National primary care research & development centre

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Damush TM, et al Self-management practices among primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain and depression. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2008. 31(4) 301-7. Epub 2008 Jun 14

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinical depression on pain self-management practices. We employed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Stepped Care for Affective disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) study. Participants included 250 patients with pain and comorbid depression and 250 patients with pain only and were enrolled from urban university and VA primary care clinics. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as low back, hip or knee pain present >/=3 months and with at least a moderate, Brief Pain Inventory severity score >/=5. Depression was defined as a PHQ-9 score >/=10. We used multiple logistic and Poisson regression to assess the relationship between individual and combined effects of depression and pain severity on two core pain self-management skills: exercise duration and cognitive strategies. Depressed patients exercised less per week than did nondepressed patients but showed a trend towards more frequent use of cognitive strategies. On multivariable analysis, depression severity substantially decreased the use of exercise as a pain self-management strategy. In contrast, depression and pain severity interacted to increase the use of cognitive strategies. Depression and pain severity have differential effects on self-management practices. Understanding the differences between preferential strategies of pain patients with and without depression may be useful in tailoring pain self-management programs

Richardson G, et al. What outcomes are important to patients with long term conditions? a discrete choice experiment. Value in Health 2008.

Objective: To assess how much patients with long-term conditions value self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in their ability to manage their condition) compared with other health outcomes, including measures of quality of life, and process outcomes including access to General Practitioners. Methods: Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) set in UK community settings. Participants: 367 patients (mean age 57.5) living in the community with a wide range of self-defined long-term conditions. Main outcome measures: the relative value that individuals place on four specific outcomes, namely, self-efficacy, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), access to General Practitioners, and level of isolation. Results: Most responders completed their questionnaire in a consistent manner. Most valuations of outcomes were in the expected direction and were statistically significant. A substantial minority of responders exhibited counter-intuitive preferences. The existence of a significant constant in all models raised concerns about model misspecification. Nevertheless, all models showed that participants were willing to trade substantial reductions in their HRQoL for improvements in their self-efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of patients with chronic conditions were able to complete the DCE questionnaires. However, the existence of counter-intuitive preferences and evidence of model misspecification require further investigation. These issues are largely overlooked in the health economics literature. Self-efficacy is an important outcome for this group and is not included explicitly in conventional HRQoL measures. This is potentially important where decisions are made on the basis of cost-effectiveness using Quality Adjusted Life Years as the metric. Exclusion of these outcomes may lead to the cost-effectiveness of these interventions being understated

Wasson JH, Johnson DJ, Mackenzie T. The impact of primary care patients' pain and emotional problems on their confidence with self-management. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 2008 31 (2) 120-7.

There is a paucity of information about confidence with self-management in primary care practice. This study examines changes over time in patient-reported confidence with self-management on the basis of 1047 patients aged 50-69 who had common chronic diseases, bothersome pain, or emotional problems. We examined the relationship between patients' self-reported confidence, their experiences of medical care, and health outcomes after adjustment for baseline characteristics. We observed that, over a 2-year period, about a third of the patients remained confident and a third remained not confident. Change in pain or emotional problems was strongly associated with whether a patient was confident or not at the end of the follow-up period (P < .001). Persistently good confidence or improved confidence was strongly associated with measures of high-quality medical care. For patients with diabetes, persistent confidence was more often associated with control of blood glucose (P = .004) compared with the control in patients who were not as confident. Confident patients were likely to be fully engaged in everyday work and activities (P < .001). The results suggest that for the majority of patients in primary care practices, the status of their self-reported confidence with self-management persists over time. Their confidence is impacted by their pain or emotional state and strongly associated with their medical care experiences and some outcomes of care
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А. Kozhevnikova, Assoc. Prof of the Department of English for Humanities (Samara State University), Member of Board of Experts for...
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