First Semester- academic Year: 2009/2010




НазваниеFirst Semester- academic Year: 2009/2010
Дата17.10.2012
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University of Salahaddin

College of Science

Environmental Science Department


Toxicology and Quality Control


Lecture Lanja Omer Tahir

M.Sc. degree in Ecology

Email: lanjao1979@yahoo.com

First Semester- Academic Year: 2009/2010

Course objective

This systematic subject divided on two semester course:

A/Toxicology/ Practical

The first semester course comprises Toxicology sciences and toxicological text topics related. This course will cover the study of the toxins, kinds of toxins and all chemical, physical, biological toxins that produce adverse effects on living organisms and their environments. Practically, we attempt to enrich the students' knowledge about toxicology as an important advanced science and it’s effects on living organism (plant, animal, human and microorganisms) and their environment (water, soil, air), extending their general academic technical and practical skills, and increasing their basic knowledge and understanding of Toxicology and the terminology related with; and how can to avoid from toxins & poisons; how can affect on organisms by affecting on, growth, productivity, life cycles of organisms, morphological appearance, shapes, sizes, color, odor by following up the appropriate tests and procedures on aquatic and terrestrial systems using many kinds of toxins: heavy metals, pesticide, fungicide, radiation, food preservatives, drugs etc…


Forms of Teaching

Different forms of teaching will be used to reach the objectives of the two courses: writing head titles and topics or by power point presentation, giving illustration about the principles of toxicology and the principle of each procedure or tests used in the lab, using illustration manner like, whiteboard, chalk, projector, data show, paper sheet if needed, prepare vital samples and encourage the students to making groups for collection the samples from markets, home, fields, furthermore, following up the results of the tests and writing notes, weekly quiz. Making educational field trips to food or water manufacturers and factories, besides students will be asked to prepare answer on selective question marks assigned during practical work or about the cause of the results. There will be classroom discussions and the lecture will give enough background to translate, solve, analyze, and evaluate problems sets, and different issues discussed throughout the course.

To get the best of the course, it is suggested that you try to encourage the students to participate in classroom discussions, laboratory activities and asking the teachers, preparing the assignments given in the course.


Grading

The students are required to do two exam (theory/ practical or practical/practical), one at the mid of the semester other at the end of semester of the course. The exam has 7.5 marks besides other assignments including daily quiz, the attendance, classroom activities count 1.5 marks. There will be a final exam on 60 marks. So that the final grade will be based upon the following criteria:

Theoretical Examination: 25% Summation of two semesters Practical Examination: 15%

Final examination: 60% counting (15% practical and 45% theoretical)


Course material

Required references:

Principels of Biochemical Toxicology”, 2009, by John A. Timbrell, 4thedition,Informa healthcare.

Principels of Biochemical Toxicology”, Environmental and Industrial Applications, by John A. Timbrell, 4thedition, Informa healthcare.

And any other Toxicology books published in 20 & 21st century, or can be obtained from sites of internet searching.


Course programme

1st / Practical Toxicology Syllabus

Weeks

Subjects

  1. Toxicology:

Lab 01

Terminology.

Lab 02

Introduction to toxicology and toxicity testing procedures.

  1. In terrestrial systems.

  2. In aquatic systems.

Lab 03-06

  • Toxic metal detection in: plants, water, soil and sediment and animal tissues.

  • Uses of toxicity tests in aquatic systems:

  1. Tests on algae:

  1. Cytotoxicity testing of CuSO4 on Chara sp.

  2. Determination of LD50 of CuSO4 on Euglena sp.

  3. Determination of CuSO4 bioaccumulation in Chara sp.

  1. Tests on protozoa:

  1. Cytotoxicity testing of HgCl2 on Paramecium sp.

  2. Determination of LD50 of HgCl2 on Amoeba sp.

Lab 07-10

  • Pesticide toxicity testing on microorganisms:

Fungicides (Metalaxyl).

Bactericides (Chloramphenicol).

  • Pesticide toxicity testing on insects:

Insecticide (Aldrin).

  • Uses of toxicity tests in terrestrial systems (soil):

  1. Tests on invertebrates: Toxicity testing of Glyphosate on earth worms.

  2. Tests on plants (weeds and grasses): Toxicity testing of Glyphosate (herbicide) on seed germination.

Lab 11

Effect of UV radiation on bacterial growth (eg. Bacillus sp.).

Effect of UV radiation on fungal growth (eg. Aspergillus sp.).

Lab 12-13

  • Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental samples (water, soil, sediments, foods, etc).

