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Decibel: A unit of sound measurement. In general, a sound doubles in loudness for every increase of 10 decibels.
Dermal: Used on or applied to the skin.
Decomposition: Chemical breakdown of a material brought on by some adverse condition.
Degradation: A destructive effect a chemical may have on a piece of chemical-protective clothing.
Deliquescent: Tending to melt or dissolve, especially tending to undergo gradual dissolution and liquefaction by the attraction and absorption of moisture from the air.
Demulcent: An oily or mucilaginous drug that soothes or protects inflamed tissues.
Density: A number that relates a substance’s weight to its volume. Density values of liquids are given in weight/volume and density values of solids are given in numbers that show the substance’s comparative weight to an equal volume of water. Water has an assigned density of 1. Also see specific gravity.
Distributor: A business, other than a chemical manufacturer or importer, which supplies hazardous chemicals to other distributors or employers.
Dermal: Relating to the skin.
Dermal Toxicity: Adverse effects resulting from exposure of the skin to a substance; ordinarily used to denote effects in experimental animals. The ability of a pesticide or toxic chemical to poison people or animals by contact with the skin.
Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin. Two major types of skin reactions are: 1) primary irritation dermatitis and 2) sensitization dermatitis. Also see "irritant, "sensitize", and "contact dermatitis".
Detergent: A synthetic washing agent that helps to remove dirt and oil. Some kill useful bacteria and encourage the growth of algae.
Diaphoresis: Perspiration, especially profuse perspiration that is artificially induced.
Diazinon: An insecticide.
Dike: A low wall that can act as a barrier to prevent a spill from spreading.
Dioxin: Any of a family of compounds known chemical as dibenzo-p-dioxins. One of the more toxic man-made chemicals.
Disinfectant: A chemical or physical process that kills pathogenic organisms. Ordinary chlorine laundry bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) is an effective disinfectant when mixed one part to 10 parts water.
Dispersant: A chemical agent used to break up concentrations of organic material such as spilled oil.
Direct-Reading Instrumentation: Instruments that give an immediate indication of the concentration of aerosols, gases, vapors, or the magnitude of a physical hazard by some means such as a dial or meter.
Distilled Spirits: Are not subject to the Hazard Communication labeling requirements.
Documentation: The record of compliance that an employer should maintain.
Dose: A term used to express the amount of energy or substance absorbed in a unit volume of an organ or an individual. Dose rate is the dose delivered per unit of time.
Dosimeter: An instrumentation that measures exposure to radiation.
Dust: Minute solid particles generated by the crushing of such materials as coal, wood, grains, rocks, etc.
Dustfall Jar: An open container used to collect large particles from the air for measurement and analysis.
Dysfunction: any abnormality or impairment of an organ.
Dyspnea: Labored or difficult breathing.
Ecology: The relationship of living things to one another and to their environment, or the study of such relationships.
Eczema: A skin disease or disorder; one specific type of dermatitis.
Edema: An abnormal accumulation of watery fluid in tissues or serous cavities; swelling.
Electrolyte: A substance that dissolves into two or more ions, to some extent water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct the electric current and can be decomposed by it.
Element: A substance composed entirely of one kind of atom. Elements are designated by chemical symbols.
Emergency (Chemical): A situation created by an accidental release or spill of hazardous chemicals that poses a threat to the safety of workers, residents, the environment, or property.
Emetic: A drug that causes vomiting; used especially in cases of poisoning.
Embolism: The sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by an abnormal particle (an air bubble) circulating in the blood.
Emphysema: A lung disease in which the presence of air in the connective tissues of the lungs causes swelling or inflammation.
Employee: A paid person who may be exposed to a hazardous chemical(s) or conditions under normal operating conditions or in foreseeable emergencies.
Employer: A person engaged in a business where persons are hired to conduct work including contractors or subcontractors.
Environmental Protection Agency: Federal agency responsible for enforcing regulations related to the control of hazardous materials.
