Bio/es 342 toxicology

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Bio/ES 342 TOXICOLOGY Instructor: Jim Palmer (jpalmer)

Spring 2008 Office: Bio. 105 (332-2380)

Lecture: T, Th 8:00-9:15 am, B-108 Hours: MW 1:30-3:30pm, F 9:30-11:30am

Lab:Th 1:30-4:30; B-108 & by appointment

Texts: Ware, G.W. and D.M. Whitacre. 2004. The Pesticide Book, 6th Ed. Thomson Publications. Fresno, CA.

Schettler, T., G. Solomon, M. Valenti, and A. Huddle. 1999. Generations at Risk: Reproductive Health and the

Environment. MIT Press. Cambridge, MA.

Waring, R., G. Stevenson, and S Mitchell. 2002. Molecules of Death. Imperial College Press, London.

Supplemental Readings (eg. Rodricks, vom Saal) & handouts provided in class)

Toxicology is the study of poisons. Dating back to the 1600's, the most fundamental paradigm of toxicology is that the "dose makes the poison". At low doses, substances may be non-toxic and even therapeutic. At high enough doses, any substance will be toxic. The challenge for any particular substance is to determine the shape of the dose-response relationship-- and this is not as easy as it sounds. In this course we will first develop the quantitative principles of toxicity testing as well as their limits. We will then examine in some detail three broad classes of toxins: pesticides, endocrine disrupters, and heavy metals. For each of these types of toxins we will investigate their modes of action at the cellular and physiological levels and their effects at the population, community, and sometimes ecosystem levels. We will conclude with a consideration of toxics in communities: what do we do with toxic wastes and who bears the burden of exposure. Laboratories are intended to introduce you to key methodologies in the field of toxicology.

TOXICITY TESTING Reading Assignments

Jan Th 17 Scope & History of Toxicology Waring Chap 1

T 22 Toxicity Testing Schettler Chap 2, Rodricks Chap 4 LAB: Dosages and Range Testing

Th 24 Dose-Response Methods Rodricks Chap 9


T 29 Biotransformation & Neurophysiology

LAB: Acute Bioassay (Lab Report Due: Tue 2/12) Schettler Chap 5

Th 31 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Organophosphates Ware Chap 1,4,17,21

Feb T 5 Carbamates, Pyrethroids Ware Chap 1,4,17, Schettler Chap 5

LAB: GC Sample Prep.

Th 7 Insect Growth Regulators Ware Chap 24

T 12 Herbicides Ware Chap 11,12,18

LAB: GC Analysis (Lab Report Due: Fri 2/22)

Th 14 Exam 1


T 19 Fooling with Nature

LAB: Xenopus Bioassay Set-up

Th 21 Herbicide Resistant Crops Ware Chap 11,12,18

T 26 Hormone Physiology Schettler Chap 1

LAB: Lead in Plants Set-up

Independent Projects Planning

Th 28 EDs in the Environment & Physiol. Effects Schettler Chap 6

Mar T 2 Immunoassay Theory & Vitellogenin

LAB: Xenopus Serum Collection & Dissection

Th 6 LAB:ELISA - Serum Dilutions & Primary Antibody

T 11 ELISA - Secondary Antibody

LAB: ELISA Reading & Data Summary (Lab Report Due: Fri 3/28)

Independent Project Design and Materials

Th 13 Exam 2

T 18 Spring Break

Th 20 Spring Break

T 25 Science & Policy Analysis of EDs Schettler Chap 8

FIELD TRIP: Soil and Plant Sampling

Th 27 Lead/Soil Extraction & Independent Projects


Apr Tue 1 Metals Schettler Chap 3

LAB: AAS Analysis of Soil for Lead

Th 3 Soil Data Summary/ Harvest and Dry Plants

T 8 Lead, Physiology and Learning

LAB: AAS Analysis of Plants for Lead Bioaccumulation

Th 9 Special Topic: Pesticide Resistance and Management

T 15 Environmental Justice and Toxic Release Inventory Schettler Chap 11

Th 17 Independent Project Research Symposium

(Project Report Due: Fri 4/25)


T 22 Toxic Trade

LAB: Toxic Release Inventory Research

Th 24 Toxic Release Inventory Research

T 29 TRI Poster Symposium

May Sat 3 *** FINAL EXAM - 2 pm ***


Exam 1 100 pt

Exam 2 100 pt

Final Exam 100 pt

3 Lab Reports 75 pt

1 Ind. Project 100 pt

1 Toxin Present. 25 pt

1 TRI Poster 25 pt

525 pt TOTAL

Notes: There is a very strong emphasis in this course on lab work. In addition to the lab and project reports, exams will often contain data analysis and interpretation from lab experiments. They may also contain take-home questions.

