Unit I : Global History & Development of Forensic Science & Other National Agencies




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DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR MARATHWADA

UNIVERSITY,

AURANAGABAD


Syllabus


Of


B.Sc. FORENSIC SCIENCE

III Year

V/VI SEMESTER


Effective from Academic Year

2011-2012 onwards


Paper I: Applied Forensic Science

15 lectures per Unit


Unit I : Global History & Development of Forensic Science & Other National Agencies

Global perspective in the field of forensic science: - history, development, education and training. Organizational setup of forensic science lab and other national & international agencies: - FSL, CFSL, GEQD, FPB, NICFS, CID,CBI, Central Detective Training Schools, NCRB, NPA, Mobile Forensic Science Laboratories, IB, CPO, FBI, CIA, CSI, DAB, DEA, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Understanding the role and duties of criminal investigators, qualification of a forensic scientist. Ethical Issues in Forensic Science: - defining ethics, professional standards for practice of criminalistics, code of conduct for expert witnesses, sanction against expert for unethical conduct. Laboratory sections. Various analytical and specialized tools of investigation.


Unit II : Quality Management System

General requirements for standardization and calibration of laboratories: - Introduction, scope and need of standardization. Quality management requirements: - Testing and calibration procedures, total quality assurance, quality control, quality planning, Resulting and report writing. Quality Audit:-Internal & External Audit, Accreditation & certification, NABL, ISO, IEC, BIS, ASCLD/LAB, ABC, IAI. Laboratory management procedures: - Lab information management system, validation of equipments and safety protocols.


Unit III : Procedural Criminal Law & Policing System

Scientific Report writing: - Components of reports and report format relating to Crime Scene and Laboratory findings. Stages in criminal proceedings: - FIR, Investigation, prosecution and trial stage. Remand and bail processes. Crimes under Special and Local laws: - Crimes under Dowry Prohibition Act, Crimes under Immoral Traffic Act, Specific offences under the Indian Penal Code (Homicide, sexual offences, offences against property). Classification of offences: Cognizable and Non cognizable offence, bailable and non bailable offences, compoundable and non-compoundable offences. Role of media, Role & Functions of Police.


Unit IV: Crime Scene Management, Reconstruction & Crime Scene Analysis

Components of Crime Scene Management – Information management, manpower, technology & logistics management, role of crime scene managers and first responding officers, educational background & hierarchy. Understanding crime scene security, contamination control, documentation protocols and maintaining health & safety procedures. Crime Scene Reconstruction:- defining crime scene reconstruction, nature & stages of crime scene reconstruction, reconstruction based on blood spatter patterns, shooting range of firearm projectile and gunshot residue, linking cases by MO and Signatures. Defining Crime Scene Analysis, interpretation of exhibits, role of a crime scene analyst, theory & principles of analysis, arguments and ethics in crime scene analysis and data interpretation.


Unit V: Questioned Documents

Functions of a Forensic Document Examiner: - Required training and education. Collection protocols of writing standards and process of comparison. Various writing features and their estimation. General and individual characteristics of handwriting. Identification of writer of anonymous writings. Application of Forensic Stylistics/Linguistics in the identification of writer. Examination of built-up documents and determination of sequence of strokes. Determination of age of documents by examining various factors. Identification and comparison of typescripts: - Identification of typist, various types of printing processes, printing and machine defects, and alterations in typed text. Various types of typewriting devices: - examination of typewriters with proportional letter spacing, electronic typewriters, dot matrix, inkjet & laser printers, machines used for printing security documents, cheques, and currency notes, etc. Photocopy & photocopier examination: - photocopier identification, visual photocopy examination, photocopy forgery. Paper & watermark examination: - Paper size and thickness, paper opacity, colour and brightness, understanding watermarks. Examination of alterations, erasures, overwriting, additions and obliterations. Decipherment of secret writings, indentations & charred documents. Physical comparison of documents, examination of seal rubber & other mechanical impressions. Examination of counterfeit currency notes, Indian Passports/Visas, Stamp Papers, Postal Stamps etc. Examination of fake credit cards and electronic documents.


