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THE STUDY OF MODERN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY
Theoretical materials for seminars
В.М. Широких, Л.П. Кудреватых
по лексикологии современного
Широких В.М., Кудреватых Л.П. Теоретические материалы по лексикологии современного английского языка. - Глазов, 2004.
Рецензент: доцент каф. ром.-герм, филологии В.Н. Ивонина (ГГПИ)
Учебное пособие по курсу лексикологии современного английского языка предназначено для студентов старших курсов факультета иностранных языков педагогического вуза. Оно может быть использовано в процессе подготовки к семинарским занятиям, при написании курсовых и дипломных работ по лингвистике.
© В.М. Широких, 2004 © Л.П. Кудреватых, 2004
THE OBJECT OF LEXICOLOGY
Lexicology as a Science
The term consists of Greek morphemes:
(word, phrase) (learning).
Lexicology studies words and phrases, i.e. vocabulary of a language.
Vocabulary consists of:
words - basic units of a given language which are the result of the association of a given meaning with a given group of sounds;
set-expressions = phraseological units - traditional stable phrases like «to rain cats and dogs», «as hungry as a wolf».
Lexicology investigates the problems of words, word-structure, word-formation in the language, the meaning of the words, the main principles of classification of the words, the laws governing the enlarging (replenishment) of the vocabulary.
Kinds of lexicology:
general - deals with the general study of words irrespective of the specific features of any particular language;
special - studies the characteristic features of the vocabulary of a given language;
historical - studies the origin, change and development of the words;
descriptive - studies the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of its development.
Two Approaches to Language Study
Synchronic (syn = together, chronos = time).
The synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language at a given period of time.
Diachronic (dia = through, chronos = time).
The diachronic approach deals with the changes and the development of the vocabulary in the course of time.
Synchronic approach deals with special descriptive lexicology, diachronic approach deals with special historic lexicology.
The two approaches should not be contrasted: they are interconnected and interdependent.
Language is the reality of thought, and thought develops together with the development of society, therefore language and its vocabulary must be studied in the light of social history. Every new phenomenon in human society and in human activity in general finds a reflection in vocabulary.
E.g.: nylon (technology), sputnik (science), perestroika (social and politi-cal life).
A word, through its meaning rendering some notion, is a generalized reflection of reality.
Connection of Lexicology with Other Sciences
Lexicology is connected with other sciences which also study words, though, from different sides:
general linguistics ,
the history of the language (etymology of words) ,
phonetics (acoustic level of the words) ,
grammar (morphemes as parts of words and grammatical rules of their combining) ,
stylistics (words as stylistic devices).
Theoretical and Practical Value of Lexicology
The theoretical value consists in stimulating a systematic approach to the facts of vocabulary; in linguistic training of philologists and teachers.
The practical value of lexicology is also very great for future teachers as it improves the knowledge of the vocabulary and helps users of the language master the speaking skills.
From: THE PRACTICAL STUDY OF LANGUAGES
by Henry Sweet
The Real Difficulty Is in the Vocabulary
The fact that the languages commonly learnt by Europeans belong mostly to the same Aryan stock, and have besides a large vocabulary in common of borrowed Latin, French, and greek words, is apt to blind them to a recognition of the fact that the real intrinsic difficulty of learning a foreign language lies in that of having to master its vocabulary. (…)
We can master enough of the grammar of any language for reading purposes within a definite period – generally less than six months – but we cannot do the same with the vocabulary unless it is already partially familiar to us in the way that the vocabulary of Italian is to all English speakers. (…)
It is evident that every language in its colloquial form must be adapted to the average capacity of its speakers. Although each language is constructed to a great extent by the philosophers and poets of the race, it cannot in the form of it which serves for ordinary intercourse go beyond the capacity of the average mind. Learning a language, therefore, is not in any way analogous to learning mathematics or metaphysics: it does not imply any attempt to enter into higher regions of thought – to commune with a higher mind. On the contrary, as the greater part of all existing languages was evolved by people in a rudimentary state of civilization, it implies the very reverse. Hence, it is often a positive obstacle to learning a language to be rigorously logical and minutely analytical. (…)
ETYMOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ENGLISH WORDSTOCK
Some Basic Assumptions
The most characteristic feature of English is its mixed character. While it is wrong to speak of the mixed character of the language as a whole, the com-posite nature of the English vocabulary cannot be denied.