  • Toxicity of hydrocarbons in the environment. Testing chloroform, petroleum oil, naphthalene, benzene and ethanol on E. coli growth.

Lab 14-15

  • Detection of food preservatives.

  • Effect of food preservatives on microorganisms.

  • Determination of aflatoxin and ochratoxin in foods.

Lab 16

Testing of the expired drugs on laboratory animals (mice or rat).



Examples of Semester Examinations

Q1:- Answer two of the following? (20 marks)

A/ What are the main toxic metals?

B/ What are the adverse effects of pesticides?

C/ What are the sources of radiation?

Q2:-Define the following criteria: LD50, Bioconcentration, Fungicide, Acidoses, Digestion?

(10 marks)

Q3:- Write down the procedure of parafilm method? (10 marks)

Q4:- Write (T) or (F) for the following, the false points\should be corrected: (30 marks)

    1. Beneficial therapeutic drugs can be toxic and producing harmful effects at some dose.

    2. All toxins are toxicants, but not all toxicants are toxins.

    3. More than 5%from thousands of mushrooms species are poisonous.

    4. Azo or aromatic amine dyes cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis.

    5. Bacillus thuringiensis has a pesticidal property.

Q5:-Describe the chronic health effects of solvents (10 marks)


University of Salahaddin

College of Science

Environmental Science Department


Practical Quality Control

Lecture Lanja Omer Tahir

M.Sc. degree in Ecology

Email: lanjao1979@yahoo.com

Second Semesters- Academic Year: 2010/2011

Course objective

B/ Quality Control/ Practical

The second semester course comprises the Quality Control, this course will cover the study of all chemical, physical and biological quality and comparison with legislation limits and regulatory programs set by international and local standards (EPA) for drinking water, (FDA) for foods and drugs. These standards limited by Maximum Level Contaminant (MLC) of physical, chemical and biological parameters. Practically, we applied different procedures and tests and instruments for evaluation of different contaminant in water, food and drugs.


Forms of Teaching

Different forms of teaching will be used to reach the objectives of the two courses: writing head titles and topics or by power point presentation, giving illustration about the principles of toxicology and the principle of each procedure or tests used in the lab, using illustration manner like, whiteboard, chalk, projector, data show, paper sheet if needed, prepare vital samples and encourage the students to making groups for collection the samples from markets, home, fields, furthermore, following up the results of the tests and writing notes, weekly quiz. Making educational field trips to food or water manufacturers and factories, besides students will be asked to prepare answer on selective question marks assigned during practical work or about the cause of the results. There will be classroom discussions and the lecture will give enough background to translate, solve, analyze, and evaluate problems sets, and different issues discussed throughout the course.

To get the best of the course, it is suggested that you try to encourage the students to participate in classroom discussions, laboratory activities and asking the teachers, preparing the assignments given in the course.


Grading

The students are required to do two exam (theory/ practical or practical/practical), one at the mid of the semester other at the end of semester of each course. The exam has 7.5 marks besides other assignments including daily quiz, the attendance, classroom activities count 1.5 marks. There will be a final exam on 60 marks. So that the final grade will be based upon the following criteria:

Theoretical Examination: 25% Summation of two semesters Practical Examination: 15%

Final examination: 60% counting (15% practical and 45% theoretical)

Course material

Required references:

Quality Control and Sanitation for the Food Industry.

And any other Toxicology and Quality Control books published in 20 & 21st century, or can be obtained from sites of internet searching.


Course programme


2nd semester/ Practical Quality Control Syllabus

Weeks

Subjects

  1. Quality Control:

Lab 17

Introduction to quality control and regulatory toxicology.

Lab 18

Detection of color, odor and taste in foods and drinking water.

Lab 19

Size and shape of food products.

Lab 20-23

  • Microbiological tests for determination of food safety and food quality:

  1. Detection of microbial population in canned foods.

  2. Pathogenic microorganisms in grains and bacterial toxigenesis.

  3. Fungi in tomato paste and other products (yeast and mold).

  • Bacteriological tests for contaminated foods.

Lab 24

Quality standards for drinking water, irrigation water, aquaculture water, etc.

Lab 25

Air quality standards based on human health and ecosystems’ health.

Determination of amount of dust.

Lab 26

A trip to food manufacturing project.



Examples of Semester Examinations

Q1:- Write down mechanisms of action of preservation of foods? (10 of marks)

Q2:- Write down the procedure of parafilm method? (10 marks)

Q3:- What are the EPA and FDA? (5 marks)

Q4:- Describe the main groups of food additives with explanation of two of them. (20 marks)

Q5:- How can the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) define bottled water? (5 marks)


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