Unit VI: Forensic Medicine

Global Medical Jurisprudence, Legal Procedure in India: - Police inquest, Magistrate’s inquest, Coroner’s inquest, Oath and affirmation. Documentary evidence: - Medical certificates, medical reports, dying declaration. Understanding laws and ethics of medical practice. Medico legal aspects of death: - Diagnosis of death- somatic & molecular, early and intermediate changes following death, late changes after death- putrefaction, autolysis, bacterial action, factors affecting these changes. Determination of time since death, including by histopathological methods. Medico legal investigation of sexual offences, including examination of victims and suspects. Medico legal aspects of death:- causes of death such as asphyxia, electrocution, thermal trauma, heat burns, starvation, natural death, sudden death, death by accident. Medico legal aspects of wounds: -medical and legal definition of wounds, types of mechanical and regional injuries, aging of wounds, difference between suicidal, homicidal and accidental wounds.


PRACTICALS

1. Calibration of various instruments

2. Various safety methods

3. Report writing and interpretation

4. Scientific Report Writing

5. Presentation of expert evidence in a mock courtroom

6. Blood Spatter Analysis

7. Range of firing

8. Reconstruction of various types of crime scene

9. Identification of Handwriting General and individual characteristics.

10. Detection of various type of forgery.

11. Identification of Indented and Invisible writing.

12. Identification of typescripts and printing matter.


PROJECT STUDY


FIELD VISIT / INDUSTRIAL VISIT


PRACTICALS

1. Calibration of various instruments

2. Various safety methods

3. Report writing and interpretation

4. Scientific Report Writing

5. Presentation of expert evidence in a mock courtroom

6. Blood Spatter Analysis

7. Range of firing

8. Reconstruction of various types of crime scene

9. Identification of Handwriting General and individual characteristics.

10. Detection of various type of forgery.

11. Identification of Indented and Invisible writing.

12. Identification of typescripts and printing matter.


PROJECT STUDY


FIELD VISIT / INDUSTRIAL VISIT


List of Books:

1. International Standard on General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration

laboratories, 1st Ed., 1999-12-15, ISO/IEC 17025:1999(E).

2. Willard Merritt, Dean & Settle; Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 7th Ed., CBS Pub. &

Distributors, New Delhi (1986)

3. Tewari R K, Sastry P K and Ravikumar K. V; Computer Crime & Computer Forensics, Select

Pub. New Delhi. (2003)

4. V.D. Dudeja; Cyber Crimes & Law Vol. 2, Common Wealth

5. Nanda, B.B. and Tewari, R.K. (2001): Forensic Science in India: A vision for the twenty first

century Select Publisher, New Delhi.

6. James, S. H. and Nordby, J. J. (2003) Forensic Science: An introduction to scientific and

investigative techniques CRC Press, USA.

7. Guharaj, P. V., Chandran M. R. (2006) Forensic Medicine, 2nd Ed., Universities Press (India)

Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad.

8. Di Maio J. M. Vincent, Dana S. E. (2006) Handbook of Forensic Pathology, VIVA Books Pvt.

Ltd., India.

9. Parikh C. K. (1999) Parikh’s Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence, Forensic Medicine and

Toxicology. Sixth Ed., CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., India.

10. Barnett (2001): Ethics in Forensic Science.

11. O’Hara & Osterburg: Introduction to Criminalistics, 1949, The MacMillan Co., 1964.

12. Osterburg: Crime Laboratory.

13. Saferstien: Forensic Science, Handbook, Vol. I, II & III, Prentice Hall Inc. USA.

14. Saferstein: Criminalistics, 1976, Prentice Hall Inc., USA.

15. Nickolas : Scientific Criminal Investigation

16. Deforest, Gansellen & Lee: Introduction to Criminalistics.

17. Sharma, B.R.: Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials, Central Law Agency,

Allahabad, 1974.

18. Kirk: Criminal Investigation, 1953, Interscience Publisher Inc. New York.

19. Indian Penal Code 1860.

20. Dowry Prohibition Act

21. Immoral Traffic Act

22. Criminal Procedural Code


Paper II - Applied Forensic Chemistry

15 lectures per Unit


Unit –I : Separation and detection technique

Gas chromatography: Theoretical principles, instrumentations and technique, columns, stationary phases, detectors, Forensic applications.

HPLC: Review of theory, Instrumentation, Technique, column, detectors, LC-MS, Forensic applications.

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy- Introduction, Basic principles, Instrumentation and Techniques, Forensic applications.

Flame spectrometry- Principle, Instrumentation and working, Forensic applications.

Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy - Principles and Instrumentation, Forensic applications.

Thermal methods-TGA, DTA, DSC.


