Updated general technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (pops)




НазваниеUpdated general technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (pops)
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Updated general technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs)


Contents


Contents 2

Abbreviations and acronyms 5

Units of measurement 6

a.Introduction 7

A. Scope 7

B. About POPs 8

b. Relevant provisions of the Basel and Stockholm conventions 8

A. Basel Convention 8

1. General provisions 8

2. POPs-related provisions 9

B. Stockholm Convention 12

1. General provisions 12

2. Waste-related provisions 12

c. Issues under the Stockholm Convention to be addressed cooperatively with the Basel Convention 14

A. Low POP content 14

B. Levels of destruction and irreversible transformation 15

C. Methods that constitute environmentally sound disposal 16

d. Guidance on environmentally sound management (ESM) 16

A. General considerations 16

1. Basel Convention 16

2. Stockholm Convention 18

3. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 18

B. Legislative and regulatory framework 18

1. Phase-out dates for production and use of POPs 18

2. Transboundary movement requirements 19

3. Specifications for containers, equipment, bulk containers and storage sites containing POPs 19

4. Health and safety 19

5. Specification of acceptable analytical and sampling methods for POPs 20

6. Requirements for hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities 20

7. General requirement for public participation 20

8. Contaminated sites 20

9. Other legislative controls 20

C. Waste prevention and minimization 21

D. Identification and inventories 21

1. Identification 21

2. Inventories 22

E. Sampling, analysis and monitoring 24

1. Sampling 24

2. Analysis 26

3. Monitoring 27

F. Handling, collection, packaging, labelling, transportation and storage 27

1. Handling 28

2. Collection 29

3. Packaging 32

4. Labelling 34

5. Transportation 34

6. Storage 35

G. Environmentally sound disposal 40

1. Pre-treatment 40

(a) Adsorption and absorption 41

(b) Dewatering 42

(c) Mechanical separation 42

(d) Mixing 43

(e) Oil-water separation 43

(f) pH adjustment 44

(g) Size reduction 44

(h) Solvent washing 45

(i) Thermal desorption 45

2. Destruction and irreversible transformation methods 46

(a) Alkali metal reduction 47

(b) Base-catalysed decomposition (BCD) 48

(c) Catalytic hydrodechlorination (CHD) 52

(d) Cement kiln co-incineration 56

(e) Gas-phase chemical reduction (GPCR) 58

(f) Hazardous-waste incineration 62

(g) Photochemical dechlorination (PCD) and catalytic dechlorination (CD) reaction 63

(h) Plasma arc 68

(i) Potassium tert-Butoxide (t-BuOK) method 70

(j) Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and subcritical water oxidation 73

(k) Thermal and metallurgical production of metals 74

(l) Waste-to-gas conversion 77

3. Other disposal methods when neither destruction nor irreversible transformation is the environmentally preferable option 79

(a) Specially engineered landfill 80

(b) Permanent storage in underground mines and formations 80

4. Other disposal methods when the POP content is low 81

H. Remediation of contaminated sites 81

1. Contaminated site identification 81

2. Environmentally sound remediation 81

I. Health and safety 81

1. Higher-risk situations 82

2. Lower-risk situations 83

J. Emergency response 83

K. Public participation 84

Annex I 86

International instruments 86

Annex II 87

Examples of pertinent national legislation 87

Annex III 90

Selected analytical methods for POPs 90

Annex IV 93

Economics of destruction and irreversible transformation methods 93

Annex V 95

Bibliography 95
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