1. Functional Styles in Modern English

Название1. Functional Styles in Modern English
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Parts of Speech are the grammatical classes of words classified on the basis of three criteria: a\ semantic – the categorical meaning of the part of speech e.g.: the generalized meaning of substance \ nouns \, property or quality \ adjectives \, process \ verbs \, number \ numerals \, indication or deixis \ pronouns \ , secondary property \ adverb \ ; b\ formal - specific grammatical and lexico-grammatical \formal \ characteristics of the class; c\ functional - syntactical characteristics of the class \ typical combinability and part of the sentence positions \.

3. The Noun/ The Generally recognized category of the Noun is the category of number presented by the opposition of the singular form \weak, unmarked \ versus plural \ the strong marked member \ The Grammatical form of the plural number is manifested by the morpheme of the plural number realized in several allomorhpfs: -s,-es, -en, zero morpheme and sound alternation \. The Main problem of the theory of the Number is the fact that many nouns are not capable of forming this category. They make up large grops of nouns called Pluralia Tantum \ the names of games double part objects, sciences, collective notions… \ and Singularia Tantum \ abstract notions, nouns of material…\

The solution of the problem is suggested by the Russian linguist Isachenko who introduced the notion of discreteness to understand the complex relations of the semantics of the word and the grammatical category of number.

The category of gender in the English language is purely semantic as it is the intrinsic part of the lexical meaning of the word and is shown by different lexical means \ man, woman. A he-policeman, a she-policeman, a tiger – a tigress \

The Category of Case causes controversy as to the number of cases from 5 \ M Deutchbein, H. Sweet - Vocative, Accusative, Dative, Genetive, Common Case \ to the existence of the category in the English language, the latter being supported by the fact that ‘s can modify word-combinations and sentences and only the restricted number of words \ nouns denoting living beings, nouns denoting time and distance \ can enter the category

4. The verb is the most complex part of speech due to the role it performs in the expression of the predicative function of the sentence. The verb form identifies the type of connection between the situation named in the utterance and the reality. The complex character of the verb is in the intricate structure of the verb categories and its subclass subdivisions and its profoundly different sets of forms: finite and non-finite

The general categorial meaning of the verb is process presented dynamically i.e. developed in time. The main syntactical functions and combinability differ with the fininte and non- finite verbs due to the transitive character of the latter. Finite forms perform the function of the predicate, non-finite perform alongside this function can perform the function of the adverbial modifier, the object, the subject and even the attribute

The classification of verbs into: a\ semi-notional \modal, auxiliary, link, aspect verbs \ and functional; b\ actional and statal; c\terminative or “limitive”, non-terminative and double or mixed; c\ transitive or commplementive(monocomplementive, bicomplementive and adverbial complementive verbs) and intransitive or uncomplementive (personal and impersonal)

The non-finite forms of the verb (verbals or verbids) are specific hybrid forms, combining verbal characteristics with the characteristics of the other parts of speech verbal and nominal with the infinitive and gerund, verbal and adjectival for participles I and II. Hence the functions in the sentence and the main categorial differences. The infinitive and gerund retain aspect, voice and time correlation characteristics while their main syntactical functions are pronominal. The participles retain voice and time correlation characteristics while the main syntactical functions are attributive. The specific functions of the verbals are predicative consructions: Objective – infinitive, gerundial and particilial ( with participle I ) or Complex Object, Subjective coostructions- infinitive, and Absolute Participial Constructions with both the participles.

The Categories of number and person in reference to verbal forms are treated athe following way: traditionally they are recognisedas existing categoties though the mohologically they show only the the third person singular and its general couterpart. The newr and more consistant approach \ M. Y. Blokh\ treats these forms in unity with the personal-numeric forms of the subject, the main indicator of the numerric personal relations, being the sybject, while the grammatical rudimentary indficators pf number and person in the fininte form of the verb obviously perform a junctional function in the manifistation of predicative relations.

The Category of Tense and the corresponding system of tenses in the English language arouses great controversy as to the number of tenses and to the criteria of their classification/ The most common view recognizing three tenses : present, past and future represented by the triple oppositions of three grammatical forms

\ B.A.Ilyish The Structure of Modern English, A.I.Smirnitsky The Morphology of the English Language… \ reveals the psycological perception of objective time.

