Скачать 450.79 Kb.
Towards Greater International Cooperation in Materials Research
Materials are more than mere components in technology; rather, the basic properties of materials frequently define the capabilities, potential, reliability and limitations of technology itself. Improved materials and processes will play an ever increasing role in efforts to improve energy efficiency, promote environmental infrastructure systems. Advances in materials science and engineering, therefore, enable progress across a broad range of scientific disciplines and technological areas with dramatic impacts on society.
Continued progress in materials science and engineering is increasingly dependent upon collaborative efforts between several different disciplines, as well as closer coordination among funding agencies and effective partnerships involving universities, industry and national laboratories. In addition, because of the rapidly growing interdependence of the world’s economies, partnerships are not only important at the national level but from an international point of view as well.
With this in mind, the European Commission and the US National Science Foundation co-sponsored a workshop in the area of materials research designed to help stimulate enhanced collaboration among materials researchers and create networks linking the participating countries. The workshop was held on December 12-14, 1996 in Leuven Belgium and was attended by eminent scientists and engineers from the European Union countries and the United States. Their excellent report is attached. We would like to thank all the workshop participants and in particular the workshop co-chairs Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Horst Czichos, Prof. Bertrand Escaig, Prof. Dr. ir Jean Pierre Celis, Dr Praveen Chaudhari, Dr Mark Ketchen, Prof. Venkatesh Narayanamurti and Dr James C. Williams for the considerable effort that went into the preparation of the report.
Since the workshop took place, the European Community and the United States signed on December 5, 1997 a draft agreement for the scientific and technological cooperation in the materials sciences among several other areas of cooperative activities. Thus, the workshop report comes at a highly opportune time.
From time to time we expect to communicate with the materials research communities in the European Union countries and in the United States as we jointly work toward implementation of the recommendations contained in the workshop report.
European Commission-National Science Foundation Workshop on Materials for Future Technologies
Report of the Workshop on Materials for Future Technologies
Executive Summary 4
General Summary – Background 5
Workshop Topics 6
Technical Conclusions 8
Attributes of International Cooperation 8
Proposed Mechanisms for Cooperation 8
Conclusions and Recommendations 10
Report of the Working Groups
Information and Communication 12
Environment and Packaging 24
Civil Infrastructure 28
List of Participants 32
Working Group Members 46
European Commission-National Science Foundation Workshop on Materials for Future Technologies December 12-14, 1996
Scientific research is complex and expensive. Technology can be advanced by collaborative research, in which expertise in a number of fields is brought together to solve a particular problem. Institutions are now reaching out to expand that collaboration between researchers in the United States and the European Union, spurred by the increasing globalization of the economy and the concomitant challenges that this poses for technology and economic progress.
To that end, staff members of the European Commission (EC) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) hosted a meeting December 12-14 in Leuven, Belgium. Workshop participants were eminent researchers in the field of materials science and engineering, charged with identifying specific areas for fruitful US-European cooperation in the interdisciplinary field.
There are benefits to be gained from such international cooperation. The key is to exploit the complementary aspects of the systems and cultures on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean to produce a result that cannot easily be accomplished by either side alone. There is now a strong will to cooperate, which increases the likelihood that the objective can be achieved. Materials research is a logical area for some of the earliest interactions because of its inherent interdisciplinarity and crossing of traditional boundaries, as well as the significant amount of funding devoted to the area by both partners.
Several mechanisms were identified that could promote long-term international cooperation:
· The EC and the NSF should encourage and develop means for the collection and dissemination of information on materials research enterprises.
· The EC and the NSF should conduct a pilot for international cooperation in materials research consisting of several coupled projects.
· The European and US materials research communities should be more proactive in strengthening existing and finding new ways for cooperation, such as virtual centers. They should also document those ways that work well as a blueprint to others.
