Грамматические трудности перевода




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6. Он приходил сюда на (for) банкет. 7. Некоторые ветераны проработали в (with) отеле по 25 лет. 8. Причина заключалась в том, что он внезапно заболел. 9. Они стояли рядом. 10. Его речь о национальном планировании была обращена к конгрессу. 11. Все эти деликатесы предназначаются для завтрашнего банкета. 12. Задача заключается в том, чтобы устранить эти недостатки как можно скорее. Он учится в университете, собирается стать врачом. Исключения составляют следующие слова... 15. Трудность состояла в том, что у нас оставалось слишком мало времени. 16. Его мать сидела у окна. 17. Дело в том, что невозможно не любить (to dislike) его.

III. Дайте свои варианты перевода сочетаний to be с прилагательным или причастием в следующих предложениях.

1. Don't be absurd. 2. I had forgotten you were so literal. 3. You're being very offensive. 4. He was properly apologetic for disturbing Rose. 5. If you were not so drunk and insulting, I would explain everything. 6. Of course he was bitter at her long neglect, of course he was mistrustful of her sudden love. 7. Don't be ridiculous. 8. Joseph was insistent that his wishes were carried out. 9. But she was hopeful that she might meet someone she knew. 10. There's one point I'm not clear about. 11. Stan had been helpful also. At Peter's request he had made inquiries about the two youths. 12. It was very bewildering. 13. At home, Natalie was understanding and, as always, loving. 14. Some people were making remarks out loud about how slow I was. 15. Co-ordinated, high-level planning, either national or international, was non-existent. 16. It was a job the clerks all hated because people whom they called were invariably bad-tempered and frequently abusive. 17. Well, I do sometimes get a little scolding. I'm told I've been naughty, and not to do it again. 18. Customs men were aware that most returning travellers did a little smuggling, and were often tolerant about it. 19. Mrs Hudson was hysterical. She threw herself on her husband, screaming and crying, and they had to drag her away. 20. "How was school today?" "Could you be specific, Father? There were several classes. Which do you want to know about?" 21. Libby was always breathless as if, to her, life was excitingly on the run and she must forever keep pace or be left behind. 22. The knowledge was disquieting 23. Don't be so nasty. 24. He's very reticent about his war

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experiences. 25. I had a notion that she was nervous. 26. Oh, Larry, don't be funny. This is desperately serious. 27. With its mahogany furniture, its shabby leather chairs, and its musty smell, it was strangely reminiscent of a coffee-room in a Dickens novel. 28. Let's be sensible. 29. For the time being they were more or less friendly again. 30. "Don't be foul!" said Dorothy and he begged her pardon. 31. "But do you think it could ever be permitted?" He was persistent. 32. It is inconsiderate of you to live in Highgate. To your friends who are central, I mean. 33. But Mr Walters was quite unexpected. 34. What exactly was Bennie Hyman being so mysterious about this morning? 35. Dr Hubble was explanatory. He talked for quite a long time in language appropriate to the ear of the intelligent layman. 36. He was extremely apologetic. 37. She was so terribly good to Fanny. 38. By the time she reached the kitchen the rain was heavier and her hair was plastered to her head. 39. He was clear that whatever the outcome of that argument he would stay no longer at Grayhallock. 40. Women were still hesitant about taking on greater responsibility. 41. Verena had been very bitter over this. 42. I told Verena you would be lonesome. 43. He was easy with his money, he never minded paying a round of drinks for his friends. 44. He could be boisterous in act and loud in laughter. 45. Jon heard her clear voice in the dining-room, "Oh, I'm simply ravenous!"

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык, используя сочетания to be с прилагательным или причастием.

1. Не говорите глупостей. 2. Вы говорите серьезно? 3. Все это (ее) очень озадачивало. 4. Фрэнк говорил очень уклончиво об этом деле (evasive). 5. У него был такой вид, как будто он прекрасно понял ее грубую выходку (rudeness), и это (ее) раздражало. 6. Но она надеялась, что встретит его когда-нибудь. 7. Его дочь настаивала на том, чтобы мы не сообщали об этом отцу. 8. Она абсолютно не верила этому. 9. Если он сдержанно говорил о своих намерениях, так это, возможно, потому, что и сам их хорошенько не знал. 10. Он говорил с ней очень резко. 11. Не понимайте все так буквально. 12. Он очень волновался за свое здоровье, и его врач посещал его два раза в неделю. 13. Я не совсем понял (clear) конец этой истории. 14. Коллеги относились к нему дружески и с сочувствием. 15. Мне казалось (I thought), я объяснила все абсолютно ясно (clear). 16. Поди

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собери вещи. Но поторопись! У нас осталось мало времени. 17. Почему вы так хорошо ко мне (nice) относитесь? 18. Она купила бутерброд с сосиской (a hot dog) и стакан кофе, и вид этих двух предметов подействовал на нее ободряюще (reassuring). 19. «У вас истерика», — холодно сказала Гвен. 20. Не могли бы вы говорить конкретнее? 21. Вагоны с углем продвигались слишком медленно. 22. Она настаивала на том (firm), чтобы они сделали это немедленно. 23. Не будет ли вам удобнее, если я включу свет? 24. Что, ужин не готов? Мы просто умираем от голода.

