Грамматические трудности перевода




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He sounded on edge. Он говорил раздраженно.

It sounds like a good idea to me. Это кажется мне хорошей мыслью.

Не feels well. Он чувствует себя хорошо.

His hands felt so warm and strong, so comfortable to cling to. Руки его были такими теплыми и сильными, к ним так приятно было прильнуть.

How does it feel, my dear, to have the woman you hate stand by you and cloak your sins for you? Ну, так как тебе нравится, моя милая, что женщина, которую ты ненавидишь, защищает тебя и прикрывает твои грехи?

То же самое относится и к глаголу to show, который употребляется не только как переходный в своем основном значении 'показывать', но и как непереходный в значении 'виднеться', 'быть видным'. Сравните:

Show me the way. Покажите мне дорогу.

Не had rank showing on his shoulders. Его чин можно

было увидеть на погонах. Не is drunk. It shows. Он пьян. Это видно.

Аналогичным образом употребляются некоторые переходные глаголы в роли возвратных: to read, to sell и др.

The book reads well. Эта книга хорошо читается. Newspapers sell well in the evening. Вечером газеты хорошо продаются.

Не случайно русские пары глаголов: нюхатьпахнуть, пробовать на вкусбыть... на вкус, ощущать быть... на ощупь и т. п. передаются на английский язык не двумя соответствующими глаголами, а одним.

Smell these flowers. Понюхай эти цветы.

The coffee smells good. Кофе хорошо пахнет.

Taste the cake. Попробуйте пирога.

How much better fresh food tastes than food that has come from tins! Насколько же вкуснее свежие продукты, чем консервы!

These poodles must feel very cold. Этим пуделям, должно быть, очень холодно.

Her hands felt so soft. Руки ее были такими мягкими.

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УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод выделенных глаголов.

1. "The point is, though," she went on hastily, "I've suddenly decided to — to run this troupe— I mean concert party. That horrid woman decided me." 2. Wasn't that enough to decide him that life wasn't worth living? 3. Robert Jordan could walk well enough himself and he knew from following him since before daylight that the old man could walk him to death. 4. I offered to walk her home. 5. Mammy hurried Scarlett up the stairs. 6. And Soames hurried, ever constitutionally uneasy beneath his cousin's glance. 7. That was why I hurried you about Grayhallock. 8. I have no money to waste on such trifles. 9. What a lot of time that wastes! 10. The evening papers sell well because they print, throughout the day, the latest sports results. 11. My father sells vegetables from a wagon. 12. The magazine was attacked on all sides. It sold very poorly. 13. They farmed their own land and worked it themselves. 14. The control sector which Keith regularly worked comprised a segment of the Pittsburgh-Baltimore area. 15. You can't possibly work here. 16. He had worked the elevator in the house all afternoon. 17. She sat down beside him deep in thought. 18. He took me by the arm and sat me down at a table. 19. There's no time to lose. He's going to be a farmer — and he loses his way. I suppose she lost me the job. 22. His thoughts travelled sharply to Madrid. 23. I see vast lands stretching out before me, beckoning, and I'm eager to travel them. 24. Arriving at the Gallery off Cork Street, however, he paid his shilling, picked up a catalogue, and entered. 25. The aeroplane and its mechanical functioning absorbed Joe Patroni — so much that he entered his former employer into another dice game and allowed him to win his garage back. 26. My client wishes to enter a plea of guilty to all the charges. 27. He got up and stood before the picture, trying hard to see it with the eyes of other people. 28. The chambers stood much higher than the other houses. 29. They stood me drinks. 30. Timothy trailed back half-way and halted. 31. "Well, miss," said the cop who stopped her, "I suppose you know why I halted you?" 32. It did not seem so remarkable to him that he should have been perfectly faithful to his young first cousin during the twenty years since he married her romantically out in the Boer War. 33. He confided to Suzanne his ambition to marry

