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I

Identity: Any chemical or common name, which is indicated on the MSDS for a chemical.

Ignitable: Capable of burning or causing a fire.

Ignition Temperature: The lowest temperature at which a material can catch fire and burn independently of other heat sources.

Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH): A term describing very hazardous atmospheres where exposure can cause serious injury, death, or serious delayed effects.

Immediate Use: The hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

Imminent Danger: An impending, dangerous situation that could be expected to cause death or serious injury unless corrective measures are taken.

Immiscible: Liquids that will not mix with each other, but will form separate layers or will result in cloudiness or turbidity.

Impervious: Unable to be penetrated.

Importer: The first business with employees within the customs jurisdiction of the United States, which receives a hazardous chemical.

Incineration: The burning of certain types of materials. A high temperature waste destruction process.

Incinerator: A furnace for burning wastes under controlled conditions.

Incompatible: Materials that should be kept apart due to hazards involved if they come into contact with each other.

Inflammable: Flammable.

Inflammation: Tissue reaction to injury; the succession of changes that occur in living tissue when it is injured.

Ingestion: Process by which materials enter the body by swallowing.

Inhalation: Breathing inwardly. Process by which some materials enter the body.

Inhibitor: A chemical that is added to another substance to prevent an unwanted chemical change from occurring.

Inorganic Chemicals: Chemical substances of mineral origin, not of basically carbon structure.

Incompatible: Materials that could cause dangerous reactions.

Industrial Hygiene: An art or science devoted to the recognition, evaluation, and control of environmental factors that may cause sickness, impaired health, or significant discomfort to employees.

Inflammation: A series of reactions produced in the tissues by an irritant; It is identified by an affluxion of blood with an exudation of plasma and leukocytes.

Ingestion: The taking in of a substance through the mouth or eating it.

Inhalation: The act of breathing in. This is the most common route of hazardous chemical entry into the body.

Inhibitor: An agent which slows or arrests a chemical action, or a material used to prevent or retard rust or corrosion.

Injection: The entry of chemicals into the body by means of broken skin from cuts, abrasions, burns, scratches, or puncture.

Inorganic: A term to designate compounds that generally do not contain carbon. Source matter other than vegetable or animal. An example is salt.

Insoluble: A substance, which is incapable of being dissolved.

Iridocyclitis: Inflammation of both iris and ciliary body of the eye.

Irritant: A chemical that is not corrosive, but that causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of the contact. Also see dermatitis and sensitize.

Ischemia: Local and temporary anemia due to the obstruction of the circulation to a part of the body.

Inventory: A list of materials located within a certain place.

Ion: An electrically charged atom, a group of atoms, or other particle.

Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that can remove electrons from atoms, i.e., alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

Irritant: A chemical or other material that is not corrosive but can cause a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue at the site of contact.

Isomer: One of two or more chemical substances that have the same molecular formula, but different chemical and physical properties due to different arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.

Isotope: A variation of an element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic weight because of the number of neutrons it has.

J

Jaundice: A condition characterized by a yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes, mucous membranes, and body fluids due to decomposition of bile pigment resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.

Job Hazard Analysis: A process by which a job is studied to determine the hazards involved and ways to safely complete the job by procedures and/or personal protective equipment.

K

Ketosis: The accumulation in the body of the ketone bodies: acetone, betahydroxybutric acid, and acetoacetic acid.

L

Label: Any written, painted, or graphic material, displayed on or fixed to containers of a hazardous chemical.

Lacrimation: Secretion and discharge of tears.

Latent Period: The period of time between exposure and the first manifestation of damage.

Lavage: Washing of a hollow organ, such as the stomach.

Lead Intoxication: Lead absorption resulting from inhalation of lead dust or fumes, or from swallowing lead dust.

Lesion: Injury, damage, or abnormal change to a body tissue or organ.

Lethal Concentration (LC): A concentration of a substance that is sufficient to kill a test animal.

Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50): See "toxic inhalation LC50".

Lethal Dose (LD): An amount of a substance that is sufficient to kill a test animal.

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50): See "toxic inhalation LC50".

Leukemia: A disease of the blood marked by persistent leukocytosis associated with changes in the spleen, the bone marrow, or the lymphatic nodes.

Level Of Concern (LOC): The concentration in air of an extremely hazardous substance above which there may be serious immediate health effects to anyone exposed to it for short periods of time.