V. А. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значение глагола-связки to be.

1. Не was mute a moment, and then said... 2. Leamas was lost. 3. Suddenly the voices in the next room were still, and I looked at the door. 4. Frank was speechless. 5. When she told him the truth, he was furious. 6. Her heart was suddenly dull with pain, with weariness. 7. Suddenly there was a seriousness to Inez Guerrero's speech which had not been there before. 8. Were all of them dead? 9. Then there were more lights only a few yards behind as another flight (зд. самолет) landed, it seemed at the same instant. 10. At the sound of the words he was momentarily young again. 11. Suddenly she was tired. 12. He sang for an hour, perhaps, and we all fell silent; then he was still.

Б. Переведите, употребляя глагол to be.

1. Вдруг он замолчал. 2. Когда они снова остались одни, она сказала... 3. Снова послышался смех (there was). 4. Быстро собралась толпа (there was). 5. Он умер от гангрены через месяц после их приезда сюда. 6. Я только намекнул ей об этом, а она пришла в ярость. 7. Когда я спросил ее об этом прямо, она растерялась. 8. Ее лицо вдруг превратилось в отвратительную маску. 9. Сэр Герберт помолчал минуту. 10. Послышались восторженные (admiring) крики. 11. Я вдруг пришел в ужасное волнение (nervous).

VI. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод сочетаний «to be + существительное».

1. John is a strong believer in fresh air. 2. My folks are great readers of newspapers. 3. We're neither of us great letter-writers. 4. Dr Saunders was an early riser. 5. The skipper was a bad loser. His face was set and hard. His

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shifty eyes glanced at each card he turned up with a sneering look. 6. The children enjoy the warm weather. I saw seven or eight of them in the river after school. Most of them were good swimmers. 7. He was a good talker if only you could keep him off the subject of dukes and duchesses. 8. I am a poor and dilatory correspondent, and Isabel was no letter-writer. 9. But I am a wine drinker... you don't know how I long for wine. 10. You are a nice kisser. 11. Mr Harrington was an after-dinner speaker and had read all the best books on speaking in public. 12. I take it he had been a hard liver and a heavy drinker. 13. But the twenty dollars a week had been a life-saver. 14. Good seeing you again, Ross. Don't be a stranger. 15. She's going to be a heart-breaker. 16. Huple was a light sleeper, but claimed he never heard Hungry Joe scream. 17. My son could not afford to marry a penniless girl, but he's not a fortune-hunter and he loves your daughter. 18. He had all the accepted characteristics of the politician — back-slapper, baby-kisser and shoulder-hugger. 19. Over the years he has become not merely a handshaker. He is also an accomplished back-slapper, elbow-squeezer and shoulder-thumper. 20. In a very short while she knew all her fellow-passengers. She was a good mixer. 21. She was a great dreamer and she narrated her dreams at intolerable length. 22. Rather than become eye-openers, these plays misguide people. 23. Captain Forestier played bridge well and was a keen golfer. He was not a bad tennis player either. 24. Abas knew how to cook only native food, and Cooper, a coarse feeder, found his gorge rise against the everlasting rice. 25. No sooner had I arrived than I sent her a letter to say that I was the bearer of a gift from her cousin. 26. A dog is a great promoter of friendly intercourse. 27. "How did you feel during the flight?" "Bad. I'm a poor flier." 28. After waiting a few minutes in case Miss Knight should return for a shopping bag, or a handkerchief (she was a great forgetter and returner), Miss Marple rose briskly to her feet and strode purposefully across the room and into the hall. 29. "Did your husband have many friends?" "Oh, yes, he was a good mixer.". 30. "You are quite a stranger," she said languidly. Soames smiled. "I haven't wished to be; I've been busy." 31. He himself had always been a worker and a saver, George always a drone and a spender. 32. As a diagnostician he was remarkable. But when his patients spoke to him he could not hear a word. Of course, he was a practiced lip-reader. 33. Mrs Towler was a bad correspondent and though I sent her an

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occasional picture-postcard I received no news from her. 34. At any rate beggars can't be choosers. 35. You are a giver and she is a taker.

VII. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в соответствии с моделью.

Не doesn't read much. Не is not a great reader.