Environmental Response Team: EPA experts located in Edison NJ, and Cincinnati, OH who can provide around the clock technical assistance to EPA regional offices and states during all types of emergencies involving hazardous materials, waste sites, and other hazardous substances.
Epidemic: Widespread outbreak of a disease in a single community or a relatively small area.
Epidemiology: The study of diseases as they affect mankind, including the distribution of diseases or other health related states or events.
Epiphoria: An abnormal flow of tears down the cheeks due to excess secretion of tears or to obstruction of the lachrymal gland.
Epistaxis: Nosebleed; hemorrhage of the nose.
Equilibrium: In relationship to radiation, the state at which the radioactivity of consecutive elements within a radioactive series is neither increasing nor decreasing.
Erythema: An abnormal redness of the skin due to capillary congestion.
Ethylene dibromide: A chemical used as an agricultural fumigant and in certain industrial processes. Extremely toxic and found to be a carcinogen in laboratory animals. Now banned for agricultural uses in the USA.
Etiology: The study of the cause of disease.
Evaporation Rate: The time it takes a given amount of material to completely vaporize (evaporate) when compared to a reference material.
Explosive: A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous, release of gas, pressure, and/or heat when subjected to shock, pressure, or high temperature.
Exposed or Exposure: Coming into contact with a hazardous chemical in the course of employment through any route of entry.
Fahrenheit: Measurement of temperature under standard atmospheric pressure conditions and where freezing of pure water is 32 degrees and the boiling of pure water is at 212 degrees.
Flammable: Any substance that is easily ignited, burns intently, or has a rapid rate of flame spread.
Flammable Aerosol: Any substance that yields a flame projection longer than 18 inches at full valve opening or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any valve opening.
Flammable Gas: A gas that will burn or explode if combined with air over a wide concentration range. Examples are hydrogen, propane, butane, etc.
Flammable Liquid: A liquid that has a flashpoint below 100F and can be ignited by a spark without any preheating.
Flammable (Explosive) Limits: Indicates the explosive or flammable range of a vapor or gas; those concentrations of a vapor or gas in air, below or above which a flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. The Lower Exposure Limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration of the vapor and air mixture which will ignite before it becomes too "lean" to burn or explode. The Upper Explosion Limit (UEL) is the maximum concentration above which the concentration is too "rich" to burn or explode. LEL and UEL are given in terms of percentage by volume of gas or vapor in air.
Flammable Liquid (OSHA): A liquid having a flashpoint below 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
Flammable Solid (OSHA): A solid other than a blasting agent or explosive that is liable to cause fire through friction, adsorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited, burns vigorously and persistently.
Flashpoint: The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite under testing conditions.
Fluorides: Gaseous, solids, or dissolved compounds containing fluorine.
Fluorosis: An abnormal condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorine, characterized chiefly by mottling of the teeth.
Flush: Using pressured water to wash out or clean pipes or other containers.
Fly Ash: Non-combustible residual particles from the combustion process, carried by flue gas.
Foreseeable Emergency (OSHA): A recognized potential occurrence that could result in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical.
Formaldehyde: A colorless, pungent, irritating gas, CH2O, used chiefly as a disinfectant and preservative and in synthesizing other compounds and resins.
Fume: Airborne particulate formed by evaporation of solid materials, such as from welding.
Fume Fever: An acute condition caused by a brief high exposure to the freshly generated fumes of metals, such as lead or magnesium, or their oxides.
Fungicide: Pesticides that are used to control, prevent, or destroy fungi.
Gamma Radiation: True rays of energy contrasted with alpha and beta radiation. With properties similar to x-rays, they are the most penetrating waves of radiant nuclear energy, but can be blocked by dense materials such as lead.
Gangrene: Death of tissue combined with putrefaction.
Gas: The state of matter where the material has a low density and viscosity and the atoms/molecules diffuse to occupy all available space.
Gasification: Conversion of solid material such as coal into a gas for use as a fuel.
Gastroenteritis: Inflammation of the stomach and/or intestines.