Some special terms:
In the second meaning the term borrowing is also used to denote translation-loans, or loan-translations (кальки) - words and expressions formed from the language material under the influence of some foreign words and expressions, e.g.: mother tongue < L. lingua materna, it goes without saying < Fr. cela va sans dire, wall newspaper < Russ. стенгазета.
3. The term source of borrowing is applied to the language from which a
particular word was taken into English. The term origin of the _word should
be applied to the language the word may be traced to. E.g., the French borrow
ing table is Latin by origin (L. tabula), the Latin borrowing school came into
Latin from the Greek language (Gr. schole).
Whereas the source of borrowing is as a rule known and can be stated with some certainty, the actual origin of the word may be rather doubtful.
Words of Native Origin
Words of native origin consist for the most part of very ancient elements - Indo-European, Germanic and West Germanic cognates. The bulk of the Old English word-stock has been preserved, although some words have passed out of existence. The Anglo-Saxon stock of words makes 25-30% of the English vocabulary.
Almost all of them belong to very important semantic groups, among them form-words:
Native words are highly polysemantic, stylistically neutral, enter a number of phraseological units.
Borrowings in the English Language
In its 15 century long history the English language has come in long and close contact with several other languages, mainly Latin, French and Old Norse (or Scandinavian). The great influx of borrowings from these sources can be accounted for by a number of historical causes.
Due to the great influence of the Roman civilization Latin was for a long time used in England as the language of learning and religion, e.g.: absolute < absolutus, algebra < algebra, arm < armare, autumn < autumnus, beast < bes-tia, calculate < calculus, habit < habitum, intelligence < intelligentia, machine < machina, number < numerum, propaganda
comendare, sentence < sentential, square < quadrus.
Old Norse was the language of the conquerors who were on the same level of social and cultural development and who merged rather easily with the local population in the 9th, 10th and the first half of the llth century. Examples of Scandinavian borrowings are: anger < anger, angr (горе, печаль), fellow < fellawe, felagi (товарищ, компаньон, парень), fit < fitten, fitja (устраивать, связывать), fro < fro, fra (от, из), hap < hap, happ (случай, везение, счастье), hit < hitten, hitta (попадать в цель, ударять, поражать), leg < leg, leggr (нога, кость ноги; ствол), low < low, lagr (низкий, невысокий), swain < swayn, sveinn (мальчик, парень, молодой человек), sky < skye, sky (об-
лако, небо), skill < skile, skil (отличие, мастерство, различие, понятие), take < taken, taka (брать, хватать, начинать), they < they (они), want < want(e), vant (недостаток, нужда, недостающий).
French (to be more exact its Norman dialect) was the language of the other conquerors who brought with them a lot of new notions of a higher social system - developed feudalism, it was the language of the upper classes, of official documents and school instruction from the middle of the 11th century to the end of the 14th century: action < accioun, accusation < accusacioun, agreable < agreable, arms < armes, baron < baron, baroun, chamber < chambre, chivalry < chyval(e)rie, crown < coroune, duke < duk, empress < emperesse.
Assimilation of Borrowings
Assimilation - the process of adaptation of foreign words to the norms of the language.
Types of assimilation - phonetic, grammatical, lexical.
Degree of Assimilation
Completely assimilated words do not differ from the native ones in pronunciation, spelling, frequency, semantic structure and sphere of application. It is difficult to distinguish them from words of Anglo-Saxon origin, e.g.: pupil, master, city, river, window, dish, box. The majority of early borrowings have acquired full English citizenship.
Partly assimilated loan words fall into subgroups:
- words not assimilated semantically, e.g.: sari, sombrero, shah, radja,
-sfeih; bei, toreador, rickshaw/picksha;
Completely unassimilated words, or barbarisms, e.g.: addio, ciao (It.), af-fiche (Fr.) - «placard», ad libitum (Lat.) - «at pleasure».
PART I. WORD-STRUCTURE AND WORD-FORMATION
WORD-FORMATION IN GENERAL
Morphemes. Their Structural and Semantic Classifications
A great many words have a composite nature and are made up of smaller units each having sound form and meaning. These are called morphemes, e.g. teach-er, help-less-ness, sports-man.
Like a word, a morpheme is a two-facet language unit, an association of a certain meaning with a certain sound-pattern.
Unlike a word, a morpheme is not an autonomous unit and can occur in speech only as a constituent part of the word.
Morphemes cannot be segmented into smaller units, without losing their constitutive meaning.
