1. Functional Styles in Modern English

Название1. Functional Styles in Modern English
Размер0.71 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7

1. Functional Styles in Modern English

2. Part of Speech Theory

3. Noun and its Grammatical Categories

4.Role of English as a Global language. Basic Variants of English.

5.Grammatical Categories of the English Verb

6.Peculiarities of the Language of Media

7.Theory of Phoneme and Classification of Phonemes in the English Language

8.Peculiarities of English Intonation

9.Peculiarities of Colloquial Style in Modern English

10.Business Communication in Modern English

11.Periods in the History of the English Language

12.Free Word Combinations and Set Expressions. Their Classification and Stylistic Use

13. The Word as the Central Unit of the Language

14.Synonyms and Antonyms in the English Language

15.Types of Word-Formation in Modern English

16.The Word-Stock of the English Language

17.The Semantic Structure of the Word. Polysemy. Homonymy

18.The Official Style

19. The Belles-lettres Style.

20. The Scientific Style

21. The Theory of Simple Sentence

22. The Theory of Complex Sentence

23. Text Theory in Modern Linguistics

24. Universal Laws of Language Development

25. Speech Etiquette and Language Culture

1. Функциональные стили современного английского языка

2. Теория частей речи

3. Существительное и его грамматические категории

4. Роль английского языка как одного из мировых языков Основне варианты английского языка

5. Грамматические категории современного английского языка

6. Особенности языка средств массовой информации

7. Теория фонемы. Классификация фонем в современном английском языке

8. особенности английской интонации

9. Особенности разговорного стиля в современном английском языке

10. Деловое общение в современном английском языке

11. Периодизация истории английского языка

12. Свободные словосочетания и фразеологические единицы современного английского языка. Классификация и стилистическое использование фразеологизмов

13. Слово как центральная единица языка

14. Синонимия и антонимия в современном английском языке

15. Типы словообразования в современном английском языке

16. Словарный состав современного английского языка

17. Семантическая структура слова. Полисемия.Омонимия.

18. Стиль официальных документов

19. Художественный стиль.

20. Научный стиль

21. Теория простого предложения в современном английском языке

22. Теория сложного предложения в современном английском языке

23. Теория текста в современной лингвистике

24. Универсальные законы языкового развития.

25.Англиский речевой этикет и культура речи

1. Functional Styles in Modern English

The Notion of Functional Style. Functional style as “having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication in the domain of a certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other aims and fulfill other functions in the social communicative experience of the people”\V.V.Vinogradov\. Functional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text), built up as the result of the working principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of communication in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication \ M.N.Kozhina\. The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, i.e. the tasks and aims of communication in a certain social sphere, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport).

Functional Styles as speech systems. Functional styles as styles of language and speech. The notion of ‘register’ ( similar to that of the notion of style) , as series of situational factors, which determine the use of specific language means \G.Leech\. General classification of functional styles. Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the classification of functional styles. The role of extra-linguistic factors in style studies ( the Prague Linguistic Circle). Style – forming factors of a functional style. Universal, normative-stylistic character of the style-forming factor of a functional style (emotiveness, evaluation, rationality, imagery, logic, exactness) and their difference in accordance with the purport of communication. Functional analysis of the style-forming factors of a functional style \ V. Shneider\..