Unit-II: Forensic Toxicology

Introduction and concept of forensic toxicological examination and its significance

Poisons: (Plant Poison, Animal Poison, Metallic Poison) classification of poisons, types of poisoning, collection and preservation of toxicological exhibits in fatal and survival cases, signs and symptoms of poisoning, mode of action and its effect on vital functions, medico-legal and post mortem examination report/finding studies, specific analysis plan/ approach to toxicological examination of poisoning samples, excretion of poisons, detection of poisons on the basis of their metabolic studies, interpretation of analytical data and forming of opinion.


Unit-III: Miscellaneous

Polymers-Introduction-General idea of structures, types, tacticity, polymerization processes with examples, radical and ionic mechanism of polymerization, characteristic properties of polymers, Structure, preparation and applications of Polyethylene (types and Ziegler-Natta process), Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene,


General idea of plasticizers, stabilizers, fillers, Epoxy Resins, Feviseal.

Plastics- Classification of plastics, application of plastics. Rubber- types of rubber, vulcation of rubber, synthetic rubbers, Fibres (synthetic fibres)-classification, properties, polyamides-Nylon, polyesters-Terylene or Dacron.

Fibre reinforced plastics- types, properties, applications. Glass fibre reinforced plastics- properties, applications.

Relevant provisions of:

1. The Poisons Act, 1919, and Section 284 of IPC, 1860 (Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substance).

2. Explosives Act 1984, (Definition, Powers of Central Govt. and Licensing Authority, Offences and Penalties) and Section 286 of IPC, 1860, (Negligent conduct with respect to explosive substance),

3. Explosive Substances Act 1908, (Definition, Offences and Penalties).


Unit-IV: Narcotic Drug and Psychotropic Substances

Analysis of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Drug effects, drug Hazards, Tolerance and dependence of drugs, Problems of drug addiction, Identification of drug addict, Drug addicts and crimes, Classification of Narcotics and other drugs, Analytical techniques for identification of drugs. Types of Pharma drugs, Steroids, Forensic Pharmacological studies, Ingestion of drugs ,absorption, distribution, metabolism, pathways of drug metabolism, drug metabolism and drug toxicity, excretion of drugs.


Unit-V: Study of Analysis of Beverages

Introduction, Definition of alcohol and illicit liquor, Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and their composition, Proof spirit, absorption, de-toxication and excretions of alcohol, problems in alcohol cases and difficulties in diagnosis, Alcohol and prohibition, Consequences of drunken driving, Analytical techniques in the analysis of alcohol and other articles. Case study.


Unit-VI : Miscellaneous

Arson: chemistry of fire, investigation and evaluation of clue material, analysis of arson exhibits by instrumental methods: Management of Arson cases,

Food adulteration: Introduction, Prevention of food adulteration, Analytical techniques for analysis of exhibits involved in food and other material cases.

Relevant provision of:-

1. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954 (Definition, Power of Food Inspector, Offences and Penalties),

2. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 (Definition, Licit Opium Cultivation, Minimum and Commercial Quantity in Narcotic Drugs, Offences and Penalties),

3. Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in NDPS Act 1985 (Detention of a Person Under the Act),

4. Drugs Control Act 1940 (Definition, Power of Chief Commissioner Under the Act),

5. Drugs & Cosmetics Act 1945 (Definition, Adulterated, Misbranded, Spurious Drugs and Cosmetics, Offenses and Penalties),

6. Arson cases.


PRACTICALS

1. Identification of food adulteration.-vegetable oil, Cold drinks etc. (2 nos).

2. Quantitative or qualitative study of drug opiates. (2 nos).

3. Examination of fire arson cases by GC, TLC. (1 nos).

4. Detection and determination of various adulterants in alcohol, by colour tests.(Qualitative

analysis) (2 nos.).

5. Chemical analysis of explosive materials.(Gun powder)- Colour test, Microscopic examination.

(2 nos).

6. Analysis of alcohol from blood (quantitative by GC). (2 nos).

7. Extraction methods of drugs, Poisons. (2 nos).

8. Colour Tests for identification of poisons, drugs. (2 nos).

9. Plant, animal, Metallic poison analysis. (2 nos.).

10. Polymer Testing.

11. Separation of Sampling Material by TLC (drugs, poison etc.) (2 nos).

12. Study of Steroids (separation by TLC).

13. Examination of chemicals used in Trap cases by UV-visible spectroscopy. (2 nos).
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