European Commission-National Science Foundation
Report of the Workshop on Materials for Future Technologies December 12-14, 1996
A workshop on Materials for Future Technologies (see Figure 1), sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) was held December 12-14 in Leuven, Belgium.
Workshop participants (see Appendix I) were charged with identifying specific areas for fruitful US-European cooperation in the interdisciplinary field of materials research.
Workshop chairs were: Dr. Praveen Chaudhari (IBM), Dr. Mark B. Ketehen (IBM), Prof. Venkatesh Narayanamurti (University of California, Santa Barbara), Dr. James C. Williams (General Electric), Prod Dr. Horst Czichos (BAM-Berlin), Prod Bernard Escaig (University of Lille), and Prod J.-P. Celis (Catholic University, Leuven).
At the end of the meeting the group made recommendations to the NSF and the EC to help the two bodies develop increased cooperation in the international research community.
The two organizations have stated that there should be increased interaction between the United States and the European Union in scientific areas. The mandate arises from the increasing globalization of the economy and the concomitant challenges that this poses for research technology and economic competitiveness.
There are benefits to be gained from such international cooperation. The key is to exploit the complementary aspects of the systems and cultures on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean to produce a result that cannot easily be accomplished by either side alone. There is now a strong will to cooperate, which increases the likelihood that the objective can be achieved.
Materials research is a logical area for some of the earliest interactions because of its inherent interdisciplinarity and crossing of traditional boundaries, as well as the significant amount of funding devoted to the area by both partners.
The workshop explored research opportunities directed toward expanding materials limits with the purpose of contributing to the development of new and improved technologies in six areas:
· Information and Communication
· Environment and Packaging
· Civil Infrastructure
The agenda for the meeting is shown in Appendix II, and reports from each working group are included in this report.
On the first day, the workshop featured a plenary talk in each area by a prominent representative from the industrial sector. These talks described the scientific and engineering horizons and barriers and challenges for advancing the materials contributions to the technology under consideration. These talks focused on the state of the technology; economic and other barriers to the introduction of new or competing technologies; major technological issues faced by the industry in the next few to 15 years; and major scientific questions whose answers could lead to dramatic improvement in the technology.
While the topics discussed span an extremely wide range of materials, from materials perceived to be "high tech" such as electronic and photonic materials, to "commodities" such as plastics and concrete (which may nevertheless be produced by very modem and complex technology), there were a number of themes linking all of the groups. One link is provided by the very large infrastructure associated with each technological area -either that needed to produce the product (e.g., semiconductor fabrication facilities, which now cost in excess of $1 billion to build), or the sheer amount of materials already in use by society (e.g., more than $6 trillion of concrete in roads in the US).
The magnitude of the investment in the infrastructure for each area imposes a considerable degree of conservatism on the industry making use of it, ranging from the extreme reluctance on the part of semiconductor manufacturers to introduce new materials into their production lines to the legitimate safety concerns surrounding the introduction of new materials and processes into automobiles, airplanes and civil structures. Cost is a major driver in all of the industries considered, with the result that technically superior materials and processes will not be incorporated into an industrial process unless it can be done in a cost-effective manner.
On the second day, there were six parallel working group sessions, one in each technology area, which built on the plenary talks. These groups debated a number of questions, including:
· Where is long-term research needed? Which of these needs is most important?
· What are the proper roles of the various sectors (government, university and industry) in this research?
· What role(s) should the NSF and the EC play in this research?
· What are the opportunities for inter-institutional and international cooperation? How can this be accomplished?
During the debate, a number of important aspects were considered, including materials issues (synthesis, processing properties, etc.); metrology and equipment needs; existing barriers to new and/or improved technologies (standards, industrial practice, economics, etc.); the role of theory/simulation; manufacturability; regulations (e.g. environmental, safety and health) and other societal issues.
On the third and final day, the technical conclusions and recommendations of the first two days were summarized and recorded. There is basis for suggesting programs in areas that proceed on incremental improvement of the current technologically important materials and new concepts to supply materials for future technologies.