Some of our labs involve the use of vertebrates (frogs) for experimentation. The Allegheny College Animal Review Committee has reviewed and approved the use and protocol for this laboratory work. If you feel uncomfortable participating in this work, see me and we can negotiate alternatives. Students will receive training in any surgical or sacrificial procedures necessary during the experiment. Frogs will housed in the aquatics room and cared for by the Biology Department technician.

Toxicology Books in Pelletier Library

Pelletier Library has quite a number of books that give general introductions to toxicology and environmental toxicology, as well as more in-depth references to selected topics. These are meant to serve as references for lab reports and independent projects, as well as background references for topics covered in the course.

In my estimation, the very first book on the list (Amdur et al. 1991) is the most comprehensive textbook available that covers all major areas of toxicology. It is the textbook one would most likely use in medical or graduate schools. It is well referenced and indexed, and specific information is readily accessible. Hoffman et al. (1995) is an excellent and comprehensive introduction to the recently emerged field of ecotoxicology. Cockerham and Shane (1993) gives pretty good coverage of the same field but in less depth. Laws (1993) is very readable and contains lots of interesting case studies that are relevant to toxicological issues well outside of a strictly aquatic context.

***Amdur, M. J. Doull, and C. Klassen eds. 1991. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th Ed., Pergamon Press, Inc., NY, 1003 pp.

***Ballantyne, B., T. Marrs, and P. Turner eds. 1995. General and Applied Toxicology, College Edition.

Stockton Press, NY. 1361pp.

***Cockerham, L.G. and B.S. Shane (eds) 1993. Basic Environmental Toxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

***Hoffman, D.J. et al. 1995. Handbook of Ecotoxicology. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. 755 pp.

***Hayes, A. W. (ed.) 1989. Principles and Methods of Toxicology, 2nd Ed., Raven Press, NY, 929 pp.

***Hodgson, E. and P. Levi. 1987. A Textbook of Modern Toxicology. Appleton and Lang, Norwalk, CT. 386 pp.

***Laws, E.A. 1993. Aquatic Pollution: An Introductory Text, 2nd Ed., John Wiley, New York.

***Lippmann, M. 1992. Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects.

Van Nostrand-Reinhold. 699 pp.

***Timbrell, J. A. 1989. Introduction to Toxicology, Taylor & Francis Ltd. London, 155 pp.

Additional Toxicology References in Pelletier Library

Brown, A.W.A. 1978. Ecology of Pesticides. John Wiley & Sons, NY.

Cobb, A. 1992. Herbicides and Plant Physiology. Chapman and Hall, London, 176 pp.

Connell, D.W. and G.J. Miller.1984. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Pollution. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 444 pp.

Devine, M., S.O. Duke, and C. Fedtke. 1993. Physiology of Herbicide Action. Prentice Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ.

Haley, T.J. and W.O. Berndt. 1987. Toxicology. Hemisphere Pub. Co.

Lu, F.C. 1991. Basic Toxicology: Fundamentals, Target Organs and Risk Assessment, 2nd Ed. Hemisphere

Publ. Co., NY, 361 pp.

Matsumura, F. 1985. Toxicology of Insecticides, 2nd Ed. Plenum Press, NY, 598 pp.

National Academy of Sciences. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Newman, M.C. 1995. Quantitative Methods in Aquatic Toxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 426 pp.

Peterle, T. 1991. Wildlife Toxicology. Van Nostrand Reinhold. NY. 322 pp.

Rand, G.M. and S.R. Petrocelli. (eds) 1985. Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Methods and Applications.

Hemisphere Publ. Co., NY, 666 pp.

Schnoor, J.L. 1992. Fate of Pesticides and Chemicals in the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 436 pp.

Yang, R.S.H. 1994. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: Case Studies, Mechanisms, and Novel Approaches

Academic Press

Especially Relevant Journals In Pelletier Library

Environmental Health Perspectives

Journal of Environmental Quality

Environmental Science and Technology

Ecological Applications

American Journal of Public Health

Especially Relevant Web Sites

Environmental Health Perspectives


Pesticide Action Network of North America ( )

National Pesticide Telecom. Network (NPTN) (

Rachel's Environment & Health Weekly ( )

Northwest Coalition for Alternative Pesticides (

Center for Disease Control (


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