Limiting Factor: A condition, whose absence, or excessive concentration, is incompatible with the needs or tolerance of a species or population and which may have a negative influence on their ability to grow or even survive.

Liner: A relatively impermeable barrier designed to prevent leachate from leaking from a landfill.

Lipid Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in fatty substances. Lipid soluble substances are soluble in water.

Liquefaction: Changing a solid into a liquid.

Long-Term Sample: Sample taken over a long period of time, by averaging the variations in exposure cycles.

Lower Explosive Limit: The concentration of a compound in air, below which a flame will not propagate if the mixture is ignited.

Lower Flash Point Limit: The lowest concentration of combustible or flammable gases or vapors in air that will produce a flash of fire.

Lung Agents: Chemical that irritates or damages lung tissue.

M

Malaise: A feeling of general discomfort, distress, or uneasiness; an out-of-sorts feeling.

Manufacturer’s Formulation: A list of substances or component parts as described by the maker of a coating, pesticide, or other product containing chemicals or other substances.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): Written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical, which accompanies the hazardous chemical and provides essential information for handling and using the material.

Maximum Contaminant Level: The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water delivered to any user of a public water system.

Medical Surveillance: Surveillance on an employee to assure that chemical exposure is within the acceptable limits.

Melting Point: The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid state.

Mercury: A heavy metal that can accumulate in the environment and is highly toxic if breathed or swallowed.

Metastasis: Transfer of a disease-producing agent from the site of the disease to another part of the body; a secondary metastasis growth of a malignant tumor.

Metabolism: The chemical changes that take place as the body carries out daily functions.

Methane: A colorless, nonpoisonous, flammable gas created by anaerobic decomposition of organic materials.

Millimeter: A metric unit of measure equal to one thousandth of a meter.

Milliliter: A metric unit of volume equal to one cubic centimeter.

Million Gallons Per Day: A measure of water flow or other fluids.

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA): Along with NIOSH, MSHA is responsible for testing and approving respirators.

Miscible: The extent to which liquids and gases can be blended.

Mixture: Two or more chemicals, if the combination is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction. A material consisting of two or more chemicals which may be separated by mechanical means.

Monitoring: Biological and environmental testing in the workplace to determine whether the parameters being measured are within acceptable limits.

Mutagen: A chemical that causes a defect in sperm or egg cells prior to conception.

Mutagenesis: Any process by which cells are mutated.

Mutate: To bring about a change in the genetic constitution of a cell by altering its DNA.

N

Narcosis: Stupor or unconsciousness produced by some narcotic drug.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Nonprofit organization that provides information on fire protection and prevention. It published the 704 Standard for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): National safety and health research organization that recommends methods for reducing or elimination of hazards.

National Response Center: The Federal operation that receive notifications of all releases of oil and hazardous substances into the environment.

National Response Team: Representatives of thirteen agencies that, as a team, coordinate federal responses to nationally significant incidents of pollution and provide advice and technical assistance during a response action.

National Toxicology Program: Produces and publishes The Annual Report on Carcinogens.

Natural Gas: A fuel gas that is primarily methane and ethane, and occurs in certain geological formations. Generally produced from decaying organic matter.

Nausea: Tendency to vomit, feeling of sickness of the stomach.

Necrosis: Localized death of tissue.

Nephrotoxins: Chemicals that produce kidney damage.

Neuritis: Inflammation of a nerve or nerves usually associated with a degenerative process.

Neurotoxins: Chemicals that negatively affect the nervous system.

Neutralization: Decreasing the acidity or alkalinity of a substance by adding to it alkaline or acidic materials respectively.

Nitrate: A compound containing nitrogen that can exist in the atmosphere or as a dissolved gas in water and can have harmful effects on humans and animals.

Nitric Oxide: A gas formed by combustion under high temperature and high pressure in an internal combustion engine. A great contributor to smog.

Nitrilotriacetic Acid (NTA): A compound that is being used to replace phosphates in detergents.

Nitrite: An intermediate in the process of nitrification, or a nitrous oxide salt used in food preservation.

Nitrogen Dioxide: A product of combustion from transportation and stationary sources and a major contributor to the formation of Ozone in the atmosphere, and acid deposition.

Non-Flammable: Not easily ignited and not burning rapidly if ignited.