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his daughter into the aristocracy. 34. Soon after the war they married. 35. When they reached the house he pulled out a crumpled letter which she read while he was washing. 36. He, too, had seen the reporters industriously getting his words down—words which would read well in print. 37. Colonel Cathcart had courage and never hesitated to volunteer his men for any target available. 38. One whole week had already passed since Colonel Cathcart had volunteered to have his men destroy the bridge in twenty-four hours. 39. A bad tendency of hers to mock at him not openly, but in continual little ways, had grown. 40. You shall skip back to where we were under the first Jolyon in 1760. It'll prove the cycle theory, and incidentally, no doubt, you may grow a better turnip than he did. 41. Annette stayed a powder-puff, and said with startling suddenness: "Que tu es grossier!" *42. Do you know that Jolyon's boy is staying with Val and his wife? 43. She'll lead Larry a hell of a life. 44. I've been a widow a very long time and I've led a very quiet life. 45. I don't believe Jane fears the rivalry of any girl under the sun. 46. That's what fears me. 47. Andrew started along Station Road. 48. We could start you at twelve pounds a week. 49. They danced. 50. Dan Rainey caught me in his arms and danced me for a joke. 51. "It's a miracle, I tell you," the chaplain proclaimed, seizing Major Danby about the waist and dancing him around. 52. You'ye dropped your handkerchief, sir. 53. There was a clang, an instant's suspense, and the cage dropped and rocketed to the bottom. 54. He ran up the porch steps. 55. He ran his tongue over suddenly dry lips. 56. He ran his eye over the card for the twentieth time. 57. He sat with his head bent over a pile of papers, running a pencil up and down a row of figures. 58. Where do you /да? 59. You haven't lived that past. 60. He lived and breathed his captaincy. 61. May I offer you a cup of tea? 62. Now that a chance offered he was seized with an immense eagerness to profit by it. 63. Again the word "Mother!" burst from Jon's lips. 64. Feeling that she would burst a blood-vessel if she stayed another minute, she stormed up the stairs. 65. More people came crowding in. 66. That would crowd us so. 67. He caught his death of cold one day when they were sailing. 68. Why was he sailing these lonely seas? 69. "Get him to bed," he said wearily. "With the others. I'll fly alone." 70. He was a pilot and flew his plane as low as he dared over Yossarian's tent

Как ты груб! (франц.)

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as often as he could. 71. If the observation was meant to discomfit the widow it failed. 72. He had none of the tolerance of the older examiners, but seemed to set out deliberately to fail the candidates who came before him. 73. Papa said it relaxed him after the heavy rough work around a farm. 74. "Do you like people?" "Yes. It isn't easy for me to relax though, and be myself, and make friends." 75. The first thing he meant to do was to retire old Dr Parke right off the campus, far, far away. 76. Please make up your mind whether you want me to decorate for you, or to retire, which on the whole I should prefer to do.

П. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.

1. Calvin shrugged that away. 2. He told himself that he was unreasonable, he tried to laugh himself out of such pathos. 3. A man could gamble himself to poverty and still be a gentleman, but a professional gambler could never be anything but an outcast. 4. But she shrugged off her momentary annoyance. 5. She would serve tea and delicious sandwiches and leisurely gossip the hours away. 6. Dixon waved him to silence. 7. She smiled a welcome. 8. "He was sunk," said Wylie, "but I laughed him out of it." 9. Dr Czinner put his hand under Coral's elbow and insinuated her out of the compartment. 10. She stepped to the ground and smiled her thanks to John Wilkes. 11. I'm going to drink myself to death. 12. She let him hold her so for a minute, and then shrugged him off. 13. The Swanns had departed on holiday. She had waved them off. 14. At home somebody would be laughed out of such childish conduct. 15. And she too wanted to rise in greater anger and cry him down. 16. I told him that St Thomas Aquinas had bothered too about that very question and he'd better worry it out for himself. 17. "What an embarrassing question!" I said, trying to laugh it off. 18. He handshook his way through the crowds. 19. She revenged herself by screaming the place down and by telling the neighbours what a brute he was. 20. Mr Warburton smiled his approval. 21. He confided to Suzanne his ambition to marry his daughter into the aristocracy.

III. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на употребление глаголов to talk, to speak, to think в значении переходных.

1. Will was talking common sense. 2. "Oh, shut up!" she cried, feeling a momentary intense relief at being able to

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speak her feelings. 3. She loved horses and talked horses constantly. 4. I should not write those words. I should not even think them. 5. Alex talked riddles. 6. He disliked talking business with her. 7. The truth at last. Talking love and thinking money. 8. Melly and he were always talking such foolishness, poetry, and books and dreams and moonrays and star dust. 9. He was confused and spoke his thoughts as they came to him. 10. Think practical thoughts, will you?

IV. А. Переведите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каких случаях глагол to show является переходным, в каких нет. Обратите внимание на его многозначность.