Problems of the Functional Styles Classification. Reasons for recognizing the style of fiction \ the belles-lettres style \ : pros and cons. Cons: the language of fiction is multi-stylistic, not closed, it integrates other functional styles of the language, has no specific language markers; the aesthetic function the language of fiction which is expressed in special use of language means with the division of styles into artistic and non-artistic or the treatment of the belles-letters style outside the system of functional styles; in Russian it is not included in the domain of literary language due to a specific character of the literary language and the formation of the latter a under the influence of the language of fiction ( V.D.Bondaletov, L.Y.Maksimov, N.A.Mezhersky, A.K.Panfiliv, D.N.Schmelev\. Pros: the language of fiction cannot be beyond the existing system of functional styles as in spite of its multi-stylistic properties it uses only part of the inventory of the elements and units of the other styles but doesn’t express its speech systemic character and their use in the aesthetic function is very specific; it has the unity of a stylistic speech system, in spite of the author’s individuality ]V.V.Vinogradov, I.V.Arnold, R.A.Budagov,I.R.Gaplerin, B.N.Golovin, A.K.Dolinin,, E.G.Risel\. So “ if functional styles should be treated as norms of speech composition there are no objections to treating the belles-letter style as one of the functional styles, in spite of its stylistic heterogeneity, the style of any text has different stylistic meanings. If we suppose that a functional style is identified on the basis of the sphere of communication and its main function, its complexity and heterogeneity shouldn’t present an obstacle” \ A.K.Dolinin\.

Reasons for singling out the newspaper style in the system of functional styles \I.V.Arnold\. Newspaper style as a subsystem of publicist style \M.N.Kozhina\. Newspaper and publicist sub-styles of the so-called ”informational style” Functional style as a historical category. The style of poetry in the English language in the epoch of classicism (17th -18th centuries) with special norms of poetic language – the choice of vocabulary, morphological forms and syntactic construction. The priority of abstract, bookish, high-flown words ( ardours, glories abundance of stylistic devices, archaic grammatical forms (thee, thy, doth, etc.), perfect regularity of rhyming, rhythmic, metre, syntactic, compositional and other formal patterns dependence on the canon. Aesthetism, priority of exquisite taste, sensible and noble ideals – proclaimed in the poem “Poetic Art” by Niccolo Bualo. The spread of French classical traditions in Great Britain.

The Belles-lettres Style. Aesthetic function as the main function of the belles-lettres style. Aesthetics as one the most important elements of human culture. Aesthetic activity as creative activity in accordance with the “laws of beauty”. Social determination of aesthetic vision of the world (social interpretation of the of aesthetics). The objective grounds for of aesthetics discovered in the existence of the world of reality ( symmetry, rhythm, harmony, integrity, regularity, expediency, optimization). Artistic creation as a special form of cognition and exploration of reality: syncretism of cognitive, evaluative, communicative, practical activities. Art as the objective basis of artistic activity. Works of art as integration of creative activity and perception. Art as self-reflection and “code” of culture. Other functions: educational, informational, hedonistic (entertaining), evaluative. Stylistic peculiarities of the belles-lettres style: imagery, unity and indivisibility of artistic form and contents, completeness and integrity (hierarchy and systematic interaction of different levels of the belles-lettres text ), artistic imagery produced by speech concreteness, stylistic integrity and multi-stylistic variation, (introduction of elements of other styles, e.g. of the colloquial style in the aesthetic function into the belles-lettres style), emotionality and evaluation, emphasis, and uniqueness. Sub-styles of the belles-lettres style: poetry, prose, drama. Poetic genres: ballad, ode, pastoral, sonnet, elegy, limerick, epigram, etc. Genres in prose: a story, a short story, a novel, etc. Genres in drama: comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue, dramatic dialogue. Stylistic difference of texts belonging to various sub-styles and genres, literary trends, artistic methods, (romanticism, realism, sentimentalism, etc.), displaying different types of presentation ( narration, description), points of view of the speaker, ( “I-speaking”, fairy-tale speaking), topics, ideas, compositional arrangements, systems of imagery, the authors’ ideostyles, presence or absence of stylization. Ideostyles. Language means of the belles-lettres style:

  • phonetic means - sound reiteration, onomatopoeia (sound imitation), alliteration, euphony, consonance, dissonance. Rhyme, rhythm and metre in poetry, the notion of rhythm in prose;