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation: 1. Radiation that does not change the structure of atoms but does heat tissue and may cause harmful biological effects. 2. Microwaves, radio waves, and low-frequency electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines.

Non-Routine Task: Occasional job-duty assignment; duties not performed on a regular and ongoing basis.

Nuclear Power Plant: A facility that converts atomic energy into usable power.

O

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Federal agency responsible for enforcing the regulations related to safety and health in the workplace.

Olfactory: Pertaining to the sense of smell.

Oncogenic: A substance that causes tumors, whether benign or malignant.

Opaque: Impervious to light rays; light will pass through but cannot see through.

Oral: Through the mouth.

Oral Toxicity: Adverse effects resulting from taking a substance into the body through the mouth. Ordinarily used to denote the effects in experimental animals.

Organic: Chemicals that contain carbon and usually are derived from living or once lived organisms.

Organic Peroxides: A derivative of hydrogen peroxide and highly reactive. A bivalent (-O-O-) organic compound where one or both hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Some are very unstable and may act as an explosive or oxidizer.

Organophosphates: Pesticide chemicals that contain phosphates; used to control insects. Short lived, but can be toxic when first applied.

Organotins: Chemical compounds used in antifouling paints to protect the hulls of boats and ships, buoys, and dock pilings.

Osmosis: The passing of a fluid through a permeable or semi permeable barrier or membrane from a region of greater concentration to a region of lesser concentration.

Oxidant: A substance containing Oxygen that reacts chemically in air to produce a new substance.

Oxidation: 1. The addition of oxygen that breaks down organic waste or chemicals such as cyanides, phenols, and organic sulfur compounds in sewage by bacterial and chemical means. 2. Oxygen combining with other elements. 3. The process in chemistry whereby electrons are removed from a molecule.

Oxidizer: A chemical, other than a blasting agent or explosive, as defined in section 1910.109(a) that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

Oxidizing Agent: A chemical that gives off free oxygen in a chemical reaction.

Oxygen-Deficient: An atmosphere having less the percentage of oxygen found in ambient or normal air.

P

Palpitation: A Rapid, irregular beating of the heart.

Particulate Loading: The mass of particulates per volume of air or water.

Particulates: Fine liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fog, or smog, found in air or emissions.

Pathogenic: Capable of causing a disease.

Pathogens: Microorganisms that can cause a disease in other forms of living organisms.

Penetration: The passage of a chemical through an opening in a protective material.

Permeation: Passage of a chemical through a piece of clothing on a molecular level.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): An exposure limit for various chemicals established by OSHA.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Devices, equipment, or clothing used or worn by the employee, as a last resort, to protect against hazards in the workplace.

pH: A symbol used to quantify the level of acidity or alkalinity (base). A pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic, and a pH of 7 to 13 is alkaline. The farther away from 7 the pH number is, the stronger the acid or base.

Phenols: Organic compounds that are by-products of petroleum refining, tanning, and textile manufacturing.

Pheromone: A hormonal chemical produced by the female of a species to attract a mate.

Phosphates: Certain chemical compounds that contain phosphorus.

Physical Hazard: A chemical for which there is scientific and validated evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, pyrophoric, an organic compound, an oxidizer, unstable (reactive), or water-reactive.

Picourie: A measurement or radioactivity. One trillionth of a curie.

Pig: A container, usually lead, used to store or ship radioactive materials.

Pneumoconiosis: Dusty lungs resulting from the continued inhalation of various kinds of dusts and other particles.

Polyelectrolytes: Synthetic chemicals that help solids to clump during sewage treatment.

Polymer: The basic molecular ingredient in plastics.

Polymerization: A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules form a larger and different material accompanied by the release of energy.

Polyvinyl Chloride: A tough indestructible plastic that releases hydrochloric acid when burned.

Portable Containers: Containers for chemicals or other materials. They do not have to be labeled if the substance is for immediate use.

Produce: To manufacture, process, formulate, or repackage.

Pulmonary Agents: Chemicals that may damage the lungs.

Pulmonary Edema: The condition of having fluid in the lungs.

Pyrophoric: A chemical that will ignite spontaneously and burn in air at a temperature of 130 F or below.

R

Radiation: Any form of energy propagated from rays, waves, or streams or energetic particles.

Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD): A unit of absorbed dose of radiation. One RAD of Absorbed Dose is equal to .01 joules per kilogram.

