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4.1 Placing Citations
Styles of Documentation
This section gives the nuts and bolts of several common documentation styles—several styles of acknowledging sources in the course of a paper and of listing those sources at the end of, or in, the paper. When you encounter a situation not mentioned here, and that can’t be improvised from a situation that is mentioned, consult one of the more exhaustive manuals listed on pages 59–60, or your instructor. Note that some instructors may want you to use a style other than one of those described here, or want you to double space your list of references (as publications require for submitted manuscripts): be sure to ask.
Also note that in the following pages, as in the preceding, underlining is the equivalent of italicizing, as a method of indicating separately published titles. Use one or the other method, not both.
4.1 Placing Citations In Your Paper
4.1a Footnote or Endnote Style
To follow the note style recommended by the Chicago Manual of Style, put your reference number whenever possible at the end of your sentence, outside the period and outside a close-quotation mark that follows the period:
Diamond suggests that humans share the same “unconscious instinct” that makes birds give dangerous displays.7
Diamond suggests that humans share the same “unconscious instinct.”1
For clarity, however, you may occasionally need to put the reference number within your sentence (where it follows any punctuation except a dash, which it precedes) or to put one number within the sentence and another at the end:
Although Jared Diamond suggests that humans share the same “unconscious instinct” that makes birds give dangerous displays,6 others have suggested a more political explanation for recklessness.7
To reduce the number of notes, you may cite more than one source with a single reference number, but always make clear what source pertains to what part of your sentence, using the “for/see” formula or some other. You might cite Diamond and the “others” together at the end of the sentence above, and document them in a single note:
7. See Diamond’s The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal (San Diego: Harper Collins, 1992), 192–204. For a more psychological account see Melvin Konner, Why the Reckless Survive—and Other Secrets of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 1990), esp. 133–37.
Citing a source for a second or subsequent time, you need only give the author’s surname and a page reference:
8. Diamond, 196.
If you are using several sources by the author, use an abbreviated title as well:
8. Diamond, Third, 196.
(a) If you reproduce an artwork or illustration from a source, refer your reader to the figure or illustration number you have given it (see figure 4) and cite the source immediately below the item by artist, title, date, and source data:
Illus. 4. Käthe Kollwitz, Home Worker, 1910 (charcoal 16” x 22”, Los Angeles County Museum). In Women Artists 1550–1950, ed. Anne Sutherland Harris and Linda Nochlin (New York: Knopf, 1981), 264.
If you reproduce a chart, graph, statistical table, map, or other illustration from a source, use the procedure described on page 41. If you have a bibliography, list an artwork by the surname of the artist, a chart or graph by the source text’s author.
(b) If you refer to a specific passage in a literary work, clarity may require you to give the location of the passage in your sentence (at line 23 he writes. . .). If not, give this location at the end of your note. For a poem of more than 12 lines, give the relevant line number or numbers, using l. for “line” and ll. for “lines.” For a specific passage in a novel or long poem, give the chapter or section number before giving the page number (Ch. 14, p. 26). For a passage in a play in verse, instead of page number give act, scene, and line numbers, separated by a period:
6. Hamlet, ed. Harold Jenkins (London: Methuen, 1982), 3.1.56–68.
(c) If you are citing an online source, after author and title give the date of posting or last revision (or n.d.), the URL in angle brackets, and in parentheses the date you accessed the document to cite it. For a long document that gives no page numbers, use the section, paragraph, or line number instead.
27. Conrad J. Bladey, “The Potato Famine in History,” 12 May 1995,
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