  • vocabulary – priority of concrete words as ‘artistic speech concretization ’, unlimited choice of vocabulary (including non-literary means, jargon and slang words), multi-stylistic character, wealth of synonyms and variety of vocabulary, developed polysemy, no limits in the use of words, which belong to different functional stylistic groups of vocabulary, stylistic resources of ‘combinatory semantics” of language units, normative and irregular combinatory patterns, decorative and other functions of phraseology, decomposition of phraseology, rich, genuine imagery, the use of figures of speech or lexical stylistic devices, as a unique textual system;

  • grammatical means of the language: in morphology a variety and wealth of stylistic effects of morphological forms and categories ‘ for expressing ‘artistic speech concretization ’ (deicsis, specific use of aspect and temporal meanings of the verb, ‘verbal speech and plot development’ ( increase in the role and currency of the verb, special use of morphological categories of number, case, degrees of comparison for emphatic and emotive purposes; in syntax a variety and wealth of syntactical constructions, colloquial speech stylization. Means of expressive syntax: inversion, parallelism, antithesis, parcellation, gradation, detachment, different models of author and character speech presentation, different models of homogeneous secondary parts of the sentence arrangement with the priority of double and triple patterns;

  • compositional textual devices ( three-part compositional canon – introduction, the main part and the ending with a more complex model of prologue and epilogue), deviations from the canon and their stylistic importance, the plot development the exposition, gradation, the climax and the outcome ( the denouement), compositional peculiarities of a poetic text - rigidly fixed dimensions of textual arrangement ( the fixed number of feet, lines, regular accentual models of the foot and line arrangement, the length and arrangement of a stanza, peculiar models of stanza and text arrangement, patterned rhyme, metre and syntax constructions), extensive use of foregrounding (coupling, antithesis, convergence, the effect of deceived expectancy),the effect of replenished expectancy, parallelism, irony, hyperbole as compositional devices;

  • the system of stylistic devices: systemic use of imagery - textual, developed and simple non-developed metaphors, metonymies, epithets, similes, hyperboles, litotes, puns, oxymorons, zeugmas, different in form contact and distant repetitions (ordinary, anaphora, epiphora, framing, anadiplosis, chain, refrain) Intensification of the total aesthetic impact of the language means of the text.

Scientific Style. The main function of the scientific style: rational cognition and linguistic presentation of the dynamics of thinking. Other communicative tasks. Inner differentiation and the formation of the sub-styles and genres of the scientific style used in different fields of science, characterized by different manners of scientific presentation. Sub-styles and genres: scientific style proper \ thesis, abstract of thesis, monograph, article, report, abstract of a report...\ popular scientific \ an article, annotations, review, etc.).”Sub-languages” of scientific styles: law, political, medical, economic, technical, computer, linguistic, etc. Types of presentation: description and argumentation ( deduction, induction). Different degree of polemics. Popularization of the scientific text. The addressee factor. Peculiarities of scientific communication: planned, prepared delayed in time communication (except for lectures and reports). Style-forming features: great role of tradition in the use of language means, objective and non-categorical presentation, specific means of expression, a certain extent of emphasis, restrictions in the use of intensification, evaluation, emotional language means, absence of imagery. Language means of the scientific style:

  • lexical means - highly specialized scientific terminology, terminological groups, revealing the conceptual systems of the scientific style, the peculiarities of the use of terms in scientific speech, the use of nouns and verbs in abstract meanings, special reference words, scientific phraseology - clichés, stereotyped and hackneyed word combinations and idioms, priority of neutral vocabulary, limitations in the use of emotional- evaluative and expressive vocabulary and phraseology, absence of non-literary vocabulary and phraseology ( slang words, vulgarisms, obscene words) , peculiarities in word- building (standard suffixes and prefixes, mainly of Greek and Latin origin – tele-, morpho, philo- -ism, etc.), peculiarities in the scarce use of imagery (usually trite and hackneyed, the priority of the functions of intensification and decoration, non-systematic, narrow contextual character, absence of rich associations, schematic and generalized character);