Radioactive Substance: Substances that emit radiation.

Radon: A colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive, inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks.

Reactive: A chemical in the pure state that will polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self reactive under certain conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.

Reactivity: A measure of the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction with the release of energy.

Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): The highest allowable airborne concentration, which is not expected to cause injury or illness.

Reproductive Toxins: Chemicals that affect reproductive capabilities, including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).

Responsible Party: A person who can provide additional information on a hazardous chemical and/or appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): A molecule that carries the genetic message from DNA to a cell’s protein-producing mechanisms.

Right-To-Know: Name also used for the Hazard Communication Standard.

Rodenticide: A chemical used to destroy rats and other rodents.

Roentgen Equivalent Man: The unit of dose equivalent from ionizing radiation to the human body, used to measure the amount of radiation to which a person or a part of a human has been exposed.

Route of Entry: Methods by which pathogens or gasses can enter the body; most notable are inhalation, ingestion, or absorption.

S

Safety Can: An OSHA approved closed container which has the following characteristics:

1.   A capacity of not more than five gallons.

2.   Spring closing lid and spout cover.

3.   Flash-arresting screen.

4.    Designed to safely relieve internal pressure if exposed to fire.

Sampling: The process of isolating or withdrawing a fractional part of a whole for testing.

Saturation: The maximum concentration of matter that can be dissolved in a given substance at a given temperature and pressure.

Sensitization: An allergic response reaction that increases in severity with subsequent exposures. A person previously exposed to a certain material is more sensitive when further contact with this material is encountered.

Sensitizer: Chemicals that might cause an allergic reaction after one or more exposures. Once a person becomes sensitized, a smaller dose of the material may cause a big effect. See "dermatitis" and "irritant."

Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by formation of small discrete nodules.

Skin Notation: A chemical that can penetrate unbroken skin.

Smoke: Particles suspended in air after incomplete combustion of materials.

Soluble: Capable of being dissolved.

Solubility: The ability of a material to dissolve in water or other solvent.

Solubility In Water: The percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature. The terms used to express solubility are:

1.  Negligible-------------------Less than 0.1%

2.   Slight-------------------------0.1% to 1.0%

3.  Moderate--------------------1% to 10%

4.  Appreciable-----------------More than 10%

5.  Complete--------------------Soluble in all proportions

Solvent: A substance capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances.

Soot: Carbon dust formed by incomplete combustion of a material.

Sorption: The action of soaking up or attracting substances.

Spasm: An involuntary, convulsive, muscular contraction.

Specific Chemical Identity: The chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the precise chemical designation.

Specific Gravity (sp. gr.): A measurement to quantify the weight of a substance by comparing the weight of a given amount of material to the same amount of water. Materials with a sp. gr. greater than 1 is heavier than water and will sink if it does not dissolve. Materials with a sp. gr. of less than 1 is lighter than water and will float if it does not dissolve. See "solubility in water."

Spontaneous Combustion: Combustion resulting from a chemical reaction with the slow generation of heat from oxidation of organic compounds until the ignition temperature of the material (fuel) is reached. The condition is reached only where there is sufficient air for oxidation, but not enough ventilation to carry away the heat as fast as it is generated.

Stability: The tendency of a material to resist involvement in a chemical reaction.

Standards: Prescriptive norms that govern action and actual limits on the amounts of pollutants or emissions produced.

State Emergency Response Commission: A governor appointed, local emergency planning body.

Stupor: Partially or nearly unconscious.

Sulfur Dioxide: A heavy, pungent, colorless, gaseous air pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil plant fuels.

Sump: A pit or tank that catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal.

Synergism: The cooperative reaction of two or more agents such that the resulting action is greater than the sum of their individual effects.

Synergistic: pertaining to the action of two or more substances, organs or organisms to achieve an effect greater than the sum or total that could be achieved individually.

Synthetic Organic Chemical: Man-made organic chemicals.

Systemic: Spread throughout the entire body and affecting all body systems and organs; not localized in one spot or area.

Systemic Toxicology: Adverse effects caused by a substance that affects the body generally, rather than locally.

T

Tachycardia: Excessively rapid heartbeat.

Target Organ: Primary body organ attacked by a chemical.

Teratogen: Chemicals that cause birth defects in a developing fetus.