1. He eats well and sleeps well. .2. He swam better than anyone else. 3. How well you dance! 4. He talked well, harshly, cynically, it was exhilarating to listen to him. I walk pretty well, but he could outwalk me any day. I hate letter writing. 7. He drove fast and the speed at which he went exhilarated them both. 8. The family used "to get up early. 9. I subscribe to the "Morning Star." 10. He talked brilliantly. 11. The professor believed strongly in the Stanislavsky method of drama. 12. He was a brute of a young man, he drank and ran after women, he was violent to his wife and other things more. 13. He's clever and works well. 14. We hardly ever see you here. 15. He made friends easily.

VIII. Переведите следующие предложения. Придумайте предложения с выделенными словосочетаниями.

1. Не had a notion that often his presence was unwelcome to them and that they were more at their ease when he was not there. 2. He bragged what a great hand he was at frying a catfish. 3. Their principal duty is to settle routine cases where no constitutional question is at stake. 4. He is quite at home in this field. 5. The family were quite welt off. 6. "Well, I must be on my way" he said. 7. You're never at a loss for something to say. 8. At supper that evening Miss Reid was at her best. 9. He was damned good at games and all that sort of things. 10. I had been at work on a big sketch, and I was wondering what people would think of it. 11. "You're making fun of me!" "I never was more in earnest in my life.'

IX. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значение глагола to be с различными постпозитивами.

1. "Is Alec around?" I asked. 2. I'll be back in a couple of hours. 3. His mother was still up of course, waiting for

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him. 4. It is up to the President to undo the 14 years of a disastrous policy. 5. I've only been out two days. 6. She found that someone was up before her. 7. "Where's Mrs Linsell?" asked Mrs Hamlyn. "Oh, I don't know. She's about somewhere." 8. His bag would be pretty heavy sometimes by the time he was through. 9. You're up early too. 10. I'll go and see if she's in. 11. There were people who cared for him and people who didn't, and those who didn't hated him and were out to get him. 12. "The same person," General Peckem replied with a definite trace of alarm. "Now he's after me." 13. Chief White Halfoot was out to revenge himself upon the white man. 14. What are you up to, Collin? 15. The remedy you suggest is evidently worth trying, and it is up to you to apply it. 16. No one seemed to have heard the sound of the shot. The neighbours must be out. 17. Judge: "Have you ever been up before me?" Accused: "I don't know. What time do you get up?" 18. He was over in England on a visit. He remembered the fight because she had talked about it so much. It was six rounds. He was almost out in the fourth. The poor Indian is only out to earn a little money, the same as me. 21. How do you suppose I managed when you were away? 22. Once again I am back in my home town. 23. I was through the war. 24. "Go on," he growled. "Give me all my faults when you're about it. Suspicious! Jealous! You've been at me before!" 25. They told us the roof was down — that you wouldn't — wouldn't come out. 26. Con half-said they'd be round for tea. 27. Do you expect to be away long? 28. We were out for a few moments only, to take a walk around the block.

X. Прочитайте следующий рассказ-шутку. Обратите внимание на употребление постпозитивов.

What a Language!

"What a language English is!" a Frenchman exclaimed in despair. "I once called on an English friend and the maid who came to the door said, 'He's not up yet. Come back in half an hour.' "

"When I came again, she was setting the table for breakfast and said, 'He's not down yet.'"

"I asked: 'If he's not up and he's not down, where is he?'" "She said, 'He's still in bed. When I say 'He's not up', I mean he has not yet got up; when I say, 'He's not down', I mean he has not yet come downstairs!' "

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2. Глагол to have

Глагол to have, как и to be, шире по значению, чем русский глагол иметь. В нем, как и в глаголе to be, заложена потенциальная возможность действия.

Магу has a pencil in her hand. (наряду с: Mary is holding a pencil in her hand.) Мэри держит в руке карандаш.

The city has 100,000 inhabitants. Население города составляет 100 000 человек.

В такого рода предложениях при наличии подлежащего — действующего лица возможна и конструкция с there is.

There is a pencil in her hand.

We haven't any coffee in the house. = There isn't any coffee in the house.

Однако глагол to have может употребляться не только с подлежащим, выраженным существительным, обозначающим лицо (как, казалось бы, предполагает само значение глагола — значение обладания), но может использоваться и применительно к предметам. В таких случаях его значение тождественно значению конструкции there is, и они взаимозаменяемы. Например:

Some houses had quite wide grass round them. = There was quite wide grass round some houses.

Jack's eager conspirator voice seemed very close to his ear, and it had a kind of caress, a sort of embrace. = ...there was a kind of caress, a sort of embrace in Jack's voice.

Аналогично глаголу to be, хотя и реже, в качестве глагола-связки в составном сказуемом употребляется и глагол to have. Это имеет место в таких сочетаниях с существительными (часто отглагольными), как to have dinner обедать, to have a talk поговорить, to have a quarrel поссориться, to have a rest отдыхать, to have a walk прогуляться, to have a smoke покурить, to have a good time хорошо провести время и т. д. Глагол to have теряет при этом свое основное значение и служит только указателем на разовое пользование чем-то, совершение некоего ограниченного действия.

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