Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings indicated in this chapter




НазваниеUnless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings indicated in this chapter
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SECTION R4403.14


HIGH VELOCITY HURRICANE ZONES - FOUNDATION DESIGN


R4403.14.1 Design procedure. The minimum area of a footing or number of piles under a foundation shall be determined in the following manner:


R4403.14.1.1 The total load of the column that has the largest percentage of the live load to the total load shall be divided by the allowable soil pressure or pile capacity.


R4403.14.1.2 The balance soil pressure or pile capacity shall be determined by dividing the total dead load by the area of the footing or the number of piles.


R4403.14.1.3 The minimum number of other footings or number of piles shall be designed on the basis of their respective dead loads only.


R4403.14.1.4 In no case shall the total load of the combined dead, live, wind and any other loads exceed the allowable bearing pressure of the soil for capacity of any pile upon which the foundation is supported.


R4403.14.1.5 The live load used in the above calculations may be the total reduced live load in the member immediately above the foundation.


R4403.14.1.6 The building official may require submittal of design computations employed in foundation design.


R4403.14.2 Wind effects. Where the pressure on the foundation from wind is less than 25 percent of that resulting from dead or other live loads, wind pressure may be neglected in the footing design.


R4403.14.2.1 Where this percentage exceeds 25 percent, foundations shall be so designed that the pressure resulting from combined dead, live and wind loads shall not exceed the allowable soil bearing values or allowable loads per pile by more than 25 percent.


SECTION R4403.15


HIGH VELOCITY HURRICANE ZONES - LOAD TESTS


R4403.15.1 Application. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code or evidence that any material or any construction does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternate materials or methods of construction, the building official may require testing by an approved agency, at the expense of the owner or his agent, as proof of his compliance. Testing methods shall be as specified by this code for the specific material.


R4403.15.2 Testing method. Such testing shall follow a nationally recognized standard test, or when there is no standard test procedure for the material or assembly in question, the building official shall require that the material or assembly under dead plus live load shall deflect not more than as set forth in R4403.2, and that the material or assembly shall sustain dead load plus twice the live load for a period of 24 hours, with a recovery of at least 80 percent or a 100 percent recovery after 1/2 test load.


R4403.15.3 Alternate test methods. When elements, assemblies or details of structural members are such that their load-carrying capacity, deformation under load, or deflection cannot be calculated by rational analysis, their structural performance shall be established by test in accordance with test procedures as approved by the building official based on consideration of all probable conditions of loading.


R4403.15.4 Fatigue load testing. Where cladding assemblies (including cladding and connections) or roofing framing assemblies (including portions of roof structure and connections) are such that their load-carrying capacity or deformation under load cannot be calculated by rational analysis, the assemblies may be tested to resist the fatigue loading sequence given by Table R4403.15.4


TABLE R4403.15.4

FATIGUE LOADING SEQUENCE


RANGE OF TEST NUMBER OF CYCLES{1}


0 to 0.5p^2 600

0 to 0.6p 70

0 to 1.3p 1


1. Each cycle shall have minimum duration of 1 second and a maximum

duration of 3 seconds and must be performed in a continuous manner.


2 p = the design wind load for the height and location, when the assembly will be used. For wall and roof components, shape factors given in ASCE 7 shall be used.


Assemblies shall be tested with no resultant failure or distress and shall have a recovery of at least 90 percent over maximum deflection.


Any cladding assembly not incorporated into the Florida Building Code, Building after successfully completing the impact test outlined in R4403.16, shall be subject to fatigue loading testing and shall obtain product approval by the building official.


SECTION R4403.16

HIGH VELOCITY HURRICANE ZONES - IMPACT TESTS FOR WINDBORNE DEBRIS


R4403.16.1 All parts or systems of a building or structure envelope such as, but not limited, to exterior walls, roof, outside doors, skylights, glazing and glass block shall meet impact test criteria or be protected with an external protection device that meets the impact test criteria. Test procedures to determine resistance to windborne debris of wall cladding, outside doors, skylights, glazing, glass block, shutters and any other external protection devices shall be performed in accordance with this section.