  • grammatical means: nominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional “of-phrases” to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely... but also, whether ... or both... and, as...as), adverbs of logical connectuin ;

  • syntactical means: priority of full, logically correct, regular syntactical models, the syntax of simple sentence in the scientific speech - extensive use of extended two-member sentence, priority in the use of compound sentences, extensive use of secondary predicative constructions ( Complex Object, Participial and Gerundial Constructions), wide use of conjunctions and denominative prepositions, concise expression of syntactical connection in word combinations, sentences, groups of sentences, absolute priority of declarative sentences in the use of communicative types of sentences;

  • composition of scientific text as an explication of the stages of cognition and productive thinking, the usual model is presented by the following scheme - a problem situation, idea, hypothesis, proof, conclusion, compositional speech forms of discussion, argumentation and description, conclusion, types of narration, wide-spread co-referential repetition as a specific method of text development.

Functional restrictions: strong objections to the use of non-literary vocabulary, scarce use of emotional and intensification units of vocabulary and phraseology, and stylistic devices (metaphors, metonymies, etc.), absence of the second person form and corresponding personal pronouns, scarce use of “I-speaking”, limited use of incomplete and non-declarative, and one-member sentences.

Publicist Style ( Journalese). The major functions of the publicist style: social influence and public opinion manipulation; informative function. Additional functions: propaganda, popularization, education, organiziation, analysis and criticism, hedonism (entertainment). Stylistic features of the publicist style: interchange of standard and expressiveness, explicit evaluation, affective, impressive character, stylistic effects of "novelty", advertising, mass, group social orientation, factography (documentary precision, abundance of statistics, toponymic and proper names, factual data), neutral or formal manner of presentation, generalization, the use of arguments, multi-stylistic character.

Publicistic style and other functional styles. Publicist style as a sphere of intersection with the style of fiction / essay, sketch, lampoon, satirical article/ and scientific style /commentary, review/. Elements of conversational and official styles. Substyles and genres: publicist style proper /lampoons, articles, essays, sketches, travelogues, memoirs/, political propaganda /slogans, leaflets, proclamations/, journalese /, newspapers style - editorial (leader) article, brief news, or news columns, report, interview, reportage…/, oratory /speeches, parliamentary debates, TV discussions…/ TV and radio journalese, publicist cinematography (documentary, news-reel, etc.). New publicist genres: talk-show, reality-show, role-play show, game-show, debates, TV poll, TV commentary, new types of information programs. Inner differentiation of the publicist style and correlation of functional relevance of its different variations and genres.

Newspaper Style. Problems of classification. Newspaper genres: editorial (leading article), newsreel, brief news report, reportage, interview, essay, title, topical satire, advertisement.

Graphic Means of the newspaper style: wide use of graphic means - change of prints, word-arts, italics, various graphic symbols (asterisks, etc.) used for the sake of text limitation as well as elements of compositional arrangement such as columns, titles, subtitles, parts and paragraphs. Language Means of publicist style:

  • vocabulary: priority of neutral and bookish vocabulary, wide use of language means to actualize chronotop (proper and geographical names, \abundance of statistics, toponymic and proper names, facts and data), means of evaluation, neologisms, social political terminology, a great number of loan-words and international words, use words and word-combinations of other styles ( especially, conversational), against the general background of the bookish style vocabulary, including terminology as well as means of imagery to increase expressiveness / trite metaphors, metonymies, personification, metaphorical paraphrases, metaphorical use of terminology/, newspaper terms: newspaper vocabulary and cliches (journalese and bookish), decomposition of phraseological units. Word-building: loan suffixes and prefixes as well as combination of words;

  • grammatical means: in morphology the use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-colouratives, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. Average sentence length (9-11words) and average degree of complexity in the sentence structure. Wide use of declarative sentences. The use of questions, exclamatory sentences for the sake of expressiveness. Means of expressive syntax: inversions, parallelism, antithesis, parcellation, gradation, isolation, different types of the author's words presentation and conversational constructions, different patterns in the use of homogeneous parts of the sentence - double, three-element and multi-element;

  • compositional and textual means: canonized three-part structure of publicist texts, the principle of “pyramid” and its effects in the composition of modern newspaper text, the use of compositional ( foregrounding) devices.