So, according to the complexity of the morphemic structure the words fall into segmentable (child-hood) and non-segmentable (dog).
Semantic Classification of Morphemes
Root morphemes - they are lexical centres of the words, the basic constituent parts of the words: black-ness, London-er;
affixational morphemes (prefixes/suffixes) - they have a generalized lexical meaning and the part-of-speech meaning: -er, -ist, -ее = doer of an action (N-forming suffixes).
Structural Classification of Morphemes
Free morphemes (those which coincide with the stem) - root morphemes: friend, day, week.
Bound morphemes (occur only as constituent parts of words) - affixes: dis-; re-; -ment; -hood.
Semi-bound (semi-free; can function both as an affix and as a free morpheme): half an hour - half-done, half-eaten; do well - well-known; sleep well - well-done.
Historic Changeability of Word-Structure
Language is never stable: it undergoes changes on all its levels: phonetic, morphological, lexical, phraseological, etc.
As for some morphemes, in the course of time they may become fused together or may be lost altogether. As a result of this process, radical changes
in the structure of the word may take place: root-morphemes may turn into affixational or semi-affixational morphemes, polymorphic words may become monomorphic, compound words may be transformed into derived or even simple words.
E.g.: the present-day suffixes -hood, -dom, -like, -ship were in OE root-morphemes and stems of independently functioning words.
The present day English monomorphemic words «husband» and «woman» were in OE compound words, consisting of two stems:
hus-bond-a - хозяин, владелец дома
wif-man (OE) - woman (a simple word).
In the process of historical development some word-structures underwent reinterpretation: there are cases when simple root-words came to be understood as derived words consisting of two constituents.
E.g.: beggar, editor, cobbler - the representation of such words led to the formation of simple verbs like - «to beg», «to edit», «to cobble».
Productive and Nonproductive Ways of Word-Formation
There are different ways of forming words. Word-formation is the process of creating words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulae and patterns, e.g.: paint-er, week-end, TV, doctor - to doctor.
Productive word-formation is widely used to form a lot of new words with the help of: 1) affixation, 2) word-composition, 3) conversion, 4) shortening.
Non-productive ways of word-formation are not used now to form new words, they are: 1) back-formation, 2) sound-and-stress interchange.
Affixation as a Type of Word-Formation
Affixation is the formation of new words by adding derivational affixes to different types of stems.
On the derivational level derived words consist of a primary stem (simple, derived, compound) and a derivational affix.
E.g.: specialist = A (a simple stem) +-ist.
helplessness = (N + less - a derived stem) + -ness.
chairmanship = (N + N - a compound stem) + -ship.
Degrees of derivation:
the zero degree - the stem of such words coincides with a root morpheme: penny, help, black;
the 1st degree - the stem of such words consists of a root-morpheme and a derivational affix: penni-less, help-less, black-ness;
the 2nd degree - words formed by two consecutive stages of coining: help-less-ness, friend-li-ness
Kinds of Affixes
1 .Suffixation is mostly characteristic of noun and adjective formation.
2. Suffixes also change the lexical meaning of words: helpless.
3.The majority of suffixes change the part of speech formed: child-less, to black-en. Only some suffixes do not change part of speech: brown - brownish, child - childhood, friend - friendship. They transfer a word into another semantic group (from concrete to abstract): child-childhood.
Prefixation is the formation of words with the help of prefixes. There are about 51 prefixes in the system of Modern English word-formation.
Prefixes may be classified into several groups on different principles: in accordance with their l)origin, 2)meaning, 3)function and according to 4)the parts of speech formed.
Native prefixes: be - beset, mis - misdeed, un - unable, out - outlet, under - undergo, over - overall, after - afterthought.
Foreign prefixes: pre - predominate, post - postword,j:o - coordinate, inter - interchange, super - superstar, sub - subdivide, proprorate, extra - ex-traofficial, anti - antiwar, ultra - ultramodern.
Many of the native prefixes were originally independent words, gradually they lost independence and turned into prefixes (out-, under-, over-). Prefixes mis-, un- have always functioned as prefixes.
In the course of time English has adopted a great many prefixes from foreign languages. One must bear in mind that prefixes are borrowed not separately, but as constituent parts of borrowed words.
Quite a number of borrowed prefixes have become of international currency: extra-, inter-, sub-, anti-, counter-, super-.