EXCEPTION. The following structures or portion of structures shall not be required to meet the provisions of this section:


a. Roof assemblies for screen rooms, porches, canopies, etc. attached to a building that do not breach the exterior wall or building envelope and have no enclosed sides other than screen.


b. Soffits, soffit vents and ridge vents. Size and location of such vents shall be detailed by the designer and shall not compromise the integrity of the diaphragm boundary.


c. Vents in a garage with four or fewer cars. Size and location of such vents shall be detailed by the designer and shall not exceed the minimum required area by more than 25 percent.


d. Exterior wall or roof openings for wall or roof mounted HVAC equipment.


e. Openings for roof-mounted personnel access roof hatches.


f. Storage sheds that are not designed for human habitation and that have a floor area of 720 square feet or less are not required to comply with the mandatory windborne debris impact standards of this code.


g. Louvers as long as they properly considered ASCE-7 in the design of the building.


h. Buildings and structures for marinas, cabanas, swimming pools, solariums and greenhouses.


R4403.16.2 Large missile impact tests.


R4403.16.2.1 This test shall be conducted on three test specimens. This test shall be applicable to the construction units, assemblies and materials to be used up to and including 30 feet (9.1 m) in height in any and all structures.


R4403.16.2.2 The test specimens shall consist of the entire assembled unit, including frame and anchorage as supplied by the manufacturer for installation in the building, or as set forth in a referenced specification, if applicable. Fasteners used in mounting the test specimen shall be identical in size and spacing to what is used in field installations.


R4403.16.2.3 The large missile shall be comprised of a piece of timber having nominal dimensions of 2 in. x 4 in. weighing 9 lb (4.1 kg).


R4403.16.2.4 The large missile shall impact the surface of each test specimen at a speed of 50 ft/sec (15.2 m/s).


R4403.16.2.5 Each test specimen shall receive two impacts except as noted in R4403.16.2.5.1 and R4403.16.2.5.2, the first within a 5-inch (127 mm) radius circle having its center on the midpoint of the test specimen and the second within a 5-inch (127 mm) radius circle in a corner having its center in a location 6 inches (152 mm) away from any supporting members.


R4403.16.2.5.1 For window, glass block, fixed glass and skylight assemblies, both impacts shall be to glass or other glazing infill. For test specimens with more than one light of glass, a single light closest to the center of the assembly shall be selected and impacted twice in accordance with §1626.2.5. If a light of glass is sufficiently small to cause the 5-inch (127 mm) radius circle to overlap, two separate lights shall be impacted one time each.


R4403.16.2.5.1.1 For window, fixed glass and skylight assemblies comprised of different glass thickness, types of glass or different types of glazing infill, each separate thickness or type shall be impacted twice in accordance with R4403.16.2.5.


R4403.16.2.5.2 For doors, wall cladding and external protection devices, both impacts shall be to the thinnest section through the assembly. For doors, wall cladding and external protection devices with horizontal and/or vertical bracing, both impacts shall be within a single area that is not reinforced and shall be in accordance with R4403.16.2.5.


R4403.16.2.5.2.1 For doors with glass, the glass shall be impacted twice and the thinnest section through the assembly that is not glass shall be impacted twice in accordance with R4403.16.2.5.


R4403.16.2.6 In the case of glazing, if the three test specimens that comprise a test successfully reject the two missile impacts, they shall then be subjected to the cyclic pressure loading defined in Table R4403.16.


R4403.16.2.6.1 If external protection devices are employed to protect windows, fixed doors or skylights, they must resist the large missile impacts specified in R4403.16.2.3 and R4403.16.2.4 without deformations which result in contact with the windows, fixed glass, glass block, and doors or skylights they are intended to protect.


R4403.16.2.6.2 If external protection devices are not designed to be air tight, following the large missile impact test, they must resist an application of force corresponding to those listed in Table R4403.15.4 (fatigue load testing) without detaching from their mountings. The acting pressure cycles shall be simulated with loads applied through a mechanical system attached to the shutter specimen to apply uniformly around the shutter perimeter a force equal to the product of the required pressure and the area of the shutter specimen.


R4403.16.2.7 If air leakage through the test specimen is excessive, tape may be used to cover any cracks and joints through which leakage is occurring. Tape shall not be used when there is a probability that it may significantly restrict differential movement between adjoining members. It is also permissible to cover both sides of the entire specimen and mounting panel with a single thickness of polyethylene film no thicker than 0.050 mm (2 mils). The technique of application is important in order that the full load is transferred to the specimen and that the membrane does not prevent movement or failure of the specimen. Apply the film loosely with extra folds of material at each corner and at all offsets and recesses. When the load is applied, there shall be no fillet caused by tightness of plastic film.


R4403.16.2.8 A particular system of construction shall be deemed to comply with this recommended practice if three test specimens reject the two missile impacts without penetration and resist the cyclic pressure loading with no crack forming longer than 5 inches (127 mm) and 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) wide through which air can pass.