Official Style. / The Style of Official Documents /. Regulative function as the main one, i.e. the establishment of norms and rules in the sphere of public relations (e.g. the relations of individuals, group – individual relations, the relations of social groups and institutions, etc.). Substyles and genres: the style of law documents / laws, legislative acts, codes, instructions, orders…/, the style official documents / applications, references, protocols, questionnaires, profiles, autobiographies, agreements, contracts…/, the style of diplomatic documents / agreements, pacts, communiqués, note, memoranda, declarations…/. Considerable inner differentiation, i.e. considerable genre-stylistic distinctions depending on the functional purpose of the text, themes, sphere of use, character of the institution issuing a publication.

Stylistic features: standard, imperative and prescriptive nature, ascertaining as leading method of presentation, precision which does not admit misinterpretation, non-personal character. Specific features of the official style characteristic of all its varieties and genres: templet ( pattern) text composition, speech standard and stereotyped ways of expression and arrangement of the language means (cliches, standard vocabulary). Use of the language means belonging to the style of official documents as negative development in speech culture, especially within the norms of publicist style.

Language means of the style of official documents:

  • graphic means: wide use of graphic means - change of the print, italics, the use of graphic delimitation means - various graphic symbols (asterisks, lines, patterns, etc.) which clearly demonstrate text limitation ( columns, division into parts, sections, elements, paragraphs), means of graphic design which reveal the representational form of the templet;

  • lexical means: bureaucratic cliches ( words or word-combinations), the use of special terminology to express precision, repetitions, the use of constructions with archaic elements, wide spread of vocabulary units, expressing obligation, absence of subjective emotional appraisal;

  • grammatical means: nominal character / predominance of nouns, a great number of nominal prepositions and conjunctions/, wide use of the genitive case, different forms of expressing imperative / verbs with the meaning of obligation, verbs of instruction, prescription, future tense forms, the imperative mood, infinitive and infinitive constructions/, absence of the first and second person presentation and correlated pronouns, the use of collective nouns for the expression of impersonality, different patterns of statement and ascertaining, specific use of aspect and tense forms ( future in conditional sentences, wide use of conditional sentences in connection with the necessity of detailed exposition and proviso, rare use of complex sentences, especially with subordinate sentences of cause because of the absence of the necessity to explicate logical operations of analysis and reasoning;

  • compositional devices: the patterned structure of texts of all the genres and substyles, declarative, ascertaining nature, neglect of narration and discussion.

Colloquial (Conversational) Style. The main function is communication, realization of practical activity of a person. It is used in everyday life. Extra-linguistic features: informality, spontaneous character of speech, interpersonal contact and direct involvement in the process of communication, attraction of paralinguistic means of communication (gestures, expression of the face, movements). Stylistic features: familiarity, ellipsis, concrete character of speech, interruption and logical inconsistency of the speech, emotiveness, efficacy. Secondary stylistic features: idiomatic and pattern character, “personal” type of speech presentation. Oral and written (epistolary) varieties. Two forms of speech: dialogue (simple dialogue and polylogue) and monologue. Inner differentiation, i.e. genre and style distinctions, caused by the communicative status, mood, aims, relations between the speakers, situation and theme of the conversation. Substyles and genres: literary conversational style / talks, conversations, interviews /, familiar-conversational style / communication between family members, friends, intimate communication, children's talk /, low colloquial / quarrels, abuse, scandal, squabble, insult /. Language peculiarities: high activity of non-bookish means of the language ( with stylistic conversational and familiarity colouring, the use of non-bookish low colloquial elements on all language levels, incomplete constructions ( at phonetic, syntactical and partially morphological levels), the use of language units of concrete meaning at all the levels, non-characteristic use of means with abstract and generalized meaning, weak syntactic connections between the parts of a syntactic structure, active use of means of verbal imagery, means of expressing subjective appraisal, emotional and expressive means at all the levels, patterned speech, specific phraseology , personal forms, nonce-words.