Thermal Decomposition: The breakdown or decomposition of a material when heated.

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): A safe exposure to a chemical level that has been set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH). Refers to airborne concentrations of a substances and represents an exposure level under which most people can work constantly for eight hours a day, day after day, with no harmful effects. Three categories of TLVs are specified:

1.  Time Weighted Average (TWA) - Time weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour work week, to which all workers may normally be exposed day-after-day without adverse effect.

2.  Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) - Maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for a period up to 15 minutes continuously without suffering from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue change, or narcosis of sufficient degree to impair self-rescue or reduced work efficiency. No more than four 15-minute exposure periods per day are permitted with at least 60 minutes between those exposure periods.

3.  Ceiling (C) - The concentration that should never be exceeded.

NOTE: If any one of the above TLVs is exceeded, a potential hazard from that substance is presumed to be permitted to exist.

Tinnitus: A ringing sound in the ears.

Toxemia: Poisoning by way of the blood stream.

Toxic: The toxicity of a chemical measured by using any of several animal studies. OSHA recognizes three:

1.  Oral LD50 - Lethal dose 50% test: The Medium Lethal Dose (LD50) that kills 50% of the albino white rats that received the dose. Oral LD50 is expressed milligrams of chemical per kilogram of test animal weight. A dose of one milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) is equal to one millionth of the test animal's body weight. OSHA considers a chemical to be toxic if the oral LD50 is between 50 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.

2.  Skin LD50 - A dose that kills 50% of the albino white rabbits that had the chemical applied directly to the bare skin for 24 hours. Skin LD50 is also expressed as mg/kg. OHSA considers a chemical to be toxic if the skin (LD%) is between 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg.

3.  Inhalation LC50 - The concentration of a chemical in the air needed to kill 50% of the albino white rats that breathed the chemical. Inhalation LC50 is expressed as parts per million (PPM) for bases and vapors. Inhalation LD50 is also expressed as milligrams per liter (mg/l) for mists. fumes, and dusts. See "high toxic."

Toxicant: A poisonous agent that kills or injures animal or plant life.

Toxic Chemical Release Form: An information form required to be submitted by facilities that manufacture, process, or use chemicals listed in SARA Title III.

Toxicity: The degree of injury or illness caused by a toxic material.

Toxicology: The science and study of poisons control.

Toxic Substance: A chemical or mixture that may present a unreasonable risk of injury of illness to health or to the environment.

Trichloroethylene: A stable, low-boiling, colorless liquid, and toxic by inhalation. Used as a solvent and metal degreaser.

Trihalomethane: One of a family of organic compounds, named as derivatives of methane.

U

Underground Storage Tanks: An underground or partially underground storage tank for storage of gasoline or other petroleum products.

Upper Flash Limit: The highest concentration of a combustible or flammable gas or vapor in air that will produce a flash fire.

Unstable: A chemical which, in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure or high temperature.

Unlabeled Pipe Hazard: A real or potential workplace hazard created by chemical(s) being transported through unlabeled pipes.

Uranium: A radioactive, heavy metal, element used in nuclear reactors.

V

Vapor: The gaseous phase of substances that are liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature and pressure.

Vapor Density: The measure of how heavy a vapor is compared to air [air has a vapor density of 1 (one)]. Vapors that have a density of greater than 1 will accumulate on the floor or ground or other low places. Substances with vapor densities of less than 1 will rise in the air.

Vaporization: The change of a substance from a solid or liquid to a gas state.

Vapor Pressure: A measure of how readily a material will evaporate and indicates the volatility of the liquid. The lower the vapor pressure, the slower it evaporates and the longer it takes to build up toxic or explosive concentrations.

Ventilation/Suction: The admitting of fresh air into a space in order to replace stale or contaminated air.

Vinyl Chloride: A chemical compound used in producing some plastics, which is believed to be carcinogenic.

Viscosity: A fluid's resistance to flow or "run".

Volatility: The tendency of a substance to vaporize.

Volatile Organic Compound (VOC): An organic compound that evaporates or vaporizes.

W

Water Reactive: A chemical that reacts with water and the reaction produces a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

Water Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical compound that can result when it is dissolved in water.

Work Area: A room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are received, stored, produced, or used and employees are present. See "hazardous work area".

Workplace: An establishment, jobsite, or project, at one geographic location containing one or more work areas.

 

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