According to the second point view the category of tense or verbal time is subdivided into two temporal categories: the first, the category of primary time - presenting absolute time characteristics and correspondingly “primary” tenses - present and past; the second – presenting non-absolute relative time characteristics, the category of prospective time or the category of prospect represented by the opposition of future-non-future forms\ which makes an attempt at the explanation of the complex essense of the Future in the Past Tense \.

The adherents of the third pointy of view recognise only two tenses in English – present and past – reguarding the “shall \ will form” as modal \ L.S.Barchudarov Essays in Morphology of Modern English\/ The term ‘Coloured Future” wide-spread in English and American Grammar textbooks \Quirk R. Grammar of contemporary English \ reaveal a similar approach to the phenomenon/

The next aproach treats recognises more than three tenses including the category of tense into aspect and time correlation systems \ H.Sweet – complete and and incomplete tenses, continuous or point-tenses; O.Jesperson –expanded and non-expanded tenses, ante-ptreterite,present and future, preterite, present and future, post-preterite, present ad future. A similar approach is worked out by the Russian linguist I.P.Ivanova Вид и время в современном английском языке\ representing the tense-aspest system as a unity of grammatical forms manifesting aspect continuous and indefinite and tense distinctions in the form of a special blend of the two.

The Category of Aspect is traditionally treated as represented by the opposition of continuous \ durative, progressive\ aspect and non-continuous \indefinite, non-durative, recurrant \ aspect. Some linguists refer to the category of aspect the category of time correlation alongside the category of development \\ M. Y.Blohk \. O.Curme A Grammar of the English Language singles out 4 aspects: durative, poit-action, terminative and iterative aspects on the basis of the semantics of the verbs showing different modes of performing an action

The Category of Time Correlation or the Category of Order was singled out of the general tense system not log ago as the general controdiction of the tense and precedence or resultative meanings seemed to be quite obvious. Some linguists though still treat it inside the category of tense or the category of aspect \ M.A.Blokh - the category of retrospective coordination or the category of retrospect emphasizing its aspective function.

The Category of Mood is viewed through the broad conception of Modality which is defined as a manifistation of the relation of the situation presented by the utterance and the objective reality/ Modality is the core of the predicative structure of the sentence and in this aspect its is one of the most important verbal categories. It is represented by the opposition of the Indicative Mood and the group of Oblique Moods including Subjunctive I, II Suppositional and Conditional Mood . The Imperative Mood is recognized only by some linguists.

In the classification presented in the conception of M.Y. Blohk Subjunctive, opposed to the Indicative is the integral mood of unreality. It presents two sets of forms according to the structural division of verbal tenses into present and past. The functional subsystems of the subjunctive are: the spective – the mood of attitudes, and the conditional – the mood apprasing the cause-conditional relations. Each of them falls into two subsystems so there are : the pure spective, the modal spective, the stipulative conditional, the consective conditional.

The Category of Voice shows the direction of the process as regards the participants of the situation reflected in the syntactic construction. Thus the category is viewed as a morphosyntactical category. The morphological opposition is represented by the thepassive form, the strong marked member , and the active form, the week member which expresses “non-passivity”. Some linguists raise the problem of secondary or medial voices: the reflexive voice – “he shaved himself”; the reciprocal voice – “ they recognized each other; the middle voice – “the door opened” \B. A. Ilyish, M.Y. Blohk \ and consider them cases of neutralizing rduction of the voice opposition.

5. The categorial semantics of the adjective is the meaning of the property of a substance. Adjectives have a specific combinability with nouns in post and occasionally in postposition, with link-verbs in preposition, with modifying adverbs. Adjectives are divided into relative and qualitative, the latter traditionally described as the group forming degrees of comparison, though it seems that the rule has a lot of exceptions in English, so the new division into evaluative and specificative \ M.Y.Blokh\.