Language means the colloquial style.

  • graphic means: graphic signs as the reflection of phonetic processes of sound modification in fluent speech, graphic signals of the change of communicative roles;

  • phonetic means: intensive modification of sounds in fluent speech, positional phonemic interchange(combinatorial - accommodation, assimilation, dissimilation and positional changes, connected with the position of a sound in a word - at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the word, stressed or unstressed position, etc.). Positional changes: reduction (weakening) of vowels in unstressed syllables) and partial devoicing of consonants at the end of the word before a pause. Complete reduction: apokopa (the drop of the final consonant or final part of the word), synkopa ( the drop of a vowel or several sounds in other positions). Partial reduction as a qualitative change of vowels. Partial and complete devoicing of consonants at the end of a word. Stylistic and communicative effects of modification. Wealth and variety of intonation patterns ( rhythm, tempo, timbre, melody peculiarities);

  • vocabulary: conversational (everyday life) vocabulary, priority of neutral widely-used words with concrete, denotative, referential meanings, wide use of non-literary vocabulary, expressive-emotional vocabulary, means of verbal imagery, well-developed synonymy and polysemy, the use of stylistic devices, including pun, decomposition of phraseological units; in word-formation: emotive suffixes and prefixes, wide use of word-formation, expressive tautology.;

  • grammatical means: in morphology - frequent use of pronouns and particles, specific deicsis ( wide use of pronouns in substitute and co-referential functions, wealth and variety of aspect and tense form of a verb (Present Continuos, Present Indefinite, Present Perfect), wide use of interjections, stop-, interruption-, break- and pause-word; in syntax: ellipsis, variety in the use of communicative types of the sentence, priority of short sentences, wide use of expressive constructions, exclamatory sentences, specific conversational constructions, distorted and “broken” syntax, predominance of co-ordination over subordination;

compositional peculiarities: different types of discourse strategies, dialogue “entities” and “moves”as elementary units of discourse / question - answer, exclamation - reply, etc./, frames and scenarios of dialogue discourse, complicated communicative strategies of conversational style / "white lies", flattery, irony, deceit, lies, mockery, sarcasm, / as aggressive and non-aggressive, individual and group communicational strategies peculiar composition development in a quarrel, scandal, abuse, insult, squabble/; compositional patterns of epistolary texts ( business letters, personal, friendly, intimate letters, notes, postcards


1. Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка, М.: Просвещение, 1980

2. Кожина М.Н. Стилистика русского языка. М.,1993.

2. Part of Speech Theory

Parts of speech are generally described as grammatical classes of words. This is a traditional approach in normative grammar. The interpretation of parts of speech in modern linguistic theory is based on the assumption that parts of speech are semantic-grammatical classes of words which are differentiated on the basis of common syntactical, morphological and semantic properties. e.g. the noun has the common part of speech meaning of ‘a thing’, ‘substance’. It has the same for all the class grammatical forms of number and case, realizing the grammatical categories of the number and case, has common for all the class types of combinability (for e.g. left-hand combinability with the article, adjective and verb and right-hand combinability with the verb/ Besides, it has typical for all the class syntactical functions. It performs the functions of the subject, the object, the predicative of the sentence. The teacher entered the classroom ( the subject of the sentence). I saw the teacher yesterday.( the object). He is a teacher ( the predicative)

The development of the theory of parts of speech has witnessed great changes of paradigms. It is traced back to to the antique Greek logic philosophical tradition. The ten-part of speech system suggested by Aristoteltheory of parts of speech

