National primary care research & development centre

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Barclay C,et al Can type 2 diabetes be prevented in UK general practice? A lifestyle-change feasibility study (ISAIAH). British Journal of General Practice 2008 58 541-7.

Background: The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is attributed to increasing weight, reduced physical activity, and poor diet quality. Lifestyle change in patients with pre-diabetes can reduce progression to diabetes but this is difficult to achieve in practice. AIM: To study the effectiveness of a lifestyle-change intervention for pre-diabetes in general practice. Design of the study: A feasibility study. Setting: A medium-sized general practice in Sheffield. Method: Participants were 33 patients with pre-diabetes. The intervention was a 6-month delayed entry comparison of usual treatment with a lifestyle-change programme: increased exercise and diet change, either reduction in glycaemic load, or reduced-fat diet. The main outcome measures were weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and nutrition. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between control and intervention groups in three markers for risk of progression to diabetes (weight (P<0.03), BMI (P<0.03), and waist circumference (P<0.001)). No significant differences in fasting glucose or lipid profiles were seen. Aggregated data showed a statistically non-significant improvement in all the measures of metabolic risk of progression to diabetes in the low-glycaemic-load group when compared with a low-fat-diet group (P>0.05). Significant total energy, fat, and carbohydrate intake reduction was achieved and maintained in both groups. Conclusion: A lifestyle-change intervention feasibility programme for pre-diabetic patients was implemented in general clinical practice. The potential of a low-glycaemic-load diet to be more effective than a low-fat diet in promoting change in the features associated with progression to diabetes is worthy of further investigation.

Bastiaenen CH, et al. Long-term effectiveness and costs of a brief self-management intervention in women with pregnancy-related low back pain after delivery. BMC Pregnancy.Childbirth. 2008 8:19.

Background: Pregnancy-related low back pain is considered an important health problem and potentially leads to long-lasting pain and disability. Investigators draw particular attention to biomedical factors but there is growing evidence that psychosocial and social factors might be important. It prompted us to start a large cohort study (n = 7526) during pregnancy until one year after delivery and a nested randomized controlled intervention study in the Netherlands. Methods: A randomized controlled trial (n = 126) nested within a cohort study, of brief self-management techniques versus usual care for treatment of women with persisting non-specific pregnancy-related low back pain three weeks after delivery. Women in the intervention group were referred to a participating physiotherapist. Women in the usual care group were free to choose physiotherapy, guidance by a general practitioner or no treatment. Follow up took place at 3 months, 6 months and one year after delivery. Outcomes included change in limitations in activities (RDQ), pain (VAS), severity of main complaints (MC), global feeling of recovery (GPE), impact on participation and autonomy (IPA), pain-related fear (TSK), SF-36, EuroQol and a cost diary. For the outcome measures, series of mixed models were considered. For the outcome variable global perceived effect (GPE) a logistic regression analysis is performed. Results: Intention-to-treat outcomes showed a statistical significant better estimated regression coefficient RDQ -1.6 {-2.9;-0.5} associated with treatment, as well as better IPA subscale autonomy in self-care -1.0 {-1.9;-0.03} and TSK -2.4 {-3.8;-1.1} but were not clinical relevant over time. Average total costs in the intervention group were much lower than in usual care, primarily due to differences in utilization of sick leave but not statistically significant. Conclusion: Brief self-management techniques applied in the first 3 months after delivery may be a more viable first-line approach but further research is needed to draw inference on costs and to determine whether no care is a better option in the long term.

Bottle A, et al Quality of primary care and hospital admissions for diabetes mellitus in England. Journal of Ambulatory Care and Management 2008 31 (3) :226-38.
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А. Kozhevnikova, Assoc. Prof of the Department of English for Humanities (Samara State University), Member of Board of Experts for...
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