The annals of university “dunărea de jos“ of galaţI




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THE ANNALS OF UNIVERSITY “DUNĂREA DE JOS“ OF GALAŢI

FASCICLE VIII, TRIBOLOGY 2011 (XVII) Issue 1

ISSN 1221-4590




TRIBOLOGICAL TESTING PROGRAMS

FOR UHMWPE MATRIX COMPOSITES


Simona DOBRE, Elena CIMPARIU


University “Dunarea de Jos”of Galati, ROMANIA

simona.dobre@yahoo.fr


ABSTRACT

This paper aims to review the knowledge on materials and tribology of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites. […]Test conditions are differing, depending on requirements of the actual application, specialists trying to get an acceptable compro-mise between having close similarity to actual functioning regimes and the need of simple shapes and small dimensions as required by advanced investigation equipments. […]


KEYWORDS: Tribology, Testing Program, UHMWPE Matrix, Composite.



1. INTRODUCTION


Polymers play an important role in mechanical and materials engineering, for their easy manufacturing, low unit cost, and also for their excellent tribological performances, high corrosion resistance, low friction and damping of noise and vibrations [1, 2]. A few polymers have valuable tribological properties and many researches are directed towards this relatively limited number of polymers [3].

The structure of composite materials is presented in figure 1.




Fig. 1. Systematic illustration of the structural components of composite materials [2].


Among the various types of composites, the polymer composite materials (PMCs) are most frequently used nowadays.

Polymer composites are known for excellent combination of mechanical properties, chemical resistance; damping vibration, coupled with tribological properties such as self-lubrication, low noise emission etc. [4]. The main applications […].


2. REINFORCING MATERIALS FOR

UHMWPE COMPOSITES


Many UHMWPE composites have been proposed by different research teams. UHMWPE can be both matrix and reinforcing material, plain, fiber or powder form.

Diatomic gas H2 can dissolve itself into the fluid steel in atomic form [5], [6], [7]:




(1)


The equillibrium constant of the reaction is:




(2)


where:

- thermodynamic activity of the hydrogen dissolved in steel;

- parameter of thermodynamic activity of hydrogen.


2.1. Organic Reinforcing Materials for UHMWPE Composites


Overall results indicate that the self-reinforced UHMWPE composites may be good for biomedical applications. In order to decrease the wear rate of UHMWPE, one possible solution is the mixing of the two components, the UHMWPE powder and UHMWPE fiber. […].

The properties of UHMWPE/carbon related to other frequently used engineering polymers could be find in [8, 9] and a comparison of some mechanical properties of various commercial high performance fibers and 5 wt% MWCNT (multiwalled carbon nanotubes)/UHMWPE fibers could be found in the paper [1]. The incorporation of inorganic particles or

fibers in the matrix of UHMWPE is an effective method to enhance wear resistance. […]

Glass fibres are widely used in polymer matrix composites due to their good mechanical properties and relatively low price. Glass fibres are used mainly to increase the mechanical strength, especially tensile strength, and also to improve compression strength and temperature-dependent dimensional stability. […]

The matrix UHMWPE composites may include metallic fillers such as: copper, bronze, titanium, zirconium and others. Metallic fillers increase thermal conductivity, acting as conductive path to conduct heat and electric in composites materials. The metal powders offer well defined morphology […].

In Table 1 a collection of published data about UHMWPE composites is presented.


Table 1. Collection of published data about UHMWPE composite.


Matrix and reinforcement

Wt %

Reinforced Composites

References

UHMWPE/carbon, CB

UHMWPE with 1, 8wt% CB

Reinforced carbon

[4, 6, 10, 11]

UHMWPE/CNTs

UHMWPE nanocomposites containing up to 10wt% of nanofibres

Reinforced carbon

[1, 5, 11]

UHMWPE/MWNT

UHMWPE fibers with 1, 5wt% MWCNT

Reinforced carbon

[6, 8, 9]

UHMWPE/SWNT

UHMWPE with 2, 5, 10 wt% SWNT

Reinforced carbon

[2]

UHMWPE/UHMWPE, PP, PET, nano-epoxy, HDPE, MMWPE, PP, etc.