Geiger Counter: An electrical device that detects the presence of certain types of radioactivity.
Germicide: Any compound that kills disease-causing microorganisms.
Grab Sample: A sample taken within a very short time period during which atmospheric concentration is assumed to be constant.
Grounding: Electrically connecting an object to the ground, preventing sparks and shock.
Halogen: Any group of five chemically related nonmetallic elements that includes bromine, fluorine, chlorine, iodine, and astatine.
Halon: Bromine-containing compounds with long atmospheric lifetimes whose breakdown in the stratosphere causes the depletion of ozone. Used in firefighting.
Hard Water: Alkaline water containing dissolved salts that interfere with some industrial processes and prevent soap from lathering.
Hazard Communication: Recognition and evaluation of hazardous materials in the workplace, accurate labeling of hazards, and effective training of employees about the proper handling and use of those hazardous materials. Also called Right To Know.
Hazard Warning: Words, pictures, symbols or a combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate form of warning which convey the hazards in the chemicals or materials in the container. Required on all hazardous materials containers.
Hazardous Chemical: Any chemical, which is an actual or potential physical or health hazard.
Hazardous Material: A material that has one or more of the following characteristics:
1. A flashpoint below 140F, closed cup, or subject to spontaneous heating.
2. Has a threshold limit value (TLV) below 500 PPM for gases and vapors, below 500 mg/M3 for fumes, and below 25 mg per cubic foot for dusts;
3. Single oral dose LD50 or below 25 mgpcf for weight;
4. Subject to polymerization which results in the release of large amounts of energy;
5. Is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent;
6. Causes first degree burns to the skin in a short time exposure, or is systematically toxic on contact with the skin; and/or
7. In the course of normal operations, may produce dust, gases, fumes, vapors, mists, or smoke which has one or more of the above characteristics.
Hazardous Materials Identification System: Labeling system which includes information such as chemical identification, acute hazard rating, long-term health hazard potential, and appropriate personal protective equipment.
Hazardous Work Area: Any building, room, space or other area at the workplace where hazardous chemicals are received, produced, stored, handled, or used and employees are present.
Hazards Analysis: Procedures involved in: 1) Listing, in sequence, the activities of job duties, 2) identifying actual or potential hazards associated with each activity, and 3) determining the possible methods to minimize or eliminate the hazards. Process may also be used in evaluating hazardous materials spills.
Hazard Warning: Any words, pictures, symbols, or combinations thereof appearing on a label or any other appropriate form of warning which conveys the hazards in the container.
Health Hazard: Anything (including certain chemicals) that, according to at least one significant scientific study, may be harmful to the health of the body. Chemicals classified as health hazards include:
2. Toxic or highly toxic agents
3. Reproductive toxins
6. Hematopoietic system effectors
7. Agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or the mucus membranes
Heavy metals: Metallic elements with high atomic weights (mercury, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and lead). They can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain.
Hematologic Disturbances: Blood disturbances.
Hematopoietic System: The system of the body that manufactures blood cells and other blood substances.
Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.
Hepatotoxin: Chemicals, which produce liver damage.
High-density polyethylene: A material that produces toxic fumes when burned. Used to make plastic bottles and other products.
Hood Capture Efficiency: The emissions from a process that are captured by a hood and are directed into the control device expressed as a percent of the total.
Human Data: Where available, epidemiological studies and case reports of adverse health effects used in considerations of an evaluation. A mandatory consideration for health hazard determinations.
HVAC: Heating, ventilation, air conditioning system.
Hydrocarbons: Compounds composed solely of hydrogen and carbon, which are the basic building blocks of all organic chemicals.
Hydrogen Sulfide: Gas emitted during organic decomposition and is also a by-product of oil refining and burning. It smells like rotten eggs and in heavy concentrations, can cause illness.
Hypergolic: Igniting upon contact of components without external aid such as a spark or a match.
Hygroscopic: Readily absorbs moisture from the air.
Hypotoxia: Insufficient oxygen, especially as applied to cells.
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