R4403.16.2.9 If only one of the three test specimens in a test fails to meet the above listed criteria, one retest of this system of construction (another test sequence with three specimens) shall be permitted.


R4403.16.3 Small missile impact test.


R4403.16.3.1 This test shall be conducted on three test specimens. This test shall be applicable to the construction units, assemblies, and materials to be used above 30 feet (9.1 m) in height in any and all structures.


R4403.16.3.2 Each test specimen shall consist of the entire assembled unit, including frame and anchorage as supplied by the manufacturer for installation in the building, or as set forth in a referenced specification, if applicable. The fasteners used in mounting the test specimen shall be identical in size and spacing to those to be used in field installations.


R4403.16.3.3 The missiles shall consist of solid steel balls each having a mass of 2 grams (0.07 oz) (+/-5 percent) with a 5/16-in. (7.9 mm) nominal diameter.


R4403.16.3.4 Each missile shall impact the surface of each test specimen at a speed of 130 ft/sec (40 m/s).


R440.16.3.5 Each test specimen shall receive 30 small missile impacts except as noted in §1626.3.5.1 and §1626.3.5.2 delivered in groups of 10 at a time: the first 10 distributed uniformly over a 2 square foot (0.19 m^2) area located at the center of the test specimen, the second 10 distributed uniformly over a 2 square foot area (0.19 m^2) located at the center of the long dimension of the specimen near the edge, and the third 10 distributed uniformly over a 2 square foot (0.19 m^2) area located at a corner of the specimen.


R4403.16.3.5.1 For window and skylight assemblies, all impacts shall be to glass or other glazing infill. For test specimens with more than one light of glass, a single light closest to the center of the assembly shall be selected and impacted in accordance with R4403.16.3.5. If a light of glass is sufficiently small to cause the 5-inch (127 mm) radius circles to overlap, separate lights may be impacted; however, there must be a total of 30 impacts within the assembly.


R4403.16.3.5.1.1 For window, fixed glass and skylight assemblies comprised of glass with different thickness, types of glass or different types of glazing infill, each separate thickness or type shall be impacted in accordance with R4403.16.3.5.


R4403.16.3.5.2 For doors, wall cladding and external protection devices, all impacts shall be to the thinnest section through the assembly. For doors, wall cladding and external protection devices with horizontal and/or vertical bracing, all impacts shall be within a single area that is not reinforced and shall be impacted in accordance with R4403.16.3.5.


R4403.16.3.5.2.1 For doors with glass, the glass shall be impacted in accordance with R4403.16.3.5 and the thinnest section through the assembly that is not glass shall be impacted in accordance with R4403.16.3.5.


R4403.16.3.6 In the case of glazing, after completion of the small missile impacts, each test specimen shall then be subjected to the cyclic pressure loading defined in Table R4403.16.


R4403.16.3.6.1 If external protection devices are employed to protect windows, doors or skylights, they must resist the small missile impacts specified in R4403.16.3.3 and R4403.16.3.4 without deformations that result in contact with the windows, glass, doors or skylights they are intended to


R4403.16.3.6.2 If external protection devices are not designed to be air tight, following the small missile impact test, they must resist an application of force corresponding to those listed in Table R4403.15.4 (fatigue load testing) without detaching from their mountings. The acting pressure cycles shall be simulated with loads applied through a mechanical system attached to the shutter specimen to apply uniformly around the shutter perimeter a force equal to the product of the required pressure and the area of the shutter specimen.


R4403.16.3.7 If air leakage through the test specimen is excessive, tape may be used to cover any cracks and joints through which leakage is occurring. Tape shall not be used when there is a probability that it may significantly restrict differential movement between adjoining members. It is also permissible to cover both sides of the entire specimen and mounting panel with a single thickness of polyethylene film no thicker than 0.050 mm (2 mils). The technique of application is important for the full load to be transferred to the specimen and to insure the membrane does not prevent movement or failure of the specimen. Apply the film loosely with extra folds of material at each corner and at all offsets and recesses. When the load is applied, there shall be no fillet caused by tightness of plastic film.


R4403.16.3.8 A particular system of construction shall be deemed to comply with this test if three test specimens reject the small missile impacts without penetration and resist the cyclic pressure loading with no crack forming longer than 5 inches (127 mm) and 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) in width through which air can pass.


R4403.16.3.9 If only one of the three test specimens in a test fails to meet the above listed criteria, one retest of the system (another test sequence with three specimens) of construction shall be permitted.