Synchronical Classification According to the meaning:
5. locative prefixes: super - supersonic, sub - subway, inter -
intercontinental, trans - transatlantic, over - overcoat;
6. pejorative prefixes: (содержит отрицательную оценку с неодобри-
тельным оттенком): mal - maltreat (вести себя жестоко по отношению к
человеку), pseudo - pseudoscientific.
According to the part of speech formed:
be - belittle, de - deface, detrain, en - entrap, enslave.
According to stylistic reference:
Suffixation is the formation of words with the help of suffixes.
Native suffixes:-ness, -ish, -dom, -hood, -ing, etc.
Foreign suffixes: -ation, -ment, -ance,-tron, -ist, -ism, -ess, -all, -ade.
Many of the suffixes of native origin were originally independent words. In the course of time they gradually lost their independence and turned into derivational suffixes. E.g., such noun suffixes as -dom, -hood, -ship, may be traced back to words:
-dom (OE dom = judgement, sentence - приговор)
-hood (OE had = state, condition)
Many suffixes, however, have always been known as derivational suffixes in the history of the English language: -ish, -less, -ness, etc.
Foreign suffixes, as well as prefixes, were borrowed from other languages in the words, not separately.
Synchronical Classification According to the part of speech:
4) adverb-forming suffixes: -ly, -ward.
According to the meaning:
1. noun suffixes:
2. adjective suffixes:
Compounding as a Type of Word-Formation
Compounding (or word-composition) is a productive type of word-formation. Compounds are made up by joining together at least two stems, mostly stems of notional parts of speech. Compounds have different degree of complexity: they may consist of simple and derived stems.
Structure of Compound Words: Their Inseparability
Compounds are structurally and phonetically inseparable. Structurally
compounds are characterized by the specific order and arrangement of stems.
The order in which the two stems are placed together within a compound is
strictly fixed in Modern English and it is the second stem which is the struc-
tural and semantic centre of the compound, e.g.: baby-sitter, writing-table.
Phonetically compounds are also marked by a specific structure of their own. No phonetic changes of stems take place in composition, but the compound word gets a new stress pattern, different from the stress in the words with similar stems, e.g.: 'key, 'hole -> 'key-hole. Compounds have three stress patterns:
Graphically most compounds have two types of spelling: they are written either solidly or with a hyphen. It differs from author to author and from dictionary to dictionary,
e.g.: war-path = warpath;
blood-transfusion = bloodtransfusion
word-group = wordgroup
Meaning of Compound Words. Motivation in Compounds
Semantically the majority of compounds are motivated units: their meaning is derived from the combined lexical meanings of their components. The semantic centre of the compound is the lexical meaning of the second component modified and restricted by the meaning of the first,
e.g.: a handbag = a bag carried in the hand;
an ear-ring = a ring to wear in the ear.
But the meaning of a compound is not a simple sum of lexical meanings of its components: the new meaning dominates over the individual meanings
of the components. The lexical meanings of both components are closely fused together to create a new semantic unit,
e.g.: a time-bomb = a bomb designed to explode at a certain time.
The meaning of the compound is also derived from the meaning of its distributional pattern.
A simple change in the order of stems with the same lexical meanings results in a drastic change in the lexical meaning of the compound,
e.g.: fruit-market is different from market-fruit;
boat-life is different from life-boat.
So, the lexical meaning of a compound is derived from the combined lexical meanings of its components and the structural meaning of its distributional pattern.
According to different degrees of motivation compounds are:
completely motivated - both components are used in their direct meanings: shoe-maker, sportsman;
partially motivated - one component - in the direct, the other - in indirect meaning: flower-bed, castle-builder;
completely nonmotivated (with lack of motivation) - there is no connection between the meaning of the compound and the lexical meanings of the components: fiddlesticks (nonsense), eye-wash (smth. said or done to deceive a person).
Classification of Compounds
According to the degree of semantic independence of stems; according to the part of speech; according to the means of connection of stems; according to the types of stems.
According to the degree of semantic independence of stems compounds are:
1) subordinative - the components are neither structurally nor semanti-
cally equal in importance, the head member is the 2nd component:
2) coordinative - both stems are semantically equally important, both
words are structural and semantic centres.
Coordinative compounds may be:
Functional classification - compounds are viewed as different parts of speech, which is indicated by the second stem:
According to the means of connection:
-formed by placing one simple stem with a linking element after the other: spedometer, Afro-Asian (o), handicraft (i); statesman, sales-man (s);
-without any linking element: headache, man-made.
