat?

9. Has anything been done to solve ecologi­cal problems?

ID. How can we save the Earth from dying?

III. After the discussion you can't stop thin­king about it so ask your friend:


  • знает ли он что-либо об экономических проблемах нашей республики;

  • что является источником загрязнения окружающей среды ;

  • что он знает о так называемом «парниковом эффекте», «об озоновых дырах»?

IV. The inspector on ecological problems is at a geographical lesson. He wants the pupils to start writing the Red Book of Chuvashia. Here are some disappearing birds and animals we/must take care of. Here is the beginning of the book. Would you like to join us in writing it?





(desman, musk-rat)

One of the oldest animals who was almost completely lost because of the valuable brown fur, lives both in water and on land, on the banks of the Sura-river, eats insects.





(jerboa)

V. Now he and some of the children are compiling an ecological dictionary. Help them!

1. Атмосфера – это газовый слой, окружающий землю.

2. Экология - это наука, организмы и их окружение.

3. Oкpyжaющая нac cpeдa состоит из многочисленных организмов, включающий (include) живые существа, климат, воздух, воду и почву.

4. Мы строим стеклянные теплицы, где растим цветы и другую растительность, нуждающуюся в тепле.

5. Всеобщее потепление (clobal warming) является результатом повышения (ingrease) температура Земли, вызванное (caused) парниковым эффектом.

6. Кислород (охуgеn) — это газ, который составляет (make up) около 21 % земной ат­мосферы; все живые существа нуждаются в нем.

7. Озоновый слой — это газовый слой высоко в небе, который защищает нас от ультрафиолетовых лучей (UV raus) Солн­ца.

8. Ультрафиолетовые лучи могут вы­звать рак кожи,

9. Грунтовая вода составляет 90% всей питьевой воды на земле.

VI. The inspector is going to write some recommendations. Here are the words he is going to use:

to pollute the planet, to solve the problem, to fight with acid rains, to save energy; to take care of nature, to produce less litter, to stop the greenhouse effect, to keep the planet sui­table for living.

VII. The children want to know the situati­on in other countries. They have come to the library to see if there are any books on the problem.

1. Here is the book. Read the text and find answers to the/allowing questions:

a) What are the government measures to control environment pollution in the USA?

b) Are there any similar measures taken in our country?

LITTER IS A PROBLEM IN OUR CITIES

Litter is garbage — like food, paper, and cans — on the ground or in the street. Where many people live together, litter is a problem People don't always put their garbage in the garbage can. It's easier to drop a paper than to find a garbage can for it. But litter is ugly. It makes the city look dirty, and it spoils the view.

The wind blows papers far away. Often they are difficult to catch. When they blow against a fence, they stay there. This fence is a wall of garbage.

Litter is a health problem, too. Food and





garbage bring animals, which sometimes car­ry disease.

Some people want to control litter. They never throw litter themselves, and sometimes they work together in groups to clean up the city. In most places liller is against the law. The law punishes people who thow garbage on the streets. They usually pay a fine, and occasio­nally they go to jail.

Two famous sayings in the United States are: «Don't be a litter-bug!» and «Every litter bit hurts!»

2. Here is another book they have found. What way out of ecological crisis do children from other countries see? Can you find some other ways out?

S. It's an interesting world we live in!

0. Yes, indeed. We fly to other planets and discover old manuscripts.

A. We create artificial intellect and get to the depths of the ocean.

B. We release tremendous energies...

C. ...and cause global disasters.

E. We' build the tunnel under the Chan­nel...

G. ...and pollute our beautiful planet.

I. Yes. When I went with parents to the sea­side last summer, I was surprised that the wa­ter was not blue but brown with rubbish floa­ting in it.

Sasha. It's very much the same in other countries, in Russia too.

H. Besides millions of tons of oil are relea­sed into the sea every year.

I. We can only imagine how many seabirds and animals die because of it.

H. It must be dangerous to human beings too.

B. And those ozone holes...

0. Ozone holes? What is it?

B. You see, in the atmosphere there is the ozone layer. It protects the Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun.

0. Like a kind of roof?

B. Exactly. But the ozone layer is destroyed by a stuff that aerosol sprays and refrigera­tors contain...

R. Chlorofluorocarbons.

B. Goodness, Rona, I am unable to re­peat it!

H. People will have to take measures beca­use the dangerous rays get through the atmos­phere, causing skin cancer and other diseases.

R. I think people will be able to solve this problem.

0. Then I must stop using my aerosol spray right now.

H. Good of you! Much ought to be done to keep the planet suitable for living.

A. When in Singapore, I saw a poster which said: «Singapore is the Garden City of Asia — keep it clean and green!»

G. I think we can see such posters in Great Britain too...

A. Yes, but in Singapore there are rather strict laws behind it. Dropping litter in public places is forbidden. You can be fined up to $ 500.

G. Well, it's only reasonable, isn't it?

A. Definitely.

L. We must all strive for the clean environ­ment.

A. We all agree, Leonard. But there is a good saying: you needn't strive for cleanliness, you should take a broom and sweep your street.

L. OK, OK. Where is my broom? Am I to start sweeping the street just now?

VIII. In the evening you start to read a newspaper and what a chance! You came across an article on ecological problem again. Try to read it with a dictionary and translate it to be an expert on the problem.

SLIDING INTO CATASTROPHE

The situation of the environment in this co­untry is rather gloomy as it is presented by the magazine. However, in general it is an accurate picture. Of course, the number of cities with foul air is debatable and depends on pollution criteria. But one thing is certain: we are facing an ecological catastrophe. In fact, it is only the vastness of the contry which is staving off that catastrophe. Imagine the industrial discharge and exhaust of Russia on a smaller territory, say that of Japan. It would spell a total ecolo­gical collapse immediately.

Lives of Russians are endangered by the impermissible condition of the environment. This particularly concerns future generations:

infant mortality here is appalling — far worse that in advanced countries. When considering innate deformities rate, we are not a civilized country. Accumulating mutations are nearing the critical level of genetic freaks spelling nati­onal degradation. This process is facilitated by the actuality that two-thirds of the country's population live in cities notorious for their pol­luted environment: Moscow, Kemerovo, Che­lyabinsk, Yekaterinburg, etc.

IX. If you were an inspector on ecological problems what recommendations you would give to save the world, to improve the ecological situation in Russia, in Chuvashia, in your town (village), district.

По этому пособию мы работаем в 9—11 классах. Часть материала используется на уроках по программе, а другая — на фа­культативных занятиях углубленного изу­чения английского языка. Наши наблюде­ния свидетельствуют, что задания, вклю­ченные в пособие, вполне посильны и для учащихся общеобразовательных школ. Ра­зумеется, учитель материал может изме­нить, расширить (упростить), дополнить свежей информацией. С текущего учебно­го года наше пособие активно используют и учителя некоторых альтернативных школ города.



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