Части речи как семантико-грамматические разряды слов, выделяемые на основе общности их синтаксических, морфологических и семантических свойств. Логико-философский анализ в античной теории частей речи. \Аристотель\. Формальная школа в анализе частей речи, учет различающихся окончаниями форм изменения \Ф.Ф. Фортунатов\. Форма и значение в их неразрывной связи как основание дифференциации частей речи \Л.В. Щерба\. Знаменательные части речи (глагол, существительное, прилагательное, наречие, числительное и местоимения) и служебные части речи (союз, предлог, артикль). Морфологические признаки (типы флексий, система грамматических категорий – акциденции части речи) как критерий выделения частей речи. Семантические критерии идентификации частей речи. Категориальное значение части речи (существительное – предметность, глагол – действие, прилагательное – признак). Синтаксическая функция (способность стоять в одной синтаксической позиции) как критерий выделения частей речи. Первичные и вторичные синтаксические функции. Имя существительное (общее категориальное значение предметности, категории рода, числа, падежа, определенности \ неопределенности, парадигма склонения синтаксические функции подлежащего, дополнения, именной части сказуемого). Глагол (общее категориальное значение действия, категории лица, числа, наклонения, времени, вида, залога, временной отнесенности и т. д., парадигма спряжения, синтаксическая функция сказуемого). Прилагательное (категориальное значение признака, категории рода, числа, падежа, степеней сравнения, парадигма склонения, синтаксическая функция определения).

Вербоиды (инфинитив, причастие, деепричастие, герундий). Наречие (категориальное значение – признак признака, категория степеней сравнения, синтаксическая функция обстоятельства). Числительное (категориальное значение количества, сочетаемость с существительным на основе формальной связи). Местоимения и местоименные наречия как указательно-заместительные слова, выполняющие указательную (дейктическую) и заместительную функции.

2.The development of the Part of Speech Theory reveals investigations of the criteria and the amount of the classes of words traditionally termed as parts of speech.

The Greek Philosopher Aristotel singled out 10 parts of speech on the basis of their generalized meaning.

The Classic conventional approach \ H.Sweet - “English Grammar” , O.Esperson - “The Philosophy of Grammar” \ suggested the devision of the words into declinables; noun-words \noun, noun-pronouns, noun-numerals, infinitives, gerunds\, adjective-words \ adjectives, adjective-pronouns, adjective-numerals, particles \, verbs \ finite verbs and verbals\ and indeclinables regarding the morphological form of the words.

The structural distributional approach worked out by Ch. Fries \ “The Structure of the Language”\ insisted on the division of words into class-words \1- 4 \ and function-words \ 15\ on the basis of their positions in the structure of the sentence or frame.

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7


1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconThis section gives the nuts and bolts of several common documentation styles-several styles of acknowledging sources in the course of a paper and of listing

1. Functional Styles in Modern English icon1910 and 1930, modernism gave way to new forms and styles of literature, art, architecture, and design with its complete departure from the styles and structure

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconTemplate of The Modern in English Science and Culture

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconM. A. in English: Issues in Modern Culture 2012-2013

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconHistory of English Literature Top ten General Miscellaneous Modern English literature (1500-) Top ten

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconFunctional processes and functional roles

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconB. Historical-critical method Optional: Marshall, New Testament Interpretation 11-18 (modern exegesis) C. Modern situationist and subjectivist hermeneutics

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconБиблиографический указатель литературы, поступившей в библиотеку иатэ
Современный английский язык. Морфология и синтаксис = Modern English Grammar. Morphology and Syntax : учеб пособие для студ вузов...
1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconThe purpose of the new ba honours course in English, under the semester system, is to provide a thorough grounding in literature written in the English

1. Functional Styles in Modern English iconStructural Styles and Prospectivity in the Precambrian and Palaeozoic Hydrocarbon Systems of North Africa

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:

База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Главная страница