According to the type of stems joined together:
-compounds proper: formed by joining together stems of words available in the language, with or without the help of special linking element, e.g. street-lamp, age-long;
-derivational compounds: one of the stems is derived, e.g. bed-sitter, type-writer, long-legged.
Patterns of Compounds Compound nouns: N + N - pencil-case [N + (V + er)] - peace-fighter
[N + (V + tion/ment)] - office-management, price-reduction
In general compounds are formed from the stems of words available in the language according to productive patterns: dog-days, rosy-cheeked.
Compounds can also be the result of a gradual process of semantic isolation and structural fusion of free word-groups, e.g.: forget-me-not, bread-and-butter, hook-and-ladder, man-of-war, up-to-date.
Compounding is a very interesting and problematic phenomenon. Though many investigations have been done in this field still there are many problems to be solved: typological study of patterns of compounds, motivation, compounds formed by means of conversion, the stone wall-problem (is it a free word-group or a compound word ?).
Definition. Treatment of Conversion
Conversion (to convert - превращать) - is highly productive in replenishing the English word-stock with new words. The term «conversion» refers to numerous cases of phonetic identity of two words belonging to different parts of speech, e.g.: paper - to paper, work - to work.
From the angle of their morphemic structure these words are root-words. On the derivational level, however, one of them (the 2nd) is a derived word, as it belongs to a different part of speech and is understood through semantic relations with the other, i.e. is motivated by it. The question arises: what serves as a word-building means in these cases? The answer is that the two words differ in the paradigm, and it is the paradigm that is used as a word-building means in cases of conversion. Hence, conversion is the formation of a new word through changes in its paradigm.
There are two main cases of conversion:
Conversion has been studied since 1891, and it was H. Sweet who first used this term in his «New English Grammar».
Conversion has been treated differently:
Approaches to Conversion
Diachronic approach analyses which of the two words was derived and the semantic development of each word:
smoke (дым) - to smoke (дымить) in 1663,
to smoke - коптить in 1715,
to smoke – коптиться; smoke – копоть (at present).
Synchronical approach deals with the semantic relations between words related through conversion.
Semantic Relations between Conversion Pairs
As one of the two words within a conversion pair is semantically derived from the other, it is of great theoretical and practical importance to determine the semantic relations between the words related through conversion.
I. Verbs converted from nouns. If the noun refers to some object of reality (both animate and inanimate) the converted verb may denote:
6. temporal relations, e.g. winter - to winter; week-end - to week-end.
II. Nouns converted from verbs may denote:
- a stand;
4. object or result of action, e.g. to peel - peel; to cut - a cut; to find - a
find; to make - a make.
There are cases of polysemy of verbs or nouns in conversion pairs, e.g.: to dust, to tail, to stone.
Traditional and Occasional Conversion
Modern English vocabulary is exceedingly rich in conversion pairs. Conversion in Modern English is extremely productive: new conversion pairs appear in fiction, newspaper articles and in oral communication in all spheres of human activity gradually forcing their way into the existing vocabulary and into the dictionaries as well. New conversion pairs are created on the analogy with those which already exist in the word-stock according to the semantic patterns described above.
In Modern English conversion has become highly productive in the formation of verbs, especially from compound nouns and of words formed by conversion and affixation, e.g.: microfilm - to microfilm; baby-sitter - to baby-sit; tear-gas - to tear-gas; bloodtransfusion - to bloodtransfuse.
Types of conversion:
- to boot; butcher - to butcher. «I want to boot you of this house» (Priestly).
Shortening as a Minor Way of Word-Formation
Shortening of words is the way of the formation of new words by means of substituting a part of the word for a whole. This process affects both words
and word-groups. Therefore, the term «shortening of words» is to be regarded as conventional.
Types of shortening:
All shortened words function in the language as any other ordinary word does, so they can take on grammatical inflections: exams, MPs , PMs; may be used with both types of articles: the BBC, a bike, the lib; they may be combined with derivational affixes and may be used in compounding: YCL-er; MP-ess; Euro-MP; etc.
These are signs representing words and wordgroups of high frequency of occurrence in written speech: scientific books, articles, advertisements, letters, etc.
St - Street; Rd - Road; c/o - care of; Mr., Mrs., Dr., i.e.; P.S.; P.P.S.
Scientific books, dictionaries:
п., v., a., adv., prep., e.g., usu.; cf. - compare; L., &, Fr., p.m., p., pp., par - paragraph; f. - following; P.t.o.; ib., op., cit, etc.
Jan., Feb., Apr., Sept., Oct., Nov., d - penny, L - denarius; oz - ounce (28,3 gm); in - inch (2,54 cm); sec. - second; gm - gramme; cm - centimetre; ft- foot (0,35m); Mon., Tues., Thurs., Fri., Sat.; L.P.- Long Playing; Tel.; a.o.b. - any other business; B.L.W. - black and white (film); m.p.h. - miles per hour.
English graphical abbreviations include rather numerous shortened variants of Latin and French words and word-groups,
e.g., a.m. (L. ante meridiem) - in the morning;
p.m. (L. post meridiem) - in the afternoon;
i.e. (L. id est) - that is;
a.d. (L. Anno Domini) - of our era;
B.C. (L. Before Christ) - of the past era;
ib. (L. ibidem) - in the same place;
b.f. (Fr. bona fide) - sincerely;
e.g. (L. exempli gratia), etc.
Latin abbreviations are usually read as their English equivalents.
Ways of formation of graphical abbreviations:
In reading many of them are substituted by the words and phrases that they represent: Dr. - Doctor; Nov. - November; govt. - government.
It is natural that in the course of time and language development some graphical abbreviations should penetrate into the sphere of oral speech and turn into lexical abbreviations, used both in oral and written speech, e.g.: MP, S.O.S., TV, etc.
They are formed by a simultaneous operation of shortening and compounding. They are made up of the initial sounds, e.g. TV, or syllables of the components of a word-group, e.g. pop-music, or a compound word: V-day.
Ways of reading lexical abbreviations:
As a rule, lexical abbreviations do not include functional words (prepositions, articles, etc.), although there are some exceptions, e.g.: R. and D. - research and development programme.
In two-member word-groups as a rule the first component is shortened: V-day; H-bomb; M-day (the first day of mobilization); D-day (decimal) - день введения десятичной монетной системы 15.02.1971; L-driver (learner driver).
In three-member word-groups the first two components are shortened, e.g.: V.J.-Day; H.M. The Queen.
Clipping consists in the cutting off one or several syllables of a word. In some cases it is the stressed syllable which is left after cutting off, e.g.: sis -sister; doc. - doctor; telly - television; Alf - Alfred; Ed - Edward; Sam -Samuel.
Sometimes, however, the unstressed syllable remains, e.g.: phone - telephone; Alec - Alexander; plane - airplane; Bess - Elizabeth.
Kinds of clipping:
- refrigeration; tec - detective; flu - influenza.
As a rule in Modern English nouns are shortened; there are very few clipped adjectives and they all belong to jargonisms, e.g.: dilly - delightful; comfy - comfortable; impass - impossible; mizzy - miserable. As for clipped verbs they are usually formed from clipped nouns by means of conversion, e.g.: to taxi - taxi; to phone - phone.
In most cases a shortened word exists in the language together with the longer word from which it is derived and usually has the same lexical meaning, differing only in emotive charge and style. In this case we speak about the variants of one and the same word, e.g.: exam - examination, sis - sister. When there is a semantic difference between a shortened unit and a longer one they must be called two distinct words, e.g.: cab - наемный экипаж, cabriolet
Shortening affects not only words but word-groups as well. Clipped phrases appear as a result of:
e.g.: pub (subst.) = public (clipping) house (ellipses); a sit-down (subst.) = a sit-down (subst.) demonstration (ellipses); pop (subst.) = popular (clipping) music (ellipses); nuke (subst.) = nuclear (clipping) bomb (ellipses).
Substantivation is often accompanied by productive suffixation, e.g.: a two-decker - a two-deck bus; outdoorsy - outdoors types of people; old-timer
- old time man (старик).
Blending is a specific type of shortening. Blends are formed by means of merging parts of words (not morphemes) into one new word. In other words blending is compounding by means of clipped words. Many blends are shortlived, others - long-lived, e.g.: Oxbridge; medicare; popcert (popular concert); fruice (fruite + juice); pomato (potato + tomato); medinews (medical news); bo-tel (boat + hotel); yarden (yard + garden); Irangate; cashomat (cash + automat); breathalyser (breath + analyser); chifforobe (chiffonier + wardrobe); docudrama (documentary + drama); learn (lazer + beam); eurocommunism, etc.
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