UHMWPE/PP ratio (80:20) [4]

blends of 70wt% poly(vi nylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 30% of UHMWPE [6]

Reinforced polymer

[3, 4, 5, 6]

UHMWPE/CB

UHMWPE/MoS2

UHMWPE/PFPE

UHMWPE/CB+PFPE

UHMWPE composites filled with solid lubricants, MoS2 (3.3, 5wt%), and CB (3.3, 5 wt%), and one liquid lubricant, PFPE (1, 2, 5wt%), and also UHMWPE/2.5% CB+2% PFPE

Reinforced lubricants

[3, 8, 7]

UHMWPE/glass, ceramic microspheres

UHMWPE reinforced with 0.15, 0.25wt% glass microspheres

Reinforced ceramic

[4, 6]

UHMWPE/wollastonite

UHMWPE composites filled with wollastonite fibers of aspect ratios 10:1, 15:1 and 20:1 have been prepared. [7]

Reinforced ceramic

[7, 9]

UHMWPE/HA

The composite PE10/HA20 contains 10% UHMWPE, 20% HA, and 70% NaCl and the composite PE20/HA20 contains 20% UHMWPE, 20% HA, and 60% NaCl.

[5, 8]

Reinforced ceramic

[4, 5, 8]

UHMWPE/BaTiO3

UHMWPE were filled with 25 wt% BaTiO3

Reinforced ceramic

[10, 11]

Nano-TiO2/UHMWPE

UHMWPE were filled with 1, 3, 6, 10 wt% nano-TiO2 powder

Reinforced ceramic

[7, 8]




3. TRIBOLOGICAL TESTING PROGRAMS FOR UHMWPE MATRIX COMPOSITES ON PIN-ON-DISC CONTACT TYPE


Tribological properties of polymer materials are traditionally tested on small-scale test rigs because of cost-efficiency and flexibility [5]. […]





Fig. 6. Tipical variation of COF in a pin-on-disc test with a flat ended cylindrical pin.


5. CONCLUSIONS


In conclusion, new technologies require materials showing properties improved performance. In this context, composites and especially nanocomposites are suitable materials to meet the emerging demands arising from technologic advances. […]

The results of this study indicate that UHMWPE and UHMWPE composites are extensively studied and improved after being tested in very different test conditions. […]


REFERENCES


  1. Alfredo Campo E., 2008, Selection of polymeric materials. How to select design properties from different standards, Ed. William Andrew Inc.

  2. Park S.-J. et at., 2005, Preparation and characterization of layered silicate-modified Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene nanocomposites, J. Ing. Eng. Chem., 11 (4), pp. 561-566.

  3. Peltzer M. et at., 2007, Thermal characterization of UHMWPE stabilized with natural antioxidants, J. of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 87 (2), pp. 493-497.

  4. Arjula S. et at., 2008, Solid-particle erosion behavior of high-performance thermoplastic polymers, J. of Materials Science, 43 (6), pp. 1757-1768.

  5. Avanzini A., 2005, Mechanical characterization and modeling of polymeric materials for high-pressure sealing, Society for Experim. Mechanics, 45 (1), pp. 53-64.

  6. Silvy R.P. et at., 2009, Silica functionalized with Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes for electrically conductive fillers in thermoplastics, SAMPE 2009 - Baltimore, pp. 13-18.

  7. Sinha S.K., Briscoe B.J., 2009, Polymer tribology, Ed. Imperial College Press.

  8. Markova, L., et al., 2005, Condition Monitoring and Predictive Analysis of Tribosystems by Wear Debris, Practicing Oil Analysis, 3 (March), http://machinerylubrication.com/Read/717/condition-monitoring-predictive-analysis-of-tribosystems-by-wear-debris (2010.09.12).

  9. Bakshi S.R. et at., 2007, The nanomechanical and nanoscratch properties of MWNT reinforced Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Poly-ethylene coatings, J. of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 59 (7), pp. 50-53.

  10. Căpitanu L., Iarovici A., Onişoru J., 2003, On polyamide and polycarbonate composite materials behaviour under dry friction, The Annals of University “Dunărea de Jos“ of Galaţi, Fascicle VIII, Tribology, pp.74-80.

  11. Chae-Woong Cho et at., 2006, Microstructural evolution of BaTiO3/ultrahigh-molecular-weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) cast body: influence of free organic additive in a nonaqueous medium, J. of Electroceramics, 17 (2-4), pp. 345-349.




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