Statives or the words of the category of state are grouped into a separate part of speech as: a\ they denote state, not quality, b\ have the formal part-of-speech marker the prefix a-, c\ have no caregory of degrees of comparison, d\ have no right-hand combinability with the noun \ B.S.Khaimovich, B.I.Rogovskaya – A Course in English Grammar\. At the same time statives are very close to adjectives as: a\ their meaning may be classified as “stative propety”, b\ it shares the adjectival function of the predicative and c\ part of te combinability, d\ they are not altogethet outside the category of degrees of comparison e.g. more aware, e\statives are not so numerous as to form a separate part of speech – their total amount is a coulpe of dozen \ M.Y.Blohk \.

The Adverb is a word expressing propety of an action or property of another property or circumstances in which the action occurs. Adverbs are characterized by the combinability with the verbs, adjectives and words of the adjectival character, so their function is to express different adverbial modifiers. Adberbs can refer to the whole situation, in this case they are called “situation-determinants”. Adverbs are commonly divided into qualitative, quantitative and cicumstantial.

The Pronoun is the part of speech having the categorial meaning of indication or deixis. It is the closed for membership class or the class presenting the narrow set of various status with the corresponding formal propeties of categorial changeability and wordbuilding. The pronouns have either sustantival or adjectival functions for different sets. The Pronouns are classified into: personal, possesive. demostrative, indefinite, relative, negative

The Numeral has the categorial meaning of number \ cardinal and ordinal\ / It presents the narrow set of simple numerals and the specific forms of composition for compound numerals and suffixal forms of derivation for ordinal numerals. It performs the functions of numeric attribute and numeric sustantive.

Semi-notional parts of speech or function words are words of incomplete nominative meaning and non-self-dependant, mediatory functions in the sentence.To the basic functional series of words in English belong: the article, the preposition, the conjunction, the particle, the modal word, the interjection. The preposition expresses the dependencies and interdependencies of substantive referents. The conjunction expresses the connections of phenomena. The particles have both specifying and limiting meanings. Modal words express the attitude of the speaker. The interjection is the signal of emotion.

The Article expresses the specific limitation of the substantive function.\ M.Y. Blohl\. The Artcle is traditionally viewed as noun determinant expressing the meaning of definiteness- indefineteness and represented by the opposition of the definite article – the indefinite article – ‘zero” position or the meaningful absence of article. The Artcle p;ays an important part in the communicativesentence division or in the themo-rhematic structure of the sentence.

3.The Noun and its Grammatical Categories см.пункт 3

4. English as a Global Language

British English Today. Linguistic Situation. English as the national language in the UK and British Commonwealth of Nations. English as a global language. The communicative status of the English language ( according to the volume of communication, i.e. the number of speakers, its functional differentiation and its role in inter-ethnic and inter-state communication). English as one of 6 “world” languages, an official and working language of UNO, UNESCO. Changes in “the club of world languages”. Globalization and the spread of English. Characteristics of the new time language situation:

  • English as the world language ( English as the first language of 300 million people);

  • English as the national language of Great Britain, the USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand);

  • English as a language of international communication.

The geopolitical status of the English language: linguistic dominance in Western Europe and North America in context of economic and macro-political integration with the conflicting tendencies of regional federalism, cultural and political autonomy of small ethnic groups, linguistic pluralism, tolerance and to legal regulation of ethno-linguistic relations.

Historical Retrospective: Introduction of the English language into Scotland . The spread of English in Wales. Great importance of language contacts and the spread of the English language on the American continent (17th century) and in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand ( the 18th-19th centuries), in Canada, Latin America, on the Bermudas ( the 20th century).

The development of the English language in the 20th century: the spread of literary standard, semi-dialects (integration of the norms of the literary standard and dialects). Non-standard urban colloquial speech as a phenomenon, disappearing with the rise of pop culture. English pronunciation standard: RP (Received pronunciation, “received” as “accepted in the best society” ), a regionless accent in Britain. The role of mass media in the spread of national standard. English as a national language in the UK and British Commonwealth of Nations. English as a world language.