Several themes emerged from the six technology areas leading to the identification of four pilot thematic areas for international cooperation:
(1) Looking at current industrial practices, there is a need for continuous materials and processing understanding and improvement. This would include (but not be limited to): a science-based approach to aging and reliability involving an appropriate mix of theory and experiment; life cycle engineering including simulations of the complex interrelationships between diverse materials properties at length scales ranging from the atomic to the macroscopic; failure mode analysis for function improvement, including the development of non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques.
(2) All of the technological areas have a need for improved interface science, ranging from the fundamental understanding of the structure and behavior of interfaces to their control.
(3) Social responsibility demands the development of environmentally benign materials and processes in all areas of technology.
(4) Finally, there is a need for long-term research on materials and processes for technologies of the future, which would include smart materials, structures and processes, multifunctional materials, and hybrids at all length scales.
Attributes of International Cooperation
Any international cooperation in these areas must have several attributes. Each group or institution participating in the collaboration should have strengths that are complementary to those of the other participants. There should be the potential for long-term impact of the work.
Multidisciplinarity is a term that is traditionally associated with materials research, but, in this case, it should be enhanced even further. For example, there should be strong communication and interaction among researchers working in different technological areas on related problems (e.g., sensors, materials development, cost-effective materials processes, etc.).
Each cooperative agreement should involve not only academic and government researchers, but at least one industry should be included as a full partner in the work. Each arrangement should have a strong educational component, likely involving the exchange of personnel (especially students) among the participating institutions. Students of diverse backgrounds should be prepared to participate in the global economy as a result of these arrangements. Each collaboration should also contribute in other ways to the societal infrastructures.
Proposed Mechanisms for Cooperation
Several mechanisms were identified that could promote long-term international cooperation. The cooperation should be funded by a separately-identified program, not just as a possibility covered under existing programs. Collaboration could be launched by means of workshops or foresight meetings, whose product would be a proposal for more substantive interaction. Centers already funded separately by the NSF (e.g., Science and Technology Centers, Engineering Research Centers, or Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers) could collaborate with their counterparts in the EU.
"Virtual" centers could be formed around a task spread over a number of locations. Interactions could take the form of "round robins" - sample exchanges to establish materials properties or qualify techniques or computer simulation codes. Small projects involving several researchers from a small number of institutions should be possible, as should short, dedicated projects that involve a brief visit of one researcher to another institution for a particular task.
Databases of materials properties were identified as a need by all of the groups. International cooperation could lead to sharing databases or developing them jointly.
Finally, major facilities such as synchrotrons and neutron sources could serve as a focal point for fostering international cooperation, possibly involving government agencies beyond the EC and the NSF. Figure 2 shows a flow chart of the evolving nature of cooperation in research.
|European Law of Religion – organizational and institutional analysis of national systems and their implications for the future European Integration Process||Of the Information and Communication Technologies (ict) Theme of the European Commission ’ s 7 th Framework|
|National Science Foundation||National Science Foundation Projects: Technological Literacy|
|A healthier Future For All Australians – Final Report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission – June 2009||Prepared for the National Science Foundation by Thomas a furness III, pi, Director, Human Interface Technology Laboratory|
|There is no national science just as there is no national multiplication table; what is national is no longer science|
А. Kozhevnikova, Assoc. Prof of the Department of English for Humanities (Samara State University), Member of Board of Experts for...
|Alfred p. Sloan foundation фонд альфреда п. Слоуна направление|
Наука и техника, высшее образование, экономика, математика, физика, проблемы женщин, иммиграции. Science and Technology, Standard...
|Coming in to the ‘house’: the arrival in the european commission of directors from the new member states|
«Intégrer la "maison" communautaire. L'arrivée au sein de la Commission des directeurs issus des nouveaux Etats membres,» Revue française...
|Submission to the Commission on the Future|