R4403.16.4 Construction assemblies deemed to comply with R4403.16


1. Exterior concrete masonry walls of minimum nominal 8-inch (203 mm) thickness, constructed in accordance with Section R4407 of this code.


2. Exterior frame walls or gable ends constructed in accordance with Section R4408 and Section R4409 of this code, sheathed with a minimum 19/32-inch (15 mm) CD exposure 1 plywood and clad with wire lath and stucco installed in accordance with Section R4411 of this code.


3. Exterior frame walls and roofs constructed in accordance with Section R4408 of this code sheathed with a minimum 24-gage rib deck type material and clad with an approved wall finish.


4. Exterior reinforced concrete elements constructed of solid normal weight concrete (no voids), designed in accordance with Section R4405 of this code and having a minimum 2-in. (51 mm) thickness.


5. Roof systems constructed in accordance with Section R4408 or Section R4409 of this code, sheathed with a minimum 19/32-inch (15 mm) CD exposure 1 plywood or minimum nominal 1-inch (25 mm) wood decking and surfaced with an approved roof system installed in accordance with SectionR4402 of this code.


All connectors shall be specified by the building designer of record for all loads except impact.


TABLE R4403.16

CYCLIC WIND PRESSURE LOADING


INWARD ACTING PRESSURE OUTWARD ACTING PRESSURE


NUMBER OF NUMBER OF

RANGE CYCLES{1} RANGE CYCLES{1}


0.2 P_MAX to 0.5 P_MAX{2} 3,500 0.3 P_MAX to 1.0 P_MAX 50

0.0 P_MAX to 0.6 P_MAX 300 0.5 P_MAX to 0.8 P_MAX 1,050

0.5 P_MAX to 0.8 P_MAX 600 0.0 P_MAX to 0.6 P_MAX 50

0.3 P_MAX to 1.0 P_MAX 100 0.2 P_MAX to 0.5 P_MAX 3,350


NOTES:


1. Each cycle shall have minimum duration of 1 second and a maximum duration of 3 seconds and must be performed in a continuous manner 1.


2. P_MAX denotes maximum design load in accordance with ASCE 7. The pressure spectrum shall be applied to each test specimen beginning with inward acting pressures followed by the outward acting pressures in the order from the top of each column to the bottom of each column.


SECTION R4404

HIGH VELOCITY HURRICANE ZONES –

FOUNDATIONS AND RETAINING WALLS


R4404.1EXCAVATIONS


R4404.1.1 General. Until provisions for permanent support have been made, all excavations shall be properly guarded and protected so as to prevent them from becoming dangerous to life and property and shall be sheet piled, braced and/or shored, where necessary, to prevent the adjoining earth from caving in; such protection to be provided by the person causing the excavation to be made. All excavations shall comply with the minimum requirements of Florida Statute 553.60, "Trench Safety Act," and 29-CFR1926-650 (P) "Occupational Safety and Health Administration Excavation Safety Act." No excavation, for any purpose, shall extend within 1'-0" of the angle of repose of any soil bearing footing or foundation unless such footing or foundation is first properly underpinned or protected against settlement.


R4404.1.2 Permanent excavations. No permanent excavation shall be made nor shall any construction excavations be left on any lot that will endanger adjoining property or buildings or be a menace to public health or safety. Any such excavations made or maintained shall be properly drained and such drainage provisions shall function properly as long as the excavation exists. Permanent excavations shall have retaining walls of steel, masonry, concrete or similar approved material of sufficient strength to retain the embankment together with any surcharged loads.


R4404.1.3 Enforcement. Where, in the opinion of the building official, an unsafe condition may result or damage may occur as the result of an excavation, he may order the work stopped or may approve the work of excavation subject to such limitations, as he may deem necessary.


SECTION R4004.2

HIGH VELOCITY HURRICANE ZONES BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL


R4404.2.1 Design bearing capacity. Plans for new buildings, structures or additions shall clearly identify the nature of the soil under the structure and the allowable bearing capacity used in sizing the building foundation support system.


EXCEPTION: See R4404.6.1 for plans for new buildings, structures or additions that are to be supported on a piling foundation system.


R4404.2.2 Allowable bearing capacity. Prior to the installation of any footing foundation system for new buildings, structures or additions, the building official shall be provided with a statement of allowable bearing capacity from an architect or professional engineer. Said statement shall clearly identify the allowable in-place bearing capacity of the building pad for the new building or addition and verify the existing soil conditions. The certified in-place bearing capacity shall have been determined by way of recognized tests or rational analysis and shall meet or exceed the design bearing capacity identified under R4404.2.1.


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