1. Show me your hands. 2. Is he showing any strain? 3. He wanted to know what movie was showing on the flight. He said, could I get him another flight which was showing the same movie as the first one? 4. The little old lady sat comfortably relaxed, hands folded daintily in her lap, a wisp of lace handkerchief showing between them. 5. The effect of sleepless nights showed quickly in his work. 6. The priest opened the doors, and they showed again the front garden of evergreens and all. 7. You've seen pictures of the clothes worn in Victorian times, haven't you? Skirts right down to the ground, not even the ankles showing? 8. As before, it took several minutes for Cindy to come to the telephone, and when she did, surprisingly, there was none of the fire she had shown during their previous conversation, only an icy chill. 9. Warren Trent walked stiffly into the bathroom now, pausing before a wall-width mirror to inspect the shave. He could find no fault with it as he studied the reflection facing him. It showed a deep-seamed, craggy face. 10. The house was very pretty, and beautifully built. But it showed all signs of the eleven children. 11. He showed a scar on his forehead as the result of a wound. 12. He was wearing a shirt, a pair of white trousers, and gym shoes through which one big toe showed. 13. The old man hummed to himself, glancing sideways at what the fire showed of the black torn cloth. 14. Pink classical facades peeled off and showed the mud beneath. 15. The schooner showed no light and the doctor only saw it in the darkness because he knew that it was there. 16. His glance showed him a man of about forty-five with short dark hair. 17. The village showed between luxuriant elms.

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Б. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to show.

1. Я покажу вам, как это надо делать. 2. Он проявлял сильное нетерпение. 3. Она устала, и это было видно. 4. Из открытого окна была видна широкая лужайка. 5. Работа в ночную смену (The effect of the night shifts) сказывалась на его здоровье. 6. На картине было изображено тихое голубое озеро. 7. Он был немного обижен, и, возможно, это отразилось у него на лице. 8. В его гладких черных волосах не было видно и признаков (traces) седины. 9. Она мечтала. Об этом говорили ее глаза.

В. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на употребление глагола to sound.

1. Another shot sounded. 2. Jane's voice sounded scandalised. 3. She sounded happy, almost breathless. 4. Hank sounded puzzled. 5. It sounds like a good idea to me. 6. That sounds more like you. 7. He laughed. "You sound like a woman." 8. You sound so hard and bitter. 9. Wonderful why some nurses felt they had to sound like official bulletins. 10. You don't sound a very warm follower yourself. 11. It sounded a very callous way to put it, but there it was, and it was perfectly natural.

Г. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to sound.

1. Раздался еще один взрыв. 2. Это звучит очень мило и по-женски (feminine). 3. Вы говорите так печально. 4. Вот это больше похоже на тебя. 5. Это всегда казалось мне пустой тратой времени. 6. По голосу вам можно дать лет 18. 7. Вы говорили так убедительно.

Д. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление глагола to look.

1. Don't look at him. 2. I know I'm looking like hell. 3. It looks like rain. 4. Elliott in his well-cut dinner jacket looked elegant as he alone could look. 5. He was a very learned man, but he didn't look it any more than he looked like my idea of a monk. 6. You don't look an old man.

E. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to look.

1. Он смотрел прямо на меня. 2. Вы выглядите чудесно. 3. Это платье не очень тебе идет (не смотрится на тебе).

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4. Он неважно выглядит. 5. Похоже на то, что будет дождь. 6. Вам можно дать лет 16. 7. Изабел казалась очень хорошенькой.

Ж. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на употребление глагола to feel.

1. How do you feel? 2. I felt her trembling. 3. I'm not feeling well. 4. Feel the cloth. It's very soft. 5. You must feel very cold. 6. It didn't feel right — a dentist's room without some stained glass. 7. It felt just as it did at school when a bully I had been afraid of was turned out. 8. It feels like someone kisses me there. 9. There are moments when it gives you confidence to feel your fingers round the butt of a revolver. 10. His lips felt dry. 11. Just for a shock of a second it felt like treading on a snake. 12. The water felt good. 13. It was the first time in his life he felt cold and hot at the same time.

3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to feel.

1. Я почувствовал, что краснею. 2. Ей, должно быть, очень жарко. 3. Он снова пощупал портфель. 4. У вас, должно быть, очень замерзли руки. 5. Как ты себя чувствуешь? 6. Я положил руку ей на голову. Волосы ее были такими мягкими и теплыми. 7. Ощущение было такое, будто мой сон сбывался наяву (to come true). 8. Тем временем он вынимал из чемодана одежду и быстро ее ощупывал. 9. На самом деле в больнице не было холодно, но казалось, что холодно.

И. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на употребление глагола to taste.

1. Taste the soup, please. 2. Nothing can possibly taste as heavenly as that. 3. "It tastes divine," said Isabel. "It's like mother's milk. I've never tasted anything so good."

4. That stuffing's going to taste good.

К. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to taste.

1. Попробуйте-ка это вино. 2. Ты ни к чему не притронулась. 3. Пуддинг восхитителен (на вкус).

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