Literary Standard as a norm of correct speech; formed with elements of .fiction, scientific and publicist prose \I.V.Arnold\; as “a national and historic phenomenon”, reflecting the peculiarities of the culture and history of the people, and the situation of its formation \ N.B.Mechkovskaya\; determined by the currency, reliability of sources, (but not by logic or etimological criteria) \E.S.Istrina\. The status of the literary standard in the communicative area of the national language. The interrelation of the national standard with other non-literary ( or pre-literary) forms of the language ( dialects, koine, slang, argot, cant, etc.). Linguistic distance between literary standard and non-literary forms. Colloquial speech as part of literary standard. The spread of literry standard as a tendency of increase of “normative area” communication. Orthology ( normative stylistics) is the study of norms of correct speech. H.Fowler’s “Dictionary of Modern English Usage” (Oxford, 1929). Different levels of orthological sensitivity in the society. Functionally relevant and functionally irrelevant variation in languages. Factors, influencing the character of the literary language: “age” factor ( V.Nabokov about languages - “genius youths” and “genius masters”)* the degree of differentiation of language means as the function of time stylistic differentiation of the language as the first of the language by the society and its cultural-psychological essence; tradition ( traditional languages and languages with lost tradition); difference in linguistic ideals, the aesthetic factor. Deviations from Literary Standard (illiteracy, stylistically significant deviations, deviations due to specific circumstances of communication). Social linguistic and stylistic characterization: the unity of the national language in the variety of functional styles, the strengthening and general spread of the literary English language’s standards, the formation of the universal national standard, the intensification of language contacts.

The Notion of a Variant of the Language. The English language and its variants. Two groups of variants according to P.Trudgill, J.Hannah, A.Hughes: the English-based group (English-English, Welsh English Australian English, New Zealand English); the American Based English (United States English, Canadian English. The North American variant of the English language. British, American, Canadian and Australian variants of the English Language. English-English: changes in the standard: pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar changes.


1.Мечковская М.Б. Общее языкознание: Структурная и социальная типология языков: Учебное пособие для студентов филологических и лингвистических специальностей. – М.: Флинта: Наука,, 2001. –312с

5. Grammatical Categories of the English Verb см.пункт 3

6. The Language of Media

Mass media can be described as the extensive phrase describing television, radio, and film, newspapers and magazines, Internet, which has become a major communication resource.

It is not just the journalistic aspects of the apparatus of popular communication. The mass media often perform as the focal point of social control and the source of popular culture. Media help preserve historical events, and teach morals. Basically the commercial enterprises media can represent, frequently effect how we dress, what we buy, and how our society functions ( for additional material see Newspaper Style).

Язык СМИ. Язык и социальные манипуляции в средствах массовой информации. Связь с общественностью - «PR» - как новая социокультурная реалия. PR-коммуникация в разных культурах. Прагмалингвистические особенности «черного» PR. Лингвостилистические и социокультурные особенности манипулятивных технологий англоязычных и русскоязычных СМИ. Чередование «стандарт – экспрессия» как закономерность стиля СМИ: диапазон и формы выражения в различных культурах. «Желтая пресса»: лингвистические и социокультурные особенности в разных национальных традициях. СМИ: языковые и социокультурные стереотипы воздействия. Призывность, агитационность, лозунговость, информативность, жанровый синтез и новаторство современных СМИ. Культура и язык сквозь призму новых и традиционных жанров СМИ: ток-шоу, реалити-шоу, телемост, теледискуссия, телеопрос, телеигра – редакционная статья, КГС, репортаж, хроника, эссе, путевые заметки. Интервью: лингвистические и социокультурные особкнности

Язык рекламы. Особенности языка рекламной коммуникации в Российской и англоязычной культурах. Реклама и PR-коммуникация. Языковые неязыковые средства Языковые средства создания имиджа человека, имиджа товара, имиджа фирмы, фирменного стиля. Товарный и фирменный знаки как социокультурные и семиотические конструкты. Роль невербальных средств при создании имиджа: выражение лица и движение глаз, жесты и позы, внешний вид и одежда, предметы окружающей обстановки, использование пространства, использование времени, голосовые характеристики, тактильная коммуникация (использование прикосновений). Язык телодвижений в разных культурах. Согласование вербальных и невербальных компонентов в целях эффективности коммуникативного воздействия: текст и изображение (визуальная составляющая), текст и шрифт (метаграфемика), текст и цвет, текст и голос. Макроструктура сообщения в межкультурной коммуникации.

