09EA01 / 09EE01 applied mathematics for systems engineering

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IMAGE FILTERING AND RESTORATION: Image observation models- restoration in the presence of noise only- spatial filtering: mean filters, order statistics filters, adaptive filters- Inverse filtering- Wiener filtering – Constrained least squares filtering- blind deconvolution. (8)         

IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND REPRESENTATION : Edge detection: Gradient operators-edge linking and boundary detection: Global processing via Hough transform, Graph theoretic techniques-Thresholding: Global thresholding, adaptive threshold-Representation: Chain codes, Polygonal approximations, Signatures, boundary segments, skeletons-Boundary descriptors: Shape numbers, Fourier descriptors, Statistical moments-Regional descriptors: Texture-Relational descriptors. (10)

IMAGE COMPRESSION: JPEG-MPEG-Quantization: scalar Quantization and vector Quantization-code word assignment: uniform length and variable length codeword assignment – differential pulse code modulation, two channel coders, pyramid coding; hybrid transform coding – wavelet coding.               (8)


                                                                                           Total    42


1.     Gonzalez R.C. Woods R.E, ”Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall; 3rd Edition , 2007

2.     Jain A.K., ”Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall of India,1989.

3.     Jae S. Lim, ”Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing”, Prentice Hall,Inc.,1990.

4.      Kenneth R Castleman, ”Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall International, Inc., 2001.

5.      Milan Sonka, VaclauHlavac, Roger Boyle, “Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision”, Brooks/Cole

Publishing Company,3rd Edition, 2007.

6.      William K.Pratt,”Digital Image Processing”, John Wiley & Sons,4th Edition, 2007.

7. Stephen mallat,” A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing”, Elsevier India 3rd Edition, 2008.



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INTRODUCTION: Vector spaces-properties-dot product-basis-dimension, orthogonality and orthonormality-relationship between vectors and signals-signal spaces-concept of convergence-Hilbert spaces for energy signals-Generalized Fourier expansion. (8)

FOURIER ANALYSIS: Fourier Transform-drawbacks of Fourier analysis-Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) analysis-spectrogram plot-phase-space plot in time-frequency plane-Time and frequency limitations-uncertanity principle-Tilling of the time-frequency plane for STFT. (8)

CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM: Wavelet transform-properties-concept of scale and its relation with frequency-Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)-scaling function and wavelet functions: Daubechies, Haar, Coiflet, Mexican hat, Sine, Gaussian, Bi-orthogonal-Tilling of time scale plane for CWT. (9)

DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)-Filter bank and sub-band coding principles-Multi-resolution analysis-Time scale difference equations for wavelets and scaling functions-Wavelet filters-scale variation in discrete domain-Mallet’s algorithm for DWT-Inverse DWT computation by filter banks-multi-band wavelet transform. (9)

CASE STUDIES: Sub-band coding of images-Image compression-Image de-noising-Detection of sag, tilt, swells and surge in power signal-Fractal signal analysis (8)

Total 42


  1. Strang G Nguyen T., “Wavelets and Filter Banks”, Wellesley Cambridge Press, 1996.

  2. Vetterli M, Kovacevic J., “Wavelets and Sub-band Coding”, Prentice Hall, 1995.

  3. Mallat S., “A Tour on Wavelet Signal Processing”, Elsevier, New Delhi, December 2005.

  4. Rao .R.M and Bopardikar.A.S, “Wavelet Transforms”, Addison Wesley, 1999.

  5. K.P.Soman and K.I.Ramachandran “Insight into Wavelets-From Theory to Practice”, Prentice Hall of India, 2005.

  6. Meyer Y et.al., “Wavelet Toolbox Manual”, Mathworks Inc., 1995.


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BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS: Nature of Biomedical signals, Types: Action Potential, Electroneurogram (ENG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Event related potentials, Electrogastrogram (EGG), Phonocardiogram (PCG), Speech signals.                (6)

FILTERING: Stationary versus non-stationary processes, Time domain filters, Frequency domain filters, Optional filters, Adaptive filters for removal of Interference, Selection of Appropriate filters, Applications.  (7)

MODELING BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS: Parametric System modeling, Autoregressive or All-pole modeling, Pole-zero modeling, Electromechanical Models of Signal Generation, Application: Heart – rate variability – Spectral modeling and Analysis of ECG signals.                                                                                (6)

ANALYSIS OF NON STATIONARY SIGNALS: EEG rhythms and waves, characterization of nonstationary signals and dynamic systems, Fixed segmentation, Adaptive segmentation.                                                                   (6)

PATTERN CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTIC DECISION: Supervised, Unsupervised Pattern classification, Probabilistic models and Statistical Decision, Regression analysis                             (5)

COMPRESSION OF DIGITAL BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS: Direct Digital compression Techniques, Transformation Compression Techniques, Other Compression Techniques and Comparison.                      (6)

ADVANCED TOPICS:  Introduction to Wavelet Transforms, Application of Wavelet Transform on Biomedical Signals, Multi Resolution Analysis.  Neural Networks in Processing and Analysis of Bio medical Signals, Image Processing Algorithms for MRI Images. VLSI in Biosignal  processing.                                                                                                                  (6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                           Total   42


1.  Rangaraj M. Rangayyan, “Biomedical Signal Analysis, A case study  Approach,” IEEE Press, 2002.

2. Joseph D Bronzino, “The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, CRC Press,  IEEE Press, 2000.

3. D.C. Reddy, “Biomedical Signal Processing, Principles and Techniques”,Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2005

4.     KennethE Banner and Gonzalo R Arce “Nonlinear Signal & Image Processing – Theory methods &

Applications”  CRC Press, New York, 2003.

5. Metin Akay “ Nonlinear  Bio Medical Signal Processing’  IEEE Press, 2000.



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MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION BASICS: Generalized Systems, Constraints.  Classification of Biomedical Instruments, Bio statistics, Generalized static and Dynamic Characteristics, Regulation of Medical Devices. (7)

SENSORS, TRANSDUCERS AND AMPLIFIERS: Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive, Piezoelectric, Thermocouple, Thermistors, Fiber, Optic Sensors, Radiation Sensors, Smart Sensors, Electro Chemical Sensors, Electrical Fibrosensors, Blood-Glucose Sensors. Operational Amplifiers, Inverting, Noninverting, Differential, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Pre amplifiers, Isolation Amplifiers, Active Filters.                                                                        (7)

BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS AND ELECTRODES: Origin of Bioelectric Signals, Electrical Activity, Volume Conductor Fields, ECG, EEG, EMG, MEG.  Electrode- Electrolyte Interface, Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Electrodes, Electrode Model, Recording Electrodes, Internal Electrodes, Micro Electrodes.       (7)

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS: Patient Monitoring Systems, Measurement of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Pulse Rate, Temperature, Heart Sounds, Blood Flow and Volume, Respiratory Systems, Measurements, Cardiac Output Measurement, Blood pH, pO2 Measurement, Oximeters, Audiometers, Spectrophotometers. (7)

MEDICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: Information content of an Image, Radiography, Computed Radiography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography, Ultrasonagraphy.    (6)

THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES: Cardiac Pacemakers, Defibrillators, Hemodialysis, Lithotripsy, Ventilators, Incubators, Drug Delivery devices, Artificial Heart Valves, Heart Lung Machine, Applications of Laser.                            (5)

ELECTRICAL SAFETY: Physiological Effects of Electricity, Important susceptibility parameters, Distribution of Electric Power.  Macroshock Hazards, Microshock Hazards, Electrical safety codes and Standards, Basic Approaches to Protection against shock, Equipment Design, Electrical Safety Analyzers, Testing.            (3)


Total    42


  1. John G.Webster, Editor, “Medical Instrumentation application and Design”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc Noida. 3rd Edition, 2001

2. R.S.Khandpur, “Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation,”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2nd Edition, 2003

3.    Joseph J. Carr and John M. Brown, “Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology,” Pearson Education,  2003.


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INTRODUCTION: General  Functional description of a digital instrument - Block diagram of a Virtual Instrument - Physical quantities and Analog interfaces - Hardware and Software - User interfaces - Advantages of Virtual instruments over conventional instruments - Architecture of a Virtual instrument and its relation to the operating system. (8)

SOFTWARE OVERVIEW: LabVIEW - Graphical user interfaces - Controls and Indicators - 'G' programming - Data types - Data flow programming - Editing - Debugging and Running a Virtual instrument - Graphical programming pallets - Front panel objects - Controls, Indicators, Object properties and their configuration – Typical examples.        (10)

PROGRAMMING STRUCTURE: FOR loops, WHILE loop, CASE structure, formula node, Sequence structures - Arrays and Clusters - Array operations - Bundle - Bundle/Unbundle by name, graphs and charts - String and file I/O - High level and Low level file I/O's - Attribute modes Local and Global variables.              (8)

HARDWARE ASPECTS: Installing hardware, installing drivers - Configuring the hardware - Addressing the hardware in LabVIEW - Digital and Analog I/O function - Data Acquisition - Buffered I/O - Real time Data Acquisition. (6)

LABVIEW APPLICATIONS: Motion Control: General Applications - Feedback devices, Motor Drives – Machine vision – LabVIEW IMAQ vision – Machine vision Techniques – Configuration of IMAQ DAQ Card - Instrument Connectivity - GPIB, Serial Communication - General, GPIB Hardware & Software specifications - PXI / PCI: Controller and Chassis Configuration and Installation.    (10)


                                                                                                                   Total    42


1. Garry W Johnson, "LabView Graphical Programming", Tata McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, 2001.

2. Sanjay Gupta and Joseph John, “Virtual Instrumentation Using LabVIEW”, Tata McGraw-Hill, Ist Edition, 2008.

3. LabView: Basics I & II Manual, National Instruments, 2006

4. Barry Paron,  "Sensors, Transducers and LabVIEW", Prentice Hall , 2000.

5. William Buchanan and Bill Buchanan, “Computer Basics”, CRC Press, 2000.


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INTRODUCTION: History - Advantages and disadvantages of CNC, block diagram of CNC - Principle of operation- Features available in CNC systems.  DNC, Networking of CNC machines - Ethernet. Electrical cabinet and control panel wiring. Electrical standards.                                       (5)

TYPES OF CNC MACHINES : Types and constructional features of machine tools- Turning centres, machining centres, grinding machines, EDMs, turret punch press, laser and water jet cutting machines, Design considerations – Axis representations, Various operating  modes of a CNC machine.    (6)

CONTROL UNITS: Functions of CNC, system hardware, Contouring   control - interpolation, software development process. Parameters and diagnosis features. Interfacing with keyboard, monitor, servo drives, field inputs, outputs, MPG and feedback devices. Open architecture systems and PC based controllers.  Compensation for machine accuracies- pitch error, backlash and thermal compensation.                                                                                                                          (7)

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS:  Role of PLC in CNC machines. Hardware and I/O configuration. Programming techniques – development of ladder logic using basic functions, Timers, comparator and counters - Programming examples. (5)

DRIVE UNITS: Axis drive arrangements, ball screw, timing belts and couplings, Analog and digital drives. AC&DC servomotors, DC and AC servo drives for axis motors, servo tuning. Stepper motors and drives, spindle motors & drives- DC &AC. Selection criteria, drive optimization and protection. (7)

FEEDBACK DEVICES: Absolute and incremental encoders, resolvers, linear optical encoders, Proximity switches, limit switches – Thermal sensors, pressure and float switches. Transducer placement and measuring schemes using these feed back   devices.                                                                                           (5)

NC PART PROGRAMMING PROCESS: Axis notation, EIA and ISO codes, Explanation of basic codes. Tooling concepts, machining methods, part geometry and writing of tool motion statements. Canned cycles. Development of simple manual part programs for turning operations. Simulation of part programmes. Post processors - CNC part programming with CAD/CAM systems. (7)


                                                                                                                                                                                    Total   42


1. Stenerson and Curran,” Computer Numerical Control- Operation and Programming” 3rd edition, PHI, 2008

2.     HMT Limited, “Mechatronics”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1998.

3.     Peter Smid, “CNC Programming Handbook”, Industrial Press Inc, New York 2000

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