Advertising - the techniques and practices used to bring products, services, opinions, or causes to public notice for the purpose of persuading the public to respond in a certain way toward what is advertised. Most advertising involves promoting a good that is for sale, but similar methods are used to encourage people to drive safely, to support various charities, or to vote for political candidates, among many other examples. In many countries advertising is the most important source of income for the media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, or television stations) through which it is conducted. In the noncommunist world advertising has become a large and important service industry.

There are eight principal media for advertising. Perhaps the most basic medium is the newspaper, which offers advertisers large circulations, a readership located close to the advertiser's place of business, and the opportunity to alter their advertisements on a frequent and regular basis. Magazines, the other chief print medium, may be of general interest or they may be aimed at specific audiences (such as people interested in outdoor sports or computers or literature) and offer the manufacturers of products of particular interest to such people the chance to make contact with their most likely customers. Many national magazines publish regional editions, permitting a more selective targeting of advertisements.

In Western industrial nations the most pervasive media are television and radio. Although in some countries radio and television are state-run and accept no advertising, in others advertisers are able to buy short "spots" of time, usually a minute or less in duration. Advertising spots are broadcast between or during regular programs, at moments sometimes specified by the advertiser and sometimes left up to the broadcaster. For advertisers the most important facts about a given television or radio program are the size and composition of its audience. The size of the audience determines the amount of money the broadcaster can charge an advertiser, and the composition of the audience determines the advertiser's choice as to when a certain message, directed at a certain segment of the public, should be run.

The other advertising media include direct mail, which can make a highly detailed and personalized appeal; outdoor billboards and posters; transit advertising, which can reach the millions of users of mass-transit systems; and miscellaneous media, including dealer displays and promotional items such as matchbooks or calendars.

For an advertisement to be effective its production and placement must be based on a knowledge of the public and a skilled use of the media. Advertising agencies serve to orchestrate complex campaigns whose strategies of media use are based on research into consumer behaviour and demographic analysis of the market area. A strategy will combine creativity in the production of the advertising messages with canny scheduling and placement, so that the messages are seen by, and will have an effect on, the people the advertiser most wants to address. Given a fixed budget, advertisers face a basic choice: they can have their message seen or heard by many people fewer times, or by fewer people many times. This and other strategic decisions are made in light of tests of the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.

Companies appeal to consumers in many different ways to persuade them to buy their products. As individuals, or in small groups, list television, magazine or newspaper advertisements that use each of the techniques described below.

Advertising Technjlogies

avant garde

the suggestion that using this product puts the user ahead of the times e.g. a toy manufacturer encourages kids to be the firston their block to have a new toy


the suggestion that everybody is using the product and that you should too in order to be part of the group e.g. a credit card company quotes the number of millions of people who use their card

facts and figures

statistics and objective factual information is used to prove the superiority of the product e.g. a car manufacturer quotes the amount of time it takes their car to get from 0 to 100 k.p.h.

Glittering generalities

"weasel words" are used to suggest a positive meaning without actually really making any guanrantee e.g. a famous sports personality says that a diet product might help you to lose weight the way it helped him to lose weight

hiddden fears

the suggestion that this product will protect the user from some danger e.g. a laundry detergent manufacturer suggests that you will be embarrassed when strangers see "ring around the collar" of your shirts or blouses

Magic ingredients

the suggestion that some almost miraculous discovery makes the product exceptionally effective e.g. a pharmaceutical manufacturer describes a special coating that makes their pain reliever less irritating to the stomach than a competitor`s


the suggestion that purchasing this product shows your love of your country e.g. a company brags about its product being made in Canada and employing Canadian workers

plain folks

the suggestion that the product is a practical product of good value for ordinary people e.g. a cereal manufacturer shows an ordinary family sitting down to breakfast and enjoying their product

snob appeal

the suggestion that the use of the product makes the customer part of an elite group with a luxurious and glamorous life style e.g. a coffee manufacturer shows people dressed in formal gowns and tuxedos drinking their brand at an art gallery


words and ideas with positive connotations are used to suggest that the positive qualities should be associated with the product and the user e.g. a textile manufacturer wanting people to wear their product to stay cool during the summer shows people wearing fashions made from their cloth at a sunny seaside setting where there is a cool breeze


a famous personality is used to endorse the product e.g. a famous hockey player recommends a particular brand of skates

wit and humour

customers are attracted to products that divert the audience by giving viewers a reason to laugh or to be entertained by clever use of visuals or language

Интернет – это новый вид коммуникации, компьютерный дискурс, который существует в совершенно новых жанрах, таких как «чат», Интернет-сообщение, интрнет письмо, Интернет-реклама. Для него характерен целый ряд особенностей как в языковом аспекте, прежде всего, таких как интернет неологизмы, новые слова, появившиеся в процессе его развития.

Тексты сообщений в рамках компьютерного дискурса характеризуются структурно-семантическими и прагматическими признаками, свойственными текстам массовой коммуникации, публицистики, неформальных обсуждений проблем в рамках научных конференций и неформального межличностного общения. Специфика компьютерного дискурса состоит в избирательном комбинировании признаков, характерных для других видов и форм общения. Важными характеристиками дискурса являются связанность текста, обусловленность экстралингвистическими факторами, событийность, целенаправленность социального действия.

Компьютерное общение занимает промежуточное положение между научным стилем, основанным на принципе рациональности, и художественным, основанным на принципе эмоциональности. От первого компьютерное общение заимствует логическую последовательность в изложении фактов, развернутость высказывания, от второго - образность речи, эмоциональную окрашенность высказывания. Для компьютерного общения, характерна экспансия в сторону всех стилей, т.к. компьютерное общение имеет в себе черты бытового общения, официально-делового, научного стилей.

Русский компьютерный жаргон, являясь производным от компьютерных терминов и жаргонных слов английского языка, характеризуется большим разнообразием форм, развитыми синонимическими и словообразовательными рядами, несравненно более высокой эмоционально экспрессивной окрашенностью, чем английский. При этом основная масса слов содержит шутливо-ироническую, отрицательную оценку.

Неологизмы компьютерной коммуникации – одно из самых особых и динамично развивающихся явлений языка. Переводческая практика делает наибольший вклад в пополнение лексического состава языка перевода новыми словами, приходящими из других языков, а отсюда и словников двуязычных словарей. Что касается выбора того или иного способа передачи неологизмов, то он зависит от многих субъективных факторов, однако прежде всего необходимо стремиться к тому, чтобы эквивалент неологизму ИЯ в максимальной степени отвечал нормам и правилам ПЯ.

Совпадение объемов значений – относительно редкий случай. Гораздо чаще при подстановочном переводе происходит семантическая трансформация, т.е. слово ИЯ предается словом ПЯ, значение которого отличается своим объемом или содержанием.


полностью переведенный на цифровой код (об информации); полностью компьютеризированный

The Times, 11 Feb 1997


фильтрующий электронную почту, не пропускающий ненужные материалы (об устройстве)

Now Sendmail has added anti-spam tools to version 8.9 of the software.

Newsweek, 6 Apr 1998


программа или электронное устройство, “фильтрующее” электронную почту, отсекающее ненужные материалы, особенно рекламного характера

Netcom recently had to dismantle its anti-spam filters because of the potential for this soft of impropriety.

Economist, 1 Nov 1997


компьютерная программа, уничтожающая “компьютерные вирусы” или предохраняющая от них (обычно состоит из двух частей – поисковой и удаляющей вирусы)

And despite the quick rise of companies devoted to tackling the problem by writing “anti-viruses”, the problem is getting rapidly worse.

Guardian, 8 May 1997


разг. лишние, ненужные для пользователя компьютерные программы

Many users need only a small portion of the programs their machines were sold with; all the other "bloatware" merely slows down the PC.

Economist, 29 March 1997


получать доступ к информации, пользоваться информацией через Интернет

Software enabling users to browse the World Wide Web was, untill a couple of years ago, just the latest and most fashionable component to join together the extensive toolkit of Internet bits and pieces to be found on the hard disks of keen users.

The Times 7 May 1997


компьютерная программа, дающая доступ к информации, особенно через Интернет

With Microsoft and Netscape each spending millions of dollars to create the World`s greatest browser, it is easy for small players to be left behind.